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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053753/3d-morphological-analysis-of-the-mouse-cerebral-vasculature-comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-methods
#1
Joe Steinman, Margaret M Koletar, Bojana Stefanovic, John G Sled
Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total) were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053691/quantitative-whole-mount-immunofluorescence-analysis-of-cardiac-progenitor-populations-in-mouse-embryos
#2
Evan Bardot, Nikos Tzavaras, Deanna L Benson, Nicole C Dubois
The use of ever-advancing imaging techniques has contributed broadly to our increased understanding of embryonic development. Pre-implantation development and organogenesis are two areas of research that have benefitted greatly from these advances, due to the high quality of data that can be obtained directly from imaging pre-implantation embryos or ex vivo organs. While pre-implantation embryos have yielded data with especially high spatial resolution, later stages have been less amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052998/3d-imaging-of-a-dislocation-loop-at-the-onset-of-plasticity-in-an-indented-nanocrystal
#3
M Dupraz, G Beutier, T W Cornelius, G Parry, Z Ren, S Labat, M-I Richard, G A Chahine, O Kovalenko, M De Boissieu, E Rabkin, M Verdier, O Thomas
Structural quality and stability of nanocrystals are fundamental problems that bear important consequences for the performances of small-scale devices. Indeed, at the nanoscale, their functional properties are largely influenced by elastic strain and depend critically on the presence of crystal defects. It is thus of prime importance to be able to monitor, by noninvasive means, the stability of the microstructure of nano-objects against external stimuli such as mechanical load. Here we demonstrate the potential of Bragg coherent diffraction imaging for such measurements, by imaging in 3D the evolution of the microstructure of a nanocrystal exposed to in situ mechanical loading...
October 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052676/growth-and-nanomechanical-characterization-of-nanoscale-3d-architectures-grown-via-focused-electron-beam-induced-deposition
#4
Brett B Lewis, Brittnee A Mound, Bernadeta Srijanto, Jason D Fowlkes, George M Pharr, Philip D Rack
Nanomechanical measurements of platinum-carbon 3D nanoscale architectures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) were performed using a nanoindentation system in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for simultaneous in situ imaging. Compression tests were used to estimate the modulus of the platinum-carbon deposits to be in the range of 8.6-10.5 GPa. Cantilever arm bend tests resulted in a modulus estimation of 15.6 GPa. Atomic layer deposition was used to conformally coat FEBID structures with a thin film of Al2O3, which strengthened the structures and increased the measured modulus...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052214/quantitative-3d-analysis-of-nuclear-morphology-and-heterochromatin-organization-from-whole-mount-plant-tissue-using-nucleusj
#5
Sophie Desset, Axel Poulet, Christophe Tatout
Image analysis is a classical way to study nuclear organization. While nuclear organization used to be investigated by colorimetric or fluorescent labeling of DNA or specific nuclear compartments, new methods in microscopy imaging now enable qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatin pattern, and nuclear size and shape. Several procedures have been developed to prepare samples in order to collect 3D images for the analysis of spatial chromatin organization, but only few preserve the positional information of the cell within its tissue context...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052213/automated-3d-gene-position-analysis-using-a-customized-imaris-plugin-xtfishinsidenucleus
#6
Mariamawit S Ashenafi, Célia Baroux
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is commonly used to visualize chromosomal regions or genomic loci within the nucleus, and can largely contribute to unraveling the link between structure and function in the nucleus. Three-dimensional (3D) analyses are required to best capture the nucleus' organizing principles, but the experimental setup and computational analyses are far from trivial. Here, we present a robust workflow for 3D FISH against repeats and single copy loci in embedded intact nuclei from Arabidopsis leaves...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052083/patient-specific-devices-and-population-level-evidence-evaluating-therapeutic-interventions-with-inherent-variation
#7
Mary Jean Walker
Designing and manufacturing medical devices for specific patients is becoming increasingly feasible with developments in 3D printing and 3D imaging software. This raises the question of how patient-specific devices can be evaluated, since our 'gold standard' method for evaluation, the randomised controlled trial (RCT), requires that an intervention is standardised across a number of individuals in an experimental group. I distinguish several senses of patient-specific device, and focus the discussion on understanding the problem of variations between instances of an intervention for RCT evaluation...
