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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819339/depression-after-stroke-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Akin Ojagbemi, Onoja Akpa, Fisayo Elugbadebo, Mayowa Owolabi, Bruce Ovbiagele
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method)...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816363/the-suicidal-inmate-a-comparison-of-inmates-who-attempt-versus-complete-suicide
#2
Emily A Boren, Johanna B Folk, Jennifer M Loya, June P Tangney, Sharen E Barboza, John S Wilson
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors distinguishing inmates who attempt suicide from inmates who complete suicide. Compared with attempters, completers tended to be older, male, more educated, and married or separated/divorced; pretrial, committed for a violent crime, incarcerated in jail, housed in an inpatient mental health unit or protective custody setting, living in a single cell, not on suicide precautions, not previously under close observation; and more likely to act during overnight hours and die by hanging/self-strangulation...
August 17, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813302/divorce-and-health-good-data-in-need-of-better-theory
#3
REVIEW
David A Sbarra, James A Coan
A very large literature links the experiences of marital separation and divorce to risk for a range of poor distal health outcomes, including early death. What is far less clear, however, is the mechanistic pathways that convey this risk. Several plausible mechanisms are identified in the literature, and the central thesis of this paper is that the empirical study of divorce and health will benefit enormously from a renewed reliance on theory to dictate how these mechanisms of action may unfold over time. This review emphasizes the roles of attachment and social baseline theories in making specific mechanistic predictions and highlights the ways in which these perspectives can contribute new empirical knowledge on risk and resilience following marital dissolution...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813287/marital-satisfaction-and-divorce-in-couples-in-stepfamilies
#4
REVIEW
Anita DeLongis, Amy Zwicker
We review research and theory examining stress and coping in stepfamilies as predictors of marital quality and divorce. Although the divorce rate in first-marriages has stabilized after years of increase in North America, the divorce rate of remarriages continues to increase. We argue that depression and marital distress are both mechanisms through which stepfamily stress impacts marital stability, with parenting stressors particularly potent determinants of divorce. We draw upon our own research predicting divorce across 20 years in 112 married couples in stepfamilies, as well as from the larger literature on stepfamilies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811952/divorce-and-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease-a-multicenter-study
#5
Amin Daoulah, Mushabab Al-Murayeh, Salem Al-Kaabi, Amir Lotfi, Osama E Elkhateeb, Salem M Al-Faifi, Saleh Alqahtani, James Stewart, Jon Heavey, William T Hurley, Mohamed N Alama, Mazen Faden, Mohamed Al-Shehri, Ali Youssef, Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali
The association between marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD) is supported by numerous epidemiological studies. While divorce may have an adverse effect on cardiac outcomes, the relationship between divorce and severe CAD is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period between April 1, 2013, and March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 patients, 124 (12%) were divorced. Divorce was more frequent among women (27%) compared to men (6%)...
2017: Cardiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810160/differences-in-prevalence-socio-behavioral-correlates-and-psychosocial-distress-between-club-drug-and-hard-drug-use-in-taiwan-results-from-the-2014-national-survey-of-substance-use
#6
Wei J Chen, Shang-Chi Wu, Wen-Ing Tsay, Yen-Tyng Chen, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ya-Hui Yu, Te-Tien Ting, Chuan-Yu Chen, Yu-Kang Tu, Jiun-Hau Huang, Hao-Jan Yang, Chung-Yi Li, Carol Strong, Cheng-Fang Yen, Chia-Feng Yen, Jui Hsu
BACKGROUND: This study examined variation between users of 'club' and 'hard' drugs in Taiwan in terms of prevalence of use and demographics and psychosocial characteristics. METHODS: Data were derived from a survey of 17,837 Taiwanese civilians, aged 12-64 years, using stratified, multi-stage, random sampling. Participants completed a computer-assisted self-interview on tablet computers which covered use of legal substances, sedatives/hypnotics and prescription analgesics; use of illicit drugs/inhalants, risky sexual experiences; expectations of drugs; and psychological distress...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807486/gender-social-networks-and-stroke-preparedness-in-the-stroke-warning-information-and-faster-treatment-study
#7
Tracy E Madsen, Eric T Roberts, Heather Kuczynski, Emily Goldmann, Nina S Parikh, Bernadette Boden-Albala
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the association between social networks and stroke preparedness as measured by emergency department (ED) arrival within 3 hours of symptom onset. METHODS: As part of the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment study, baseline data on demographics, social networks, and time to ED arrival were collected from 1193 prospectively enrolled stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients at Columbia University Medical Center...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805435/the-development-of-marital-tension-implications-for-divorce-among-married-couples
