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Deepthi Alapati, Edward E Morrisey
While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Since the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intra-tracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology is a promising approach to repair or inactivate disease causing mutations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Valentina Gallo, F Nicole Dijk, John W Holloway, Susan M Ring, Gerard H Koppelman, Dirkje S Postma, David P Strachan, Raquel Granell, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herman T den Dekker, Liesbeth Duijts, A John Henderson, Seif O Shaheen
BACKGROUND: Animal data have suggested that the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel plays a key role in promoting airway inflammation in asthma and may mediate effects of paracetamol on asthma, yet confirmatory human data are lacking. To study associations of TRPA1 gene variants with childhood asthma and total IgE concentration, and interactions between TRPA1 and prenatal paracetamol exposure on these outcomes. METHODS: We analysed associations between 31 TRPA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and total IgE concentration at 7...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Gen Kano, Hisashi Tsujii, Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Kaname Nakatani, Makoto Ikejiri, Satoru Ogawa, Hisami Kubo, Mizuho Nagao, Takao Fujisawa
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder caused by structural and/or functional impairment of cilia throughout the whole body. Early diagnosis of PCD is important for the prevention of long‑term sequelae, however early diagnosis is a challenge due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of PCD. In the current study, the patient with PCD was diagnosed at nine years old following several efforts to control intractable airway symptoms. The patient experienced a chronic productive cough beginning in early childhood and had multiple episodes of pneumonia and otitis media with effusion and sinusitis...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Moyu Ming, Zhixi Luo, Shengqiu Lv, Chaoqian Li
The present study aimed to investigate whether inhalation of inactivated‑Mycobacterium phlei could prevent airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia. A total of 24 male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: Normal control group (group A), asthma model group (group B) and the intervention group (group C), (8 mice/group). Group A mice were sensitized and with challenged saline and group B with ovalbumin (OVA). Group C mice were administered with aerosol Mycobacterium phlei once daily prior to the allergen challenge...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shuichi Kaneyama, Masatoshi Sumi, Masato Takabatake, Koichi Kasahara, Aritetsu Kanemura, Hiroaki Hirata, Bruce V Darden
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical case series and risk factor analysis of dysphagia after occipitospinal fusion (OSF). OBJECTIVE: To develop new criteria to avoid postoperative dysphagia by analyzing the relationship among the craniocervical alignment, the oropharyngeal space and the incidence of dysphagia after OSF. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Craniocervical malalignment after OSF is considered to be one of the primary triggers of postoperative dysphagia...
October 24, 2016: Spine
S Sindhu
Stripped of any sense of comfort or dignity on that hospital bed, my 84-year-old father, my best friend, was enduring raw, intrusive medical procedures against his own wish; defenseless, vulnerable, agonized. A feeding tube went in through his nose; catheter tubes drained urine out of his bladder; a suction pump drew out fluid from his airway. A needle jammed into the central line, making it impossible for him to turn his head. Dialysis took over the job of his kidneys. But no painkillers were given for fear his weak heart could not take more chemicals...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Hideaki Kouzaki, Koji Matsumoto, Hirotaka Kikuoka, Tomohisa Kato, Ichiro Tojima, Shino Shimizu, Hirohito Kita, Takeshi Shimizu
RATIONALE: Cystatin A and SPINK5 are endogenous protease inhibitors (EPIs) that may play key roles in epithelial barrier function. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of EPIs in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: We examined the expression of cystatin A and SPINK5 in the nasal epithelial cells of patients with CRS. Additionally, the in vitro effects of recombinant EPIs on the secretion of the epithelial-derived cytokines, interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), in airway epithelial cells, and the in vivo effects of recombinant EPIs in the nasal epithelium of mice exposed to multiple airborne allergens (MAA) were examined...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Elizabeth A Belloli, Irina Degtiar, Xin Wang, Gregory A Yanik, Linda J Stuckey, Stijn E Verleden, Ella A Kazerooni, Brian D Ross, Susan Murray, Craig J Galbán, Vibha N Lama
RATIONALE: The predominant cause of chronic lung allograft failure is small airway obstruction arising from bronchiolitis obliterans. However, clinical methodologies for evaluating presence and degree of small airway disease are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Parametric Response Mapping (PRM), a novel computed tomography (CT) voxel-wise methodology, can offer insight into chronic allograft failure phenotypes and provide prognostic information following spirometric decline...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Juan P Boriosi, Jens C Eickhoff, Kristi B Klein, Gregory A Hollman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Both propofol and dexmedetomidine have been found to be safe and effective sedation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our program experienced an increase in patients arousing and experiencing an adverse airway event during propofol sedation for MRI in the first months of using a new 3T (Tesla) MRI scanner that was found to have a longer reverberation time compared to the previous 1.5 T MRI. In an effort to decrease patient arousal and adverse airway events during MRI, we administered a dexmedetomidine load prior to our standard propofol protocol...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Divya Jain, Babita Ghai, Komal Gandhi, Gargi Banerjee, Indu Bala, Ram Samujh
BACKGROUND: A previous study by our group demonstrated an increase in oropharyngeal leak pressures and a deterioration of ventilation in maximum neck flexion with the I-Gel(™) . To ascertain the optimal degree of neck flexion which increases OPLP without compromising ventilation we conducted a prospective self-controlled trial with the I-Gel(™) in different degrees of neck flexion in anesthetized paralyzed children. METHODOLOGY: The I-gel(™) was inserted in 60 children undergoing inhalation induction with muscle paralysis for routine general anesthesia...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Sladjana Skopelja, B JoNell Hamilton, Jonathan D Jones, Mei-Ling Yang, Mark Mamula, Alix Ashare, Alex H Gifford, William F C Rigby
While respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently associates with chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, no single factor predicts the extent of lung damage in CF. To elucidate other causes, we studied the autoantibody profile in CF and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, given the similar association of airway inflammation and autoimmunity in RA. Even though we observed that bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), carbamylated proteins, and citrullinated proteins all localized to the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are implicated in the development of autoimmunity, our study demonstrates striking autoantibody specificity in CF...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Deniz Koksal, Aydin Seref Koksal, Ahmet Gurakar
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease caused by diffuse inflammation, destruction and fibrosis of the intrahepatic bile ducts, ultimately leading to cirrhosis, portal hypertension and liver failure. The pathogenesis of PBC is incompletely understood, but current data suggest roles for genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. PBC is often thought of as an organ-specific autoimmune disease, which mainly targets the liver; however, lung tissue is also a site for autoimmune involvement of PBC...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
D Costa Santos, F Barros, M Frazão, M Maia
Face burns expose patients to a higher respiratory risk, and early prophylactic intubation before they enter the burn unit might be life-saving. However, unnecessary intubation may compromise their clinical evolution. Hence, the decision to perform pre-burn centre endotracheal intubation remains a clinical challenge. A retrospective study was developed to characterize the experience of the tertiary burn unit of the Hospital da Prelada with face burn patients arriving endotracheally-intubated between January 2009 and September 2013...