October 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051012/vergence-driven-accommodation-with-simulated-disparity-in-myopia-and-emmetropia
#8
Guido Maiello, Kristen L Kerber, Frank Thorn, Peter J Bex, Fuensanta A Vera-Diaz
The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n = 9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050828/quantification-of-right-ventricular-size-and-function-from-contrast-enhanced-three-dimensional-echocardiographic-images
#9
Diego Medvedofsky, Victor Mor-Avi, Eric Kruse, Brittney Guile, Boguslawa Ciszek, Lynn Weinert, Megan Yamat, Valentina Volpato, Karima Addetia, Amit R Patel, Roberto M Lang
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography directly assesses right ventricular (RV) volumes without geometric assumptions, despite the complex shape of the right ventricle, and accordingly is more accurate and reproducible than the two-dimensional methodology, which is able to measure only surrogate parameters of RV function. Volumetric analysis has been hampered by frequent inability to clearly visualize RV endocardium, especially the RV free wall, in 3D echocardiographic images...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050194/update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-anorectal-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Satish S C Rao
Anorectal disorders are common and present with overlapping symptoms. They include several disorders with both structural and functional dysfunction(s). Because symptoms alone are poor predictors of the underlying pathophysiology, a diagnosis should only be made after evaluating symptoms and physiologic and structural abnormalities. A detailed history, a thorough physical and digital rectal examination and a systematic evaluation with high resolution and/or high definition three-dimensional (3D) anorectal manometry, 3D anal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance defecography and neurophysiology tests are essential to correctly identify these conditions...
October 23, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050177/-application-of-three-dimensional-visualization-in-pancreatic-tumor-a-pilot-study
#11
S Z Wang, X B Wang, M Li, R X Shen, H Rong, J S Li
Objective: To study the value of three-dimensional(3D) visualization in the diagnosis and surgical treatment for pancreatic tumor. Methods: From June to September 2016, 26 patients with pancreatic tumors in Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University were involved. The study included 26 patients(8 females and 18 males) with mean age of (57±12)years (ranging from 23 to 77 years). And there were 20 malignant tumors and 6 benign tumors. All of them were examined with abdominal thin slice CT scanning and the CT images were imported into 3D visualization system for 3D visualization...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050096/-application-of-three-dimensional-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-congenital-preauricular-fistula
#12
X L Zhu, F Liu, X C Jin, H E Zhou, Y Y Zhao, H B Jiang, B Z Zhao, W F Xiong
Objective: To explore the application of real-time three-dimensional ultrasound in locating the course, the brand and the blind end of internal opening of congenital preauricular fistula. Methods: Congenital preauricular fistula patients from Changhai Hospital were studied. All the cases were evaluated using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound before surgeries. The surgery findings were utilized as the gold standard. The imaging features of 3D ultrasound were described to determine the accuracy of the blind end location, the course of the main fistula tract and the branch tracts...
October 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049927/electron-tomography-of-whole-cultured-cells-using-novel-transmission-electron-imaging-technique
#13
Taiga Okumura, Minami Shoji, Akiko Hisada, Yusuke Ominami, Sukehiro Ito, Tatsuo Ushiki, Masato Nakajima, Takashi Ohshima
Since a three-dimensional (3D) cellular ultrastructure is significant for biological functions, it has been investigated using various electron microscopic techniques. Although transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based techniques are traditionally used, cells must be embedded in resin and sliced into ultrathin sections in sample preparation processes. Block-face observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has also been recently applied to 3D observation of cellular components, but this is a destructive inspection and does not allow re-examination...
October 16, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049538/3d-printed-mitral-valve-models-affordable-simulation-for-robotic-mitral-valve-repair
#14
Ned Premyodhin, Divneet Mandair, Alice S Ferng, Timothy S Leach, Ryan P Palsma, Mohammad Z Albanna, Zain I Khalpey
OBJECTIVES: 3D printed mitral valve (MV) models that capture the suture response of real tissue may be utilized as surgical training tools. Leveraging clinical imaging modalities, 3D computerized modelling and 3D printing technology to produce affordable models complements currently available virtual simulators and paves the way for patient- and pathology-specific preoperative rehearsal. METHODS: We used polyvinyl alcohol, a dissolvable thermoplastic, to 3D print moulds that were casted with liquid platinum-cure silicone yielding flexible, low-cost MV models capable of simulating valvular tissue...
