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Anal carcinoma

Sun Shin, Hyeon-Chun Park, Min Sung Kim, Mi-Ryung Han, Sung Hak Lee, Seung Hyun Jung, Sug Hyung Lee, Yeun-Jun Chung
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC), either with human papillomavirus (HPV) (+) or (-), is a neoplastic disease with frequent recurrence and metastasis. To characterize ASCC genomes, we attempted to disclose novel alterations of ASCC genomes as well as other genetic features including mutation signatures. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number alteration (CNA) profiling for 8 ASCC samples from 6 patients (2 cases with primary and recurrent/metastatic tumors). We found known ASCC mutations (TP53, CDKN2A and PIK3CA) and CNAs (gains on 3q and 19q and losses on 11q and 13q)...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Lucine Vuitton, Elise Jacquin, Anne-Laure Parmentier, Elise Crochet, Francine Fein, Anne-Claire Dupont-Gossart, Laurianne Plastaras, Charles-Henri Bretagne, Frédéric Mauny, Stéphane Koch, Jean-Luc Prétet, Christiane Mougin, Séverine Valmary-Degano
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increasing incidence of anal canal carcinomas requires better knowledge on anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to assess anal canal HPV infection prevalence and risk factors among patients seen at a gastroenterology department in France. METHODS: We analyzed anal tissue samples collected from 469 consecutive patients (median age 54 years, 52% women), including 112 who received immunosuppressant therapies and 101 with inflammatory bowel disease (70 with Crohn's disease), who underwent colonoscopy examinations from April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2015...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Daniel Lin, Heather T Gold, David Schreiber, Lawrence P Leichman, Scott E Sherman, Daniel J Becker
BACKGROUND: Although outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) have improved, the gains in benefit may not be shared uniformly among patients of disparate socioeconomic status. In the current study, the authors investigated whether area-based median household income (MHI) is predictive of survival among patients with SCCA. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with SCCA from 2004 through 2013 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry were included...
March 12, 2018: Cancer
Corey C Foster, Andrew Y Lee, Larissa V Furtado, John Hart, Lindsay Alpert, Shu-Yuan Xiao, Neil H Hyman, Manish R Sharma, Stanley Liauw
BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been used to limit treatment-related toxicity for patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The treatment outcomes and HPV characteristics for a cohort of patients receiving definitive concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT are reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 patients with anal SCC were treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Radiation was delivered sequentially to the pelvis and inguinal lymph nodes (45 Gy) and anal tumor (median dose, 54 Gy)...
2018: PloS One
Stephen R Thompson, Isabel S Y Lee, Susan Carroll, Sarah Bishop, Philip Douglas, Francis Lam, Chris Brown, Janet Williams, David Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Loco-regional failure is the predominant cause of death in anal squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed patterns of loco-regional recurrence to determine the impact of radiotherapy (RT) volumes on patient outcome. METHODS: Retrospective clinical study, including patients treated curatively with RT or chemo-radiotherapy between 1994 and 2007. RT fields/volumes were reviewed and compared with patterns of failure. Patients were classified as having whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) if RT extended to L5/S1 or lower pelvic radiotherapy (LPRT) if it extended to the lower sacroiliac joints or below...
March 7, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Daniel Martin, Panagiotis Balermpas, Ria Winkelmann, Franz Rödel, Claus Rödel, Emmanouil Fokas
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is associated with infection with high-risk strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 70-90% of cases and a rise in incidence has been observed in the last decades. Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C constitutes the standard treatment for localized disease, but about 30% of patients do not respond or relapse locally. Phase I/II trials testing targeted agents, such as epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, have failed to improve clinical outcome and resulted in increased toxicities...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Otilia Leon, Oskar Hagberg, Anders Johnsson
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is radiotherapy (RT) combined with chemotherapy, that is, chemoradiation (CRT). Primary surgery has a limited role, but is a recommended treatment for small well differentiated SCCA localized in the anal margin, with re-excision or postoperative RT/CRT in case of involved surgical margins. The evidence supporting these strategies is limited. AIM: To study the recurrence patterns and survival outcomes in patients treated with surgery alone compared with surgery followed by postoperative RT/CRT...
