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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474910/super-resolution-imaging-of-the-extracellular-space-in-living-brain-tissue
#1
Jan Tønnesen, V V G Krishna Inavalli, U Valentin Nägerl
The extracellular space (ECS) of the brain has an extremely complex spatial organization, which has defied conventional light microscopy. Consequently, despite a marked interest in the physiological roles of brain ECS, its structure and dynamics remain largely inaccessible for experimenters. We combined 3D-STED microscopy and fluorescent labeling of the extracellular fluid to develop super-resolution shadow imaging (SUSHI) of brain ECS in living organotypic brain slices. SUSHI enables quantitative analysis of ECS structure and reveals dynamics on multiple scales in response to a variety of physiological stimuli...
February 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474097/vibe-mri-an-alternative-to-ct-in-the-imaging-of-sports-related-osseous-pathology
#2
Edward Rj Walton, Eamon Koh, Phil Watson
MRI is an excellent diagnostic tool in the imaging of sports related musculoskeletal pathology however, standard slice thickness acquisitions can lack the spatial resolution to accurately define and characterise osseous abnormalities. Standard MRI sequences may be supplemented with CT to reduce diagnostic uncertainty. We provide a clinical perspective, in the form of pictorial review, on the potential applications of 3D MRI sequences in the form of Volumetric Interpolated Breath-hold Examination (VIBE) in the characterisation of various musculoskeletal osseous pathologies...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473985/intracranial-vessel-wall-lesions-in-patients-with-systematic-lupus-erythematosus
#3
Satoru Ide, Shingo Kakeda, Mari Miyata, Shigeru Iwata, Naoaki Ohkubo, Shingo Nakayamada, Koichiro Futatsuya, Keita Watanabe, Junji Moriya, Yoshihisa Fujino, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yukunori Korogi
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is related to vasculitis, which causes brain infarctions; however, the pathology of large cerebral vessels has not been fully established. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the prevalence of vessel wall lesions (VWLs) in SLE patients using 3D vessel wall imaging and to assess the relationship between VWLs and brain infarctions. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: Sixty SLE patients and 50 healthy subjects (HS)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473982/longitudinal-changes-in-myocardial-t-1-and-t-2-relaxation-times-related-to-diffuse-myocardial-fibrosis-in-aortic-stenosis-before-and-after-aortic-valve-replacement
#4
Sofia Kvernby, Mattias Rönnerfalk, Marcel Warntjes, Carl-Johan Carlhäll, Eva Nylander, Jan Engvall, Éva Tamás, Tino Ebbers
BACKGROUND: Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is associated with adverse outcomes, although detection and quantification is challenging. Cardiac MR relaxation times mapping represents a promising imaging biomarker for diffuse myocardial fibrosis. PURPOSE: To investigate whether relaxation times can detect longitudinal changes in myocardial tissue composition associated with diffuse fibrosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473980/low-dose-t1w-dce-mri-for-early-time-points-perfusion-measurement-in-patients-with-intracranial-tumors-a-pilot-study-applying-the-microsphere-model-to-measure-absolute-cerebral-blood-flow
#5
Ka-Loh Li, Daniel Lewis, Alan Jackson, Sha Zhao, Xiaoping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) with DSC-MRI using an "early time points" (ET) method based on microsphere theory. PURPOSE: To develop and assess a new ET method for absolute CBF estimation using low-dose high-temporal (LDHT) T1W-DCE-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Seven patients with sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) who underwent test-retest imaging; one patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) imaged pretreatment; and 12 neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients undergoing bevacizumab treatment, imaged pre- and 90 days posttreatment...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472591/early-sclerostin-expression-explains-bone-formation-inhibition-before-arthritis-onset-in-the-rat-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-model
#6
Guillaume Courbon, Raphaëlle Lamarque, Maude Gerbaix, Robin Caire, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Norbert Laroche, Mireille Thomas, Thierry Thomas, Laurence Vico, Hubert Marotte
Periarticular bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered to be mainly related to synovial inflammation. However, strong bone loss has also described at the time of arthritis onset. Recently, a paradoxical exacerbation of joint damage was described when blocking sclerostin in various arthritis models. Thus, we aimed to determine kinetics of bone loss and its mechanisms in the adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model of RA. AIA was induced (n = 35) or not (n = 35) at day 0. In addition to well-known arthritis at day 12, we showed with 3D-imaging and histomorphometry that bone microstructural alterations occurred early from day 8 post-induction, characterized by cortical porosity and trabecular bone loss...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472302/quantification-of-intracranial-aneurysm-volume-pulsation-with-7t-mri
