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Takeshi Funakoshi, Toshihiko Aki, Masateru Tajiri, Kana Unuma, Koichi Uemura
Aberrant cellular accumulation of cholesterol is associated with neuronal lysosomal storage disorders such as Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NPC). We have shown previously that l-norephedrine (l-Nor), a sympathomimetic amine, induces necrotic cell death associated with massive cytoplasmic vacuolation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. To reveal the molecular mechanism underling necrotic neuronal cell death caused by l-Nor, we examined alterations in the gene expression profile of cells during l-Nor exposure...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Anthony Heagerty
There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the fat cells that surround blood vessels (perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) can influence profoundly arterial tone by releasing vasodilator adipokines which can act locally in a paracrine fashion. In healthy lean individuals the primary vasodilator released appears to be adiponectin and there is a complex interation between autonomic nerve firing in PVAT and the release of nitric oxide from adipocytes and an increased bioavailability of adiponectin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jonathan M Weimer, Martin Marinov, Rafi Avitsian
A 58-year old male with grade II L4-L5 spondylolisthesis and degenerative changes presented for single level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. During decompression of the L4 foramina, distraction of the disc space, and placement of the interbody cage and pedicle screws, episodes of extreme bradycardia with up to 5 seconds of asystole were detected on both EKG and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The events correlated with and could possibly be a result of traction on the dura. Lumbar spinal surgery may be associated with electrophysiological and hemodynamic abnormalities, and anesthesia providers should be aware of such possibilities and the need to respond appropriately with sympathomimetic or vagolytic interventions...
October 7, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Luigi Giannetti, Giovanni Ferretti, Valentina Gallo, Francesco Necci, Andrea Giorgi, Francesca Marini, Elisa Gennuso, Bruno Neri
Beta-sympathomimetic compounds are widely used in therapy because of the bronchodilator, smooth muscle-relaxant and tocolytic properties. However, their growth promoting and performance enhancing effects are often subject to illegal use. The present work describes the development of a fast and reliable analytical multiresidue method for the confirmation 20 β-agonist compounds in animal hair. The procedure is based on alkaline digestion, LLE with organic solvents, SPE clean up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis, and is suitable for the public Official control of β-agonist residues in hair sample...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Adriano Guarnieri, María Concepción Guirao Navarro, Manuel Saenz-de-Viteri
Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Douglas G Ridyard, Elizabeth A Phillips, William Vincent, Ricardo Munarriz
INTRODUCTION: Ischemic priapism is an uncommon urologic emergency characterized by a compartment syndrome-like ischemic insult to the corpora cavernosa of the penis. The goal of treatment in ischemic priapism is rapid detumescence to prevent long-term erectile dysfunction. Non-surgical treatment options include aspiration, irrigation, and intracavernous injections of sympathomimetic agents. At our institution, phenylephrine is used in the treatment of ischemic priapism at concentrations and doses that are higher than those recommended in established guidelines...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ömer Barış Yücel, Emre Salabaş, Bahadır Ermeç, Ateş Kadıoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Priapism, taking its name from God Priapus, is total or partial erection lasting longer than 4 hours independent of sexual stimulus and can result in erectile dysfunction. There are three subtypes of priapism. AIM: To review the three subtypes of priapism, their pathophysiology, current treatment options, and complications. METHODS: The literature including priapism guidelines, review articles, and current trial studies was reviewed and the priapism type of God Priapus was investigated according to the mythology...
September 26, 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Christopher L Riley, Christine Dao, M Alexander Kenaston, Luigina Muto, Shohei Kohno, Sara M Nowinski, Ashley D Solmonson, Matthew Pfeiffer, Michael N Sack, Zhongping Lu, Giuseppe Fiermonte, Jon E Sprague, Edward M Mills
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is the established mediator of brown adipose tissue dependent thermogenesis. In contrast, the role of UCP3, expressed in both skeletal muscle and BAT, in thermoregulatory physiology is less well understood. Here, we show that mice lacking UCP3 (UCP3KO) have impaired sympathomimetic (methamphetamine) and completely abrogated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) thermogenesis, but a normal response to norepinephrine. By comparison, UCP1 knockout (UCP1KO) mice exhibit blunted methamphetamine and fully inhibited norepinephrine thermogenesis, but an increased febrile response to LPS...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Anthony Heagerty
There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the fat cells that surround blood vessels (perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) can influence profoundly arterial tone by releasing vasodilator adipokines which can act locally in a paracrine fashion. In healthy lean individuals the primary vasodilator released appears to be adiponectin and there is a complex interation between autonomic nerve firing in PVAT and the release of nitric oxide from adipocytes and an increased bioavailability of adiponectin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Travis D Olives, Paul C Nystrom, Jon B Cole, Kenneth W Dodd, Jeffrey D Ho
BACKGROUND: Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013...
September 19, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Eduardo Rivas Estany, Susana Hernández García
Chronic heart failure has become one of the main global health problems; 23 million people suffer from this disease worldwide and age of onset has varied considerably over the past five decades, coinciding with other co-morbidities as longevity in the population increases. Treatment of heart failure has also shown striking variations in recent years. Such is the case of the substitution of sympathomimetic drugs by beta-blocking agents, which primarily means a conceptual change in the pathophysiological interpretation of this syndrome...