July 31, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049327/characteristics-of-pulsatile-flows-in-curved-stenosed-channels
#15
Hyeonji Hong, Eunseop Yeom, Ho Seong Ji, Hyun Dong Kim, Kyung Chun Kim
Spatial and temporal variations of the hemodynamic features occur under pulsatile conditions in complex vessel geometry. Wall shear stress affected by the disturbed flow can result in endothelial cell dysfunction, which leads to atherogenesis and thrombosis. Therefore, detailed understanding of the hemodynamic characteristics in a curved stenosed channel is highly important when examining the pathological effects of hemodynamic phenomena on the progression of atherosclerosis. The present study measures the velocity fields of pulsatile flows with three different Reynolds numbers in 3D curved vessel models with stenosis using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049147/virtual-reality-model-of-the-three-dimensional-anatomy-of-the-cavernous-sinus-based-on-a-cadaveric-image-and-dissection
#16
Zeng-Hui Qian, Xu Feng, Yang Li, Ke Tang
OBJECTIVE: Studying the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the cavernous sinus is essential for treating lesions in this region with skull base surgeries. Cadaver dissection is a conventional method that has insurmountable flaws with regard to understanding spatial anatomy. The authors' research aimed to build an image model of the cavernous sinus region in a virtual reality system to precisely, individually and objectively elucidate the complete and local stereo-anatomy. METHODS: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on 5 adult cadaver heads...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048460/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-a-device-dependent-imaging-strategy-for-improved-image-quality
#17
Sebastian Hilbert, Cosima Jahnke, Susanne Loebe, Sabrina Oebel, Alexander Weber, Ricardo Spampinato, Sergio Richter, Michael Doering, Andreas Bollmann, Philipp Sommer, Gerhard Hindricks, Ingo Paetsch
Aims: To prospectively determine evaluability of routine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) diagnostic modules in a referral population of implanted rhythm device all-comers, and to establish a device-dependent CMR imaging strategy to achieve optimal image quality. Methods and results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices [insertable cardiac monitoring system, n = 14; implantable loop-recorder, n = 21; pacemaker, n = 31; implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), n = 50; and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), n = 12] underwent clinically indicated CMR at 1...
October 18, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048330/calibration-and-analysis-of-a-multimodal-micro-ct-and-structured-light-imaging-system-for-the-evaluation-of-excised-breast-tissue
#18
David Martin McClatchy Iii, Elizabeth J Rizzo, Jeff Meganck, Josh Kempner, Jared Vicory, Wendy A Wells, Keith D Paulsen, Brian W Pogue
A multimodal micro-computed tomography (CT) and multi-spectral structured light imaging (SLI) system is introduced and systematically analyzed to test its feasibility to aid in margin delineation during breast conserving surgery (BCS). Phantom analysis of the micro-CT yielded a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 34, a contrast of 1.64, and a minimum detectable resolution of 240 m for a 1.2 min scan. The SLI system, spanning wavelengths 490 nm to 800 nm and spatial frequencies up to 1.37 mm-1, was evaluated with aqueous tissue simulating phantoms having variations in particle size distribution, scatter density, and blood volume fraction...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048060/instantaneous-3d-imaging-of-highly-turbulent-flames-using-computed-tomography-of-chemiluminescence
#19
Khadijeh Mohri, Simon Görs, Jonathan Schöler, Andreas Rittler, Thomas Dreier, Christof Schulz, Andreas Kempf
The computed tomography of chemiluminescence (CTC) technique was applied for the first time to a real highly turbulent swirl flame setup, using a large number of CCD cameras (Nq=24 views), to directly reconstruct the three-dimensional instantaneous and time-averaged chemiluminescence fields. The views were obtained from a 172.5° region (in one plane) around the flame, and the CTC algorithm [Floyd et al., Combust. Flame158, 376 (2011)CBFMAO0010-2180] was used to reconstruct the flame by discretizing the domain into voxels...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048055/automated-batch-characterization-of-inkjet-printed-elastomer-lenses-using-a-lego-platform
#20
Yu-Lung Sung, Jacob Garan, Hoang Nguyen, Zhenyu Hu, Wei-Chuan Shih
Small, self-adhesive, inkjet-printed elastomer lenses have enabled smartphone cameras to image and resolve microscopic objects. However, the performance of different lenses within a batch is affected by hard-to-control environmental variables. We present a cost-effective platform to perform automated batch characterization of 300 lens units simultaneously for quality inspection. The system was designed and configured with LEGO bricks, 3D printed parts, and a digital camera. The scheme presented here may become the basis of a high-throughput, in-line inspection tool for quality control purposes and can also be employed for optimization of the manufacturing process...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
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