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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001569/the-pharmacokinetics-and-the-pharmacodynamics-of-cannabinoids
#1
REVIEW
C J Lucas, P Galettis, J Schneider
There is increasing interest in the use of cannabinoids for disease and symptom management, but limited information available regarding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide prescribers. Cannabis medicines contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is psychoactive, and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis use is associated with both pathological and behavioural toxicity and accordingly, is contraindicated in the context of significant psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic illness...
July 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980164/%C3%AE-3-adrenoceptor-stimulation-of-perivascular-adipocytes-leads-to-increased-fat-cell-derived-nitric-oxide-and-vascular-relaxation-in-small-arteries
#2
Charlotte E Bussey, Sarah B Withers, Sophie N Saxton, Neil Bodagh, Robert G Aldous, Anthony M Heagerty
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In response to norepinephrine healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect on adjacent small arterial tissue. Organ bath solution transfer experiments have demonstrated the release of PVAT-derived relaxing factors that mediate this function. The present studies were designed to investigate the mechanism responsible for the norepinephrine-induced PVAT anticontractile effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vitro rat small arterial contractile function was assessed using wire myography in the presence and absence of PVAT and the effects of sympathomimetic stimulation on the PVAT environment explored using Western blotting and assays of organ bath buffer...
July 6, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954361/prevalence-of-depression-and-anxiety-among-participants-with-glaucoma-in-a-population-based-cohort-study-the-gutenberg-health-study
#3
J Rezapour, S Nickels, A K Schuster, M Michal, T Münzel, P S Wild, I Schmidtmann, K Lackner, A Schulz, N Pfeiffer, M E Beutel
BACKGROUND: To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among subjects with self-reported glaucoma and the association between self-reported glaucoma and depression respectively anxiety in a European cohort. METHODS: A study sample of 14,657 participants aged 35 to 74 years was investigated in a population-based cohort study. All participants reported presence or absence of glaucoma. Ophthalmological examinations were carried out in all participants and demographic and disease related information were obtained by interview...
June 28, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938346/tocolysis-with-the-%C3%AE-2-sympathomimetic-fenoterol-does-not-increase-the-occurrence-of-infantile-hemangioma-in-preterm-and-term-infants
#4
Hannes Hudalla, Christian Karmen, Thomas Bruckner, Stephanie Wallwiener, Herbert Fluhr, Zoe Michael, Alexander Freis, Holger Maul, Thomas Strowitzki, Johannes Pöschl, Ruben-J Kuon
PURPOSE: β2 -sympathomimetics are used in obstetrics as tocolytic agents, despite a remarkable profile of side effects. Recently, the β2 -sympathomimetic tocolytic drug hexoprenaline was identified as an independent risk factor for the development of infantile hemangioma (IH) in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this observed effect was applicable to other β2 -mimetic tocolytic agents like fenoterol. METHODS: Clinical prospectively collected data of all infants born between 2001 and 2012 and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Heidelberg University Hospital and respective maternal data were merged...
June 25, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922124/association-between-depression-anxiety-and-antidepressant-use-with-t-wave-amplitude-and-qt-interval
#5
Mandy X Hu, Femke Lamers, Brenda W J H Penninx, Eco J C de Geus
Objectives: Cardiac repolarization may be affected by psychiatric disorders and/or antidepressant use, but evidence for this is inconclusive. This study examined the relationship between depressive and anxiety disorder and use of antidepressants with T-wave amplitude (TWA) and QT-interval. Methods: Data was obtained from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety ( n = 1,383). Depression/anxiety was diagnosed with the DSM-IV based Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was established...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808122/stemi-in-a-young-male-after-use-of-synephrine-containing-dietary-supplement
#6
Dileep Unnikrishnan, Radhika Annam, Aasems Jacob, Braghadheeswar Thyagarajan, Peter Farrugia
A twenty-two-year-old male with no significant past medical history who presented with chest pain was found to have ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, aVF, and V4-V6. On subsequent EKGs, patient had new ST-segment elevations in anterolateral leads with dynamic changes. Cardiac catheterization showed acute dissection with thrombosis of the distal left main coronary artery leading into the ostial left anterior descending artery. The patient had no cardiac risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or family history of early cardiac disease...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776685/are-there-pharmacotherapeutic-options-for-underactive-bladder
#7
Nadir I Osman, Christopher R Chapple
Currently, underactive bladder, the symptom-based correlate of the urodynamic diagnosis of detrusor underactivity, has no effective drug treatments. Use of sympathomimetics, targeting cholinergic receptors, is not supported by current evidence. Several potential targets are the subject of ongoing investigation.