2016: Medwave
S Imbrogno, R Mazza, C Pugliese, M Filice, T Angelone, Y P Loh, B Tota, M C Cerra
Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein co-stored with catecholamines, hormones and neuropeptides in the secretory granules of endocrine, neuronal and other cell types (including cardiomyocytes). Proteolytic cleavage in the C terminus of CgA generates a 2.9kDa peptide named serpinin (Serp; Ala26Leu) that can be modified at its N terminus to form a pyroglutamate residue (pGlu-Serp). In the rat heart, both peptides increase contractility and relaxation through a β-adrenergic-like action mechanism. Accordingly, Serp and pGlu-Serp were proposed as novel myocardial sympatho-adrenergic modulators in mammals...
September 12, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Laura Gainche, David J Berlowitz, Mariannick LeGuen, Warren R Ruehland, Fergal J O'Donoghue, John Trinder, Marnie Graco, Rachel Schembri, Danny J Eckert, Peter D Rochford, Amy S Jordan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in individuals with tetraplegia and associated with adverse health outcomes. The causes of the high prevalence of OSA in this population are unknown, but it is important to understand as standard treatments are poorly tolerated in tetraplegia. Nasal congestion is common in tetraplegia, possibly because of unopposed parasympathetic activity. Further, nasal obstruction can induce OSA in healthy individuals. We therefore aimed to compare nasal resistance before and after topical administration of a sympathomimetic between 10 individuals with tetraplegia (T) and 9 able-bodied (AB) controls matched for OSA severity, gender, and age...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Maria Kristina Parr, Bernhard Wuest, Edgar Naegele, Jan F Joseph, Maxi Wenzel, Alexander H Schmidt, Mijo Stanic, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè
HPLC is considered the method of choice for the separation of various classes of drugs. However, some analytes are still challenging as HPLC shows limited resolution capabilities for highly polar analytes as they interact insufficiently on conventional reversed-phase (RP) columns. Especially in combination with mass spectrometric detection, limitations apply for alterations of stationary phases. Some highly polar sympathomimetic drugs and their metabolites showed almost no retention on different RP columns...
September 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
H A Alsufyani, J R Docherty
We have studied gender differences in the direct and indirect sympathomimetic cardiovascular effects of the stimulant cathinone (from Khat) (and for comparison methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) and the archetypal indirect sympathomimetic agent tyramine, employing male and female Wistar rats. Animals were sympathectomized by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine or treated with vehicle. In male and female vehicle-treated pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats, all three agonists (0.001-1 mg/kg) produced significant tachycardia, tyramine produced large pressor, and in high doses small depressor responses, MDMA produced small pressor responses, and cathinone produced only minor pressor effects...
January 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Daniel Ching, Eleni Anastasiadis, Sarb Sandhu
INTRODUCTION: Non-urothelial tumours are rare and account for less than 5% of all bladder tumours. Bladder paragangliomas also known as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are of the non-urothelial subgroup. We present an unusual case of asymptomatic bladder paraganglioma. CASE REPORT: A 77year old lady presented with acute abdominal pain was found to have an incidental enhancing nodule in the bladder. During cystoscopy and transurethral resection the patient experienced significant fluctuations in blood pressure that required anaesthetic adjustments...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Thomas R Scaggs, David M Glass, Megan Gleason Hutchcraft, William B Weir
Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) is defined by marked agitation and confusion with sympathomimetic surge and incessant physical struggle, despite futility, which may lead to profound pathophysiologic changes and sudden death. Severe metabolic derangements, including lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, and hyperthermia, occur. The pathophysiology of excited delirium is a subject of ongoing basic science and clinical research. Positive associations with ExDS include male gender, mental health disorders, and substance abuse (especially sympathomimetics)...
October 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Yinghong Tang, Mengkai Zheng, Yu-Lin Chen, Jianzhen Chen, Yu He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ephedra alkaloids, including ephedrine (EP), pseudoephedrine (PEP) and methylephedrine (MEP), are sympathomimetic compounds with known toxicities but many Ephedra (Ephedrae herba) preparations, such as Ephedra decoction, have been clinically applied for centuries. In order to explore the possible detoxification mechanism of Ephedra alkaloids, four representative compounds in Ephedra decoction (cinnamic acid, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin) were studied for their pharmacokinetic effects on Ephedra alkaloids in Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 11, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
(no author information available yet)
In addition to the risk of cardiovascular events and neurological disorders, sympathomimetic decongestants have teratogenic potential, albeit weak, when taken during the first trimester of pregnancy, probably through disruption of the vascular system of the embryo and the pregnant woman. In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, the fetus is exposed to the same adverse effects as the mother.
June 2016: Prescrire International
I-Hung Shao, Chia-Chen Wu, Hsiao-Jung Tseng, Ta-Jen Lee, Yu-Hsiang Lin, Yuan-Yun Tam
BACKGROUND: Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug widely used as a nasal decongestant. However, it can cause adverse effects, such as voiding dysfunction. The risk of voiding dysfunction remains uncertain in patients without subjective voiding problems. METHODOLOGY: We prospectively enrolled patients with nasal congestion who required treatment with pseudoephedrine from May to August 2015. All patients denied concomitant subjective voiding problem. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to evaluate voiding function before and 1 week after the pseudoephedrine treatment...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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