#7
R Kleinloog, J J M Zwanenburg, B Schermers, E Krikken, Y M Ruigrok, P R Luijten, F Visser, L Regli, G J E Rinkel, B H Verweij
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aneurysm volume pulsation is a potential predictor of intracranial aneurysm rupture. We evaluated whether 7T MR imaging can quantify aneurysm volume pulsation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Stage I of the study, 10 unruptured aneurysms in 9 patients were studied using a high-resolution (0.6-mm, isotropic) 3D gradient-echo sequence with cardiac gating. Semiautomatic segmentation was used to measure aneurysm volume (in cubic millimeters) per cardiac phase...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472296/brain-injury-lesion-imaging-using-preconditioned-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-without-skull-stripping
#8
S Soman, Z Liu, G Kim, U Nemec, S J Holdsworth, K Main, B Lee, S Kolakowsky-Hayner, M Selim, A J Furst, P Massaband, J Yesavage, M M Adamson, P Spincemallie, M Moseley, Y Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identifying cerebral microhemorrhage burden can aid in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. MR imaging susceptibility-based methods are more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral microhemorrhage, but methods other than quantitative susceptibility mapping provide results that vary with field strength and TE, require additional phase maps to distinguish blood from calcification, and depict cerebral microhemorrhages as bloom artifacts...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472089/investigation-of-the-xcat-phantom-as-a-validation-tool-in-cardiac-mri-tracking-algorithms
#9
Nicholas Lowther, Svenja Ipsen, Steven Marsh, Oliver Blanck, Paul Keall
PURPOSE: To describe our magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulated implementation of the 4D digital extended cardio torso (XCAT) phantom to validate our previously developed cardiac tracking techniques. Real-time tracking will play an important role in the non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation with MRI-guided radiosurgery. In addition, to show how quantifiable measures of tracking accuracy and patient-specific physiology could influence MRI tracking algorithm design. METHODS: Twenty virtual patients were subjected to simulated MRI scans that closely model the proposed real-world scenario to allow verification of the tracking technique's algorithm...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472084/effect-of-image-registration-on-3d-absorbed-dose-calculations-in-177-lu-dotatoc-peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy
#10
Elisa Grassi, Federica Fioroni, Salvatore Berenato, Nick Patterson, Valentina Ferri, Luca Braglia, Angelina Filice, Annibale Versari, Mauro Iori, Emiliano Spezi
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective MRT (molecular radiotherapy) treatment, which consists of multiple administrations of a radiopharmaceutical labelled with177 Lu or90 Y. Through sequential functional imaging a patient specific 3D dosimetry can be derived. Multiple scans should be previously co-registered to allow accurate absorbed dose calculations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of image registration algorithms on 3D absorbed dose calculation. A cohort of patients was extracted from the database of a clinical trial in PRRT...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472083/quantifying-the-performance-of-two-different-types-of-commercial-software-programs-for-3d-patient-dose-reconstruction-for-prostate-cancer-patients-machine-log-files-vs-machine-log-files-with-epid-images
#11
Noriyuki Kadoya, Yoshio Kon, Yoshiki Takayama, Takuya Matsumoto, Naoki Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Katsuta, Kengo Ito, Takahito Chiba, Suguru Dobashi, Ken Takeda, Keiichi Jingu
We clarified the reconstructed 3D dose difference between two different commercial software programs (Mobius3D v2.0 and PerFRACTION v1.6.4). Five prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT (74 Gy/37 Fr) were studied. Log files and cine EPID images were acquired for each fraction. 3D patient dose was reconstructed using log files (Mobius3D) or log files with EPID imaging (PerFRACTION). The treatment planning dose was re-calculated on homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms, and log files and cine EPID images were acquired...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471970/the-accuracy-and-precision-of-kilovoltage-intrafraction-monitoring-kim-six-degree-of-freedom-prostate-motion-measurements-during-patient-treatments
#12
Jung-Ha Kim, Doan T Nguyen, Jeremy T Booth, Chen-Yu Huang, Todsaporn Fuangrod, Per Poulsen, Ricky O'Brien, Vincent Caillet, Thomas Eade, Andrew Kneebone, Paul Keall
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To perform a quantitative analysis of the accuracy and precision of Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring (KIM) six degree-of-freedom (6DoF) prostate motion measurements during treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Real-time 6DoF prostate motion was acquired using KIM for 14 prostate cancer patients (377 fractions). KIM outputs the 6DoF prostate motion, combining 3D translation and 3D rotational motion information relative to its planning position...