December 31, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Caroline Dahlqvist, Sebahat Ocak, Maximilien Gourdin, Anne Sophie Dincq, Laurie Putz, Jean-Paul d'Odémont
Introduction. We herein report our experience with new fully covered self-expanding metallic stents in the setting of inoperable recurrent benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Methods. Between May 2010 and July 2014, 21 Micro-Tech® FC-SEMS (Nanjing Co., Republic of Korea) were placed in our hospital in 16 patients for inoperable, recurrent (after dilatation), and symptomatic benign airway stenosis. Their medical files were retrospectively reviewed in December 2014, with focus on stent's tolerance and durability data...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Roberto Mogami, Telma Goldenberg, Patricia Gomes Cytrangulo de Marca, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Agnaldo José Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To describe the main tomography findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of computed tomography scans of 19 patients with pulmonary infection by M. kansasii. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients evaluated, 10 (52.6%) were male and 9 (47.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range, 33-76 years). Computed tomography findings were as follows: architectural distortion, in 17 patients (89...
July 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
Takashi Ohki, Seiichiro Sugimoto, Takeshi Kurosaki, Shinji Otani, Kentaroh Miyoshi, Masaomi Yamane, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Takahiro Oto
Stent placement is an essential treatment for airway diseases. Although self-expandable metallic stents and silicone stents are commonly applied for the treatment of airway diseases, these stents are unsuitable for the treatment of small airway diseases encountered in pediatric patients and lung transplant recipients with airway complications. Currently, only vascular balloon-expandable metallic stents are available for the treatment of small airway diseases; however, little research has been conducted on the use of these stents in this field...
October 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
Jolien Teepe, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Katherine Loens, Christine Lammens, Margareta Ieven, Herman Goossens, Paul Little, Chris C Butler, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Theo J M Verheij
BACKGROUND: Bacterial testing of all patients who present with acute cough is not feasible in primary care. Furthermore, the extent to which easily obtainable clinical information predicts bacterial infection is unknown. We evaluated the diagnostic value of clinical examination and testing for C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for bacterial lower respiratory tract infection. METHODS: Through a European diagnostic study, we recruited 3104 adults with acute cough (≤ 28 days) in primary care settings...
October 24, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
M Tortajada-Girbés, M Mesa Del Castillo, H Larramona, J M Lucas, M Álvaro, A I Tabar, M J Jerez, A Martínez-Cañavate
Allergic respiratory diseases are major health problems in paediatric population due their high level of prevalence and chronicity, and to their relevance in the costs and quality of life. One of the most important risk factors for the development of airway diseases in children and adolescents is atopy. The mainstays for the treatment of these diseases are avoiding allergens, controlling symptoms, and preventing them through sustained desensitization by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AIT is a treatment option that consists in the administration of increasing amounts of allergens to modify the biological response to them, inducing long-term tolerance even after treatment has ended...
October 21, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Marianne Abouyared, Mikhaylo Szczupak, Eric Barbarite, Zoukaa B Sargi, David E Rosow
PURPOSE: The purpose was to assess the success of open tracheal resection and re-anastomosis for non-malignant tracheal stenosis in adults. Successful operations were defined as T-tube or tracheostomy-free status by 6months post-operatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed and data were recorded in a de-identified manner. The primary outcome was T-tube or tracheostomy-free status by 6months following tracheal resection. Clinical and demographic characteristics were evaluated as potential prognostic variables...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Suleiman M Momany, Ghaida AlJamal, Bassam Shugaa-Addin, Yousef S Khader
PURPOSE: To explore the validity of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as one of many predictive tools that can be used (alone or in conjunction) to help in identifying high-risk cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that should get the earliest possible referral to a sleep specialist for standard diagnostic polysomnography, and to identify imaging airway parameters that may be predictive of OSA severity. METHODS: Using a case-control design, 45 subjects matched by age and sex (22 OSA cases and 23 controls) were included in this study...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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