March 1, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Guorui Sun, Xiaoyuan Dong, Xiaolong Tang, Hui Qu, Hao Zhang, Ensheng Zhao
Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and p16 expression have been identified to be related to the progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). However, the prognostic relevance of combined detection, particularly HPV-/p16+ and HPV+/p16- signatures, is unknown. A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was therefore conducted to address this issue. Data were collected from studies comparing overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) / disease-specific survival (DSS) / relapse-free survival (RFS) / progression-free survival (PFS) in ASCC patients with HPV and p16 status...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
C Salas-Márquez, J B Repiso-Jiménez, L Padilla-España, M T Fernández-Morano, I M Escudero-Santos, F Rivas-Ruiz, M De Troya-Martín
The prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) is high, reaching 85-93% prevalence in HIV-positive men. High-risk HPV are strongly associated with development of high degrees of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) which, later on, can develop in anal squamous carcinoma. The growing incidence of anal cancer during last years is particularly important in MSM and HIV-positive patients, in which the coexistence of multiple serotypes of HPV reduces the probability of eliminating the AIN...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
A Casadei Gardini, A Passardi, L Fornaro, P Rosetti, M Valgiusti, S Ruscelli, M Monti, C Casadei, F Pagan, G L Frassineti
The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCAC) is increasing in both sexes but the standard treatment remains that of 20 years ago. However, interesting data have recently emerged on the use of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agents and immunotherapy in advanced disease. Thus, new avenues of research are opening up that will hopefully lead to more effective therapeutic strategies. We provide an overview of the latest studies published on this tumor and discuss the possible future therapeutic options for combination therapy, anti-EGFR treatment and radiotherapy...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Amy J Bregar, Beth Cronin, Christine Luis, Paul DiSilvestro, Steven Schechter, Latha Pisharodi, Christina Raker, Melissa Clark, Katina Robison
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence, genotypes, and rates of concomitant anal and cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in women with and without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted from December 2012 to February 2014. Women with a history of neoplasia were considered the high-risk group. Women without a history of neoplasia were considered the low-risk group...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Paulo C Soares, Eliana S Abdelhay, Luiz Claudio S Thuler, Bruno Moreira Soares, Samia Demachki, Gessica Valéria Rocha Ferro, Paulo P Assumpção, Leticia Martins Lamarão, Luis Felipe Ribeiro Pinto, Rommel Mario Rodríguez Burbano
BACKGROUND: Anal residual tumors are consensually identified within six months of chemoradiotherapy and represent a persistent lesion that may have prognostic value for overall survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of HPV and HIV status, p16 expression level and TP53 mutations with the absence of residual tumors (local response) in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal after chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: We performed a study on 78 patients with SCC of the anal canal who submitted to chemoradiotherapy and were followed for a six-month period to identify the absence or presence of residual tumors...
February 21, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Pelvender S Gill, Newton A C S Wong
AIMS: The currently recognised subtypes of anal canal/perianal adenocarcinoma are those arising from low rectal mucosa or columnar cuff, fistula-related tumours and anal gland carcinoma. This following report presents two examples of a hitherto undescribed subtype of perianal adenocarcinoma with an intestinal phenotype. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 74 year old man had a perianal tumour locally excised whereas a 73 year old female underwent an abdominoperineal resection for perianal Paget's disease with an underlying carcinoma...
February 21, 2018: Histopathology
F Roesch-Dietlen, A D Cano-Contreras, Y J Sánchez-Maza, J M Espinosa-González, M Á Vázquez-Prieto, E J Valdés-de la O, F Díaz-Roesch, M Á Carrasco-Arroniz, A Cruz-Palacios, P Grube-Pagola, A Sumoza-Toledo, H Vivanco-Cid, G Mellado-Sánchez, A Meixueiro-Daza, C S Silva-Cañetas, M G Carrillo-Toledo, R Lagunes-Torres, M Amieva-Balmori, P C Gómez-Castaño, J U Reyes-Huerta, J M Remes-Troche
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Cancer is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It has recently been related to viral infections, one of which is human papillomavirus. The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with digestive system cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on patients with gastrointestinal cancer at 2public healthcare institutes in Veracruz...