February 19, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471620/augmented-reality-for-breast-imaging
#13
Alberto Rancati, Claudio Angrigiani, Maurizio B Nava, Giuseppe Catanuto, Nicola Rocco, Fernando Ventrice, Julio Dorr
BACKGROUND: Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described...
February 21, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471160/persistent-first-intersegmental-artery-pfia-visualized-by-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-angiography-in-chinese-population
#14
Haocong Zhang, Wei Chai, Shuang Wang, Yan Wang, Hongwei Li
BACKGROUND: Persistent first intersegmental artery (PFIA) is one of the most frequently vertebral artery (VA) variations. The presence of PFIA obviously increases the complexity and difficulty of vertebral lesion treatment. Thus, preoperative detection of PFIA is necessary to increase the successful rate of surgeries. We attempted to evaluate the utility value of three-dimension (3D) computed tomography angiography (CTA) for detecting PFIA in the north Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients subjected to CTA between June 2012 and March 2014 were recruited from 5 clinical centers in the north of China...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470715/issls-prize-in-bioengineering-science-2018-dynamic-imaging-of-degenerative-spondylolisthesis-reveals-mid-range-dynamic-lumbar-instability-not-evident-on-static-clinical-radiographs
#15
Malcolm E Dombrowski, Bryan Rynearson, Clarissa LeVasseur, Zach Adgate, William F Donaldson, Joon Y Lee, Ameet Aiyangar, William J Anderst
PURPOSE: Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) in the setting of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis is commonly treated with spinal fusion in addition to decompression with laminectomy. However, recent studies have shown similar clinical outcomes after decompression alone, suggesting that a subset of DS patients may not require spinal fusion. Identification of dynamic instability could prove useful for predicting which patients are at higher risk of post-laminectomy destabilization necessitating fusion...
February 22, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470427/application-of-ground-penetrating-radar-for-detecting-internal-anomalies-in-tree-trunks-with-irregular-contours
#16
Weilin Li, Jian Wen, Zhongliang Xiao, Shengxia Xu
To assess the health conditions of tree trunks, it is necessary to estimate the layers and anomalies of their internal structure. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the internal part of tree trunks considering their irregular contour. In this respect, we used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for non-invasive detection of defects and deteriorations in living trees trunks. The Hilbert transform algorithm and the reflection amplitudes were used to estimate the relative dielectric constant. The point cloud data technique was applied as well to extract the irregular contours of trunks...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469936/2d-3d-registration-for-cranial-radiation-therapy-using-a-3d-kv-cbct-and-a-single-limited-field-of-view-2d-kv-radiograph
#17
Reshma Munbodh, Jonathan P S Knisely, David A Jaffray, Douglas J Moseley
PURPOSE: We present and evaluate a fully automated 2D-3D intensity-based registration framework using a single limited field-of-view (FOV) 2D kV radiograph and a 3D kV CBCT for 3D estimation of patient setup errors during brain radiotherapy. METHODS: We evaluated two similarity measures, the Pearson correlation coefficient on image intensity values (ICC) and maximum likelihood measure with Gaussian noise (MLG), derived from the statistics of transmission images...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469858/high-performance-color-sequence-particle-streak-velocimetry-for-3d-airflow-measurement
#18
Huan Wang, Guijin Wang, Xianting Li