#8
Kira S Birditt, Wylie H Wan, Terri L Orbuch, Toni C Antonucci
Marriages are often characterized by their positive and negative features in terms of whether they elicit feelings of satisfaction and happiness or conflict and negativity. Although research has examined the development of marital happiness, less is known about the development of negativity among married couples. We examined how marital tension (i.e., feelings of tension, resentment, irritation) develops within couples over time and whether marital tension has unique implications for divorce. Specifically, we examined marital tension among husbands and wives within the same couples from the first to the sixteenth year of marriage, as well as links between marital tension and divorce...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796457/precarity-in-the-nonprofit-employment-services-sector
#9
Carlo Fanelli, Debbie Laliberté Rudman, Rebecca M Aldrich
Drawing on interview and focus group data, this article explores research undertaken as part of a larger research project exploring precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector in a mid-sized Canadian city. We critically survey major legislative changes to Canadian employment and income security policies and programs, including the restructuring of work and labor relations, growth of performance-based contracting-out, erosion of intergovernmental transfers, worker stress, and emotional tolls. Our study's results demonstrate how employment precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector is amplified by top-down and centralized relationships with funding partners and policymaking divorced from the employment experiences of frontline staff...
August 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795827/the-parting-parent-concern-inventory-parents-appraisals-correlate-with-divorced-family-functioning
#10
Keith Sanford, Alannah Shelby Rivers
When married parents go through a divorce, they may have concerns in 6 areas that are associated with postdivorce family adjustment. These include concerns about malice, power, custody, child rejection, esteem, and finances. The Parting Parent Concern Inventory assesses these concerns. It was developed in a series of preliminary studies, and this report focuses on results from 2 subsequent validation studies including 643 divorced parents with at least 1 child from their former marriage under the age of 18...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795095/quantitative-exploration-of-factors-influencing-psychotic-disorder-ailments-in-nigeria
#11
Adebowale O Adejumo, Nehemiah A Ikoba, Esivue A Suleiman, Hilary I Okagbue, Pelumi E Oguntunde, Oluwole A Odetunmibi, Obalowu Job
In this data article, records on demographic data, family problem issues, as well as results of medical tests from five major classes of psychotic disorder namely: bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction; insomnia; and schizophrenia, were collected on 500 psychotic patients carefully selected from the pool of medical records of Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, for the period of 5 years, between January 2010 and December 2014, were examined. X-squared Statistic was used to examine each of psychotic disorders to identify demographic (age, gender, religion, marital status, and occupation) and family issues (loss of parent, history of such ailment in the family (family status), divorce, head injury, and heredity of such ailment (genetic) factors that influence them...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789792/change-in-%C3%AE-2-agonist-use-after-severe-life-events-in-adults-with-asthma-a-population-based-cohort-study-life-events-and-bronchodilator-usage-among-adults-with-asthma
#12
Raija Lietzén, Pekka Virtanen, Mika Kivimäki, Jyrki Korkeila, Sakari Suominen, Lauri Sillanmäki, Markku Koskenvuo, Jussi Vahtera
OBJECTIVE: This prospective, population-based cohort study of 1102 Finnish adults with asthma, examined whether exposure to stressful life events is associated with the intensity of usage of inhaled short-acting β2-agonists. METHODS: Survey data was collected by two postal questionnaires. Baseline characteristics were obtained in 1998 and data on 19 specific stressful events (e.g. death of a child or spouse or divorce) within the six preceding months in 2003. Exposure to life events was indicated by a sum score weighted by mean severity of the events...
September 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789613/risk-factors-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-hypertensive-patients-at-hawassa-university-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-southern-ethiopia
#13
Agete Tadewos, Tariku Egeno, Antenah Amsalu
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among hypertensive patients in Ethiopia is very scarce, and the nature and the burden of MetS among these patients has not been well investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the pattern and risk factors of MetS in hypertensive patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University comprehensive specialized hospital from September 2015 to June 2016. Data on socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were collected from 238 hypertensive participants using WHO stepwise technique...