January 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736022/adrenergic-nerve-degeneration-in-bone-marrow-drives-aging-of-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche
#8
Maria Maryanovich, Ali H Zahalka, Halley Pierce, Sandra Pinho, Fumio Nakahara, Noboru Asada, Qiaozhi Wei, Xizhe Wang, Paul Ciero, Jianing Xu, Avigdor Leftin, Paul S Frenette
Aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is associated with a decline in their regenerative capacity and multilineage differentiation potential, contributing to the development of blood disorders. The bone marrow microenvironment has recently been suggested to influence HSC aging, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that HSC aging critically depends on bone marrow innervation by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), as loss of SNS nerves or adrenoreceptor β3 signaling in the bone marrow microenvironment of young mice led to premature HSC aging, as evidenced by appearance of HSC phenotypes reminiscent of physiological aging...
May 7, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717772/connexin-43-reduces-susceptibility-to-sympathetic-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Beibei Luo, Yifei Yan, Zhiyu Zeng, Zhengnan Zhang, Haide Liu, Hao Liu, Jinyi Li, Weiqiang Huang, Jiangtao Wu, Yan He
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia reported in clinical practice. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the connexin protein family, which serves important roles in signal transduction in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Cx43 in the induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation by using an animal model of sympathomimetic atrial fibrillation. Cx43 was successfully knocked down in the myocardium with gene‑specific small interfering (si)RNA via lentiviral infection...
August 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703801/successful-management-of-chylothorax-with-etilefrine-case-report-in-2-pediatric-patients
#10
Gysella Muniz, Jennifer Hidalgo-Campos, Maria Del Carmen Valdivia-Tapia, Nader Shaikh, Nilton Yhuri Carreazo
Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of chyle within the pleural space. Originally described in 1917 by Pisek, it is the most common cause of pleural effusion in the neonatal period. The leading cause of chylothorax is laceration of the thoracic duct during surgery, which occurs in 0.85% to 6.6% of children undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Few authors of reports in the literature have looked at etilefrine, a relatively unknown sympathomimetic, as an option for the medical treatment of chylothorax. In this case report, we review the clinical course of 2 infants with type III esophageal atresia who developed chylothorax after thoracic surgery and were successfully treated with intravenous etilefrine after failing initial dietary and pharmacological management...
May 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671582/dark-side-of-amphetamine-and-analogues-pharmacology-syndromic-manifestation-and-management-of-amphetamine-addiction
#11
Abdul Mannan Baig
The threat imposed by the use of psychoactive, illicit drugs on human health and the cost of rehabilitation of the affected individuals is nothing less than billions of dollars per year. Of the psychoactive substance abuse drugs are amphetamine and its analogues like methamphetamine. This Viewpoint intends to draw the attention of readers toward the neurological basis of "falling a prey" to methamphetamine. Attention has been paid toward a rapid desensitizing attribute that develops shortly after the repetitive use of drugs belonging to sympathomimetic agents of this group...
April 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664760/effect-of-routine-clopidogrel-use-on-bleeding-complications-after-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration
#12
Tracey N Webb, Eric Flenaugh, Ralitza Martin, Christopher Parks, Rabih I Bechara
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasonography has proven to be highly sensitive and specific in the diagnoses of patients with mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. Many of these patients are on a combination of clopidogrel (a compound that inhibits adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation) and aspirin due to neurological and/or cardiac-related comorbidities, and stopping anticoagulation may place these patients at high risk for potential complications. Our group has previously showed that thoracentesis with an 8-french catheter is safe in patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin with low risk of complications...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628190/prognostic-utility-of-initial-lactate-in-patients-with-acute-drug-overdose-a-validation-cohort
#13
Randy Cheung, Robert S Hoffman, David Vlahov, Alex F Manini
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the initial emergency department (ED) lactate concentration may be an important prognostic indicator for inhospital mortality from acute drug poisoning. We conduct this cohort study to formally validate the prognostic utility of the initial lactate concentration in a larger, distinct patient population with acute drug overdose. METHODS: This observational, prospective, cohort study was conducted during 5 years at 2 urban teaching hospitals...