February 15, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
James Tankel, Shlomo Yellineck, Petachia Reissman
Formation of a colonic J-pouch with anastomosis to the rectal stump is an accepted form of reconstruction after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal carcinoma. It is thought this can help prevent the onset of LAR syndrome as well as improve the quality of life in the first two years following surgery. Rectovaginal fistulation is a recognised complication of this form of surgery usually occurring because of technical failure leading to inclusion of the vaginal wall into the stapled anastomosis. We present an as of yet unreported case of fistulation between the upper horizontal staple line of a colonic J-pouch-the tip of the 'J'-which was formed extracorporeally with the posterior vaginal fornix...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Hani Oweira, Anwar Giryes, Meinrad Mannhart, Rolf Schlumpf, Michael Decker, Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current study evaluates the prognostic value of the 8 th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for patients with anal carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2014) was explored and AJCC 6 th and 8 th stages were formulated. Through Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival analyses were performed. The Cox regression model (adjusted for age, gender, histology, ethnicity, sub-site, and grade) was calculated for cancer-specific survival and subsequently, pairwise comparisons of hazard ratios were calculated...
February 16, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Ranieri Verin, Francesco Cian, Jennifer Stewart, Diana Binanti, Amy L MacNeill, Martina Piviani, Paola Monti, Gianna Baroni, Sophie Le Calvez, Timothy J Scase, Riccardo Finotello
Vaginal and vulvar tumors are uncommon in dogs. Knowledge of canine primary clitoral neoplasia is restricted to a few case reports, and only carcinomas have been reported. Cytologic and histologic features reported in the literature seem to overlap with those of canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASA). Clinical features also recall those of canine AGASA, such as locoregional metastases and hypercalcemia of malignancy (HM). In this study, 6 cases of primary canine clitoral carcinomas (CCCs), with and without HM, were investigated by means of cytology, histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers including chromogranin A (CGA), synaptophysin (SYN), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and S-100...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Ira L Leeds, James Freeland Griffin, Sandy H Fang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Wulfran Cacheux, Virginie Dangles-Marie, Etienne Rouleau, Julien Lazartigues, Elodie Girard, Adrien Briaux, Pascale Mariani, Sophie Richon, Sophie Vacher, Bruno Buecher, Marion Richard-Molard, Emmanuelle Jeannot, Nicolas Servant, Fereshteh Farkhondeh, Odette Mariani, Thomas Rio-Frio, Sergio Roman-Roman, Emmanuel Mitry, Ivan Bieche, Astrid Lièvre
Anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are rare tumours in humans. The etiological role of HPV infection is now well established but little is known about the molecular landscape and signalling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. Here we report the results from a whole exome sequencing of a homogeneous group of 20 treatment-naive ASCC. A total of 2422 somatic single nucleotide variations (SNV) were found, with an overall moderate rate of somatic mutations per tumour (median: 105 relevant SNV per tumour) but a high mutational load in 3 tumours...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Arnaud Hocquelet, Thibaut Auriac, Cynthia Perier, Clarisse Dromain, Marie Meyer, Jean-Baptiste Pinaquy, Alban Denys, Hervé Trillaud, Baudouin Denis De Senneville, Véronique Vendrely
AIM: To assess regular MRI findings and tumour texture features on pre-CRT imaging as potential predictive factors of event-free survival (disease progression or death) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) without metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included 28 patients treated by CRT for pathologically proven ASCC with a pre-CRT MRI. Texture analysis was carried out with axial T2W images by delineating a 3D region of interest around the entire tumour volume...
February 5, 2018: European Radiology
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