August 8, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789590/divorce-and-parity-progression-following-the-death-of-a-child-a-register-based-study-from-finland
#14
Fjalar Finnäs, Mikael Rostila, Jan Saarela
Most studies that have examined whether a child's death influences parental relationship stability have used small-scale data sets and their results are inconclusive. A likely reason is that child loss affects not only the risk of parental separation, but also the risk of having another child. Hence parity progression and separation must be treated as two competing events in relation to child loss. The analysis in this paper used Finnish register data from 1971 to 2003, covering over 100,000 married couples whose durations of both first marriage and parenthood could be observed...
August 9, 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789581/profiling-of-smokers-and-snuffers-among-young-finnish-men-cross-sectional-epidemiological-study
#15
Jari Päkkilä, Vuokko Anttonen, Pertti Patinen, Kai Nyman, Kirsi Valkeapää, Dowen Birkhed, Leo Tjäderhane, Tarja Tanner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to get new information from several sources about the background factors of Finnish smokers, snuffers, and dual users. Profiles of young smokers and snuffers were investigated in association with restorative treatment need, oral hygiene, eating habits, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), psychological and socioeconomic factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 3420 conscripts. The data were collected from four different sources: a health examination including an oral health screening, a computer-based questionnaire for investigating individual background factors, a psychological test assessing cognitive skills, and the Cooper test...
August 8, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783852/regional-and-socioeconomic-differences-in-the-coverage-of-the-papanicolau-test-in-brazil-data-from-the-brazilian-health-survey-2013
#16
Isabelle Ribeiro Barbosa
Purpose To evaluate the coverage of the Papanicolaou test in Brazil and the associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Health Survey 2013 comprising the proportion of 25- to 64-year-old women who had undergone a Papanicolaou test within the previous 3 years, categorized by sociodemographic variables and access to healthcare services. Results The screening coverage in Brazil was of 79.4% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 78.4-80.3), showing significant differences between the different states of the country, with the highest rate in the state of Roraima (86...
August 7, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774787/predictors-of-mental-health-services-use-across-the-life-course-among-racially-ethnically-diverse-adults
#17
Amy L Byers, Amy X Lai, Craig Nelson, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about key factors associated with use of mental health services across the life course. This study determined key socioeconomic, social support, psychiatric, and medical predictors of services use in younger, middle, and older age. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: The sample included 3,708 adults with DSM-IV-based mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. Key predictors of mental health services use for each age group were systematically determined by multivariable models, and exploratory analyses examining potential effect modification by race-ethnicity and sex were assessed by interaction terms...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772555/microstructural-characterization-of-melt-extracted-high-nb-containing-tial-based-fiber
#18
Shuzhi Zhang, Shuling Zhang, Yanfei Chen, Jianchao Han, Changjiang Zhang, Xiaopeng Wang, Yuyong Chen
The microstructure of melt extracted Ti-44Al-8Nb-0.2W-0.2B-1.5Si fiber were investigated. When the rotation speed increased from 2000 to 2600 r/min, the appearance of the wire was uniform with no Rayleigh-wave default. The structure was mainly composed of fine α₂ (α) phase dendritic crystal and a second phase between dendrite arms and grain boundaries. The precipitated second phases were confirmed to be Ti₅Si₃ from the eutectic reaction L→Ti₅Si₃ + α and TiB. As the lower content of Si and higher cooling rate, a divorced eutectic microstructure was obtained...
February 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770444/benefits-of-marriage-on-relative-and-conditional-relative-cancer-survival-differ-between-males-and-females-in-the-usa
#19
Ray M Merrill, Erin Johnson
PURPOSE: The purpose of the paper is to assess the influence of marital status on conditional relative survival of cancer according to sex. METHODS: Analyses involved 779,978 males and 1,032,868 females diagnosed with 1 of 13 cancer types between 2000 and 2008, and followed through 2013. Data are from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and tumor stage. RESULTS: Five-year relative survival conditional on years already survived is higher among married patients with less lethal cancers (oral cavity and pharynx, colon and rectum, breast, urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, melanoma of the skin, thyroid, lymphoma)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770010/a-qualitative-study-to-explore-the-perception-and-behavior-of-patients-towards-diabetes-management-with-physical-disability
#20
Syed Wasif Gillani, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Mohi Iqbal Mohammad Abdul, Sherif Y Saad
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine self-monitoring practices, awareness to dietary modifications and barriers to medication adherence among physically disabled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: Interview sessions were conducted at diabetes clinic-Penang general hospital. The invited participants represented three major ethnic groups of Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indians). An open-ended approach was used to elicit answers from participants. Interview questions were related to participant's perception towards self-monitoring blood glucose practices, Awareness towards diet management, behaviour to diabetes medication and cues of action...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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