April 6, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563435/meth-mouth-a-growing-epidemic-in-dentistry
#14
Andreas Pabst, Juan Carlos Castillo-Duque, Axel Mayer, Marcus Klinghuber, Richard Werkmeister
In the past two decades, the synthetic style and fashion drug "crystal meth" ("crystal", "meth"), chemically representing the crystalline form of the methamphetamine hydrochloride, has become more and more popular in the United States, in Eastern Europe, and just recently in Central and Western Europe. "Meth" is cheap, easy to synthesize and to market, and has an extremely high potential for abuse and dependence. As a strong sympathomimetic, "meth" has the potency to switch off hunger, fatigue and, pain while simultaneously increasing physical and mental performance...
October 30, 2017: Dentistry journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485950/estimating-the-direct-costs-of-outpatient-opioid-prescriptions-a-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-the-rhode-island-prescription-drug-monitoring-program
#15
Hilary Aroke, Ashley Buchanan, Xuerong Wen, Peter Ragosta, Jennifer Koziol, Stephen Kogut
BACKGROUND: Overuse and misuse of prescription opioids is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and places a significant cost burden on health systems. OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual statewide spending for prescription opioids in Rhode Island. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of opioids dispensed from retail pharmacies using data from the Rhode Island Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) was performed. The study sample consisted of 651,227 opioid prescriptions dispensed to 197,062 patients between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478133/sympathomimetic-toxidromes-and-other-pharmacological-causes-of-acute-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Andrew King, Mirjana Dimovska, Luke Bisoski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute drug-induced hypertension, sympathomimetic toxicity, and other hyperadrenergic states can be caused by both xenobiotic toxicity and withdrawal. This manuscript is a selective review of the recent literature regarding pharmacologic causes of hypertensive emergencies and other hyperadrenergic states. RECENT FINDINGS: We will discuss designer stimulants, alpha2 and baclofen agonist withdrawal, and the clinical entity known as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
February 24, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462491/the-beta-adrenergic-agonist-salbutamol-modulates-neuromuscular-junction-formation-in-zebrafish-models-of-human-myasthenic-syndromes
#17
Grace McMacken, Dan Cox, Andreas Roos, Juliane Müller, Roger Whittaker, Hanns Lochmüller
Inherited defects of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) comprise an increasingly diverse range of disorders, termed congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). Therapies acting on the sympathetic nervous system, including the selective β2 adrenergic agonist salbutamol and the α and β adrenergic agonist ephedrine, have become standard treatment for several types of CMS. However, the mechanism of the therapeutic effect of sympathomimetics in these disorders is not understood. Here, we examined the effect of salbutamol on NMJ development using zebrafish with deficiency of the key postsynaptic proteins Dok-7 and MuSK...
May 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454882/1-5-dimethylhexylamine-octodrine-in-sports-and-weight-loss-supplements-natural-constituent-or-synthetic-chemical
#18
Mei Wang, Saqlain Haider, Amar G Chittiboyina, Jon F Parcher, Ikhlas A Khan
In the past years, there has been a mounting trend toward the addition of sympathomimetic stimulants in sports and weight loss supplements sold in the US and claimed to be from natural constituents. The latest among those pharmaceutical stimulants is 1,5-dimethylhexylamine (1,5-DMHA or octodrine), an ingredient in newly introduced sports and weight loss supplements with its 'natural' origin being cited from Aconitum or Kigelia plants. In order to validate the natural existence of 1,5-DMHA, two GC/MS methods were developed...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454047/renal-perivascular-adipose-tissue-form-and-function
#19
Carolina Baraldi A Restini, Alex Ismail, Ramya K Kumar, Robert Burnett, Hannah Garver, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Renal sympathetic activity affects blood pressure in part by increasing renovascular resistance via release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves onto renal arteries. Here we test the idea that adipose tissue adjacent to renal blood vessels, i.e. renal perivascular adipose tissue (RPVAT), contains a pool of NE which can be released to alter renal vascular function. RPVAT was obtained from around the main renal artery/vein of the male Sprague Dawley rats. Thoracic aortic PVAT and mesenteric PVAT also were studied as brown-like and white fat comparators respectively...
July 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401354/severe-sympathomimetic-toxidrome-in-a-french-soldier-how-caffeine-overdose-can-lead-to-severe-consequences
#20
Philippe Laitselart, Emeric Saguin, Julie Plantamura, Bertrand Lahutte, Hervé Delacour, Clément Dubost
We report the case of a French soldier, 29-yr-old, hospitalized in intensive care unit at Begin Military Hospital for the management of a sympathomimetic syndrome associated with severe metabolic disorders. Diagnosis of voluntary caffeine overdose was made. The evolution was favorable after metabolic disorders correction, without the need for dialysis. Caffeine is a molecule free of serious adverse effects when consumed at low doses. However, when consumed at high doses, it can become toxic and lead to death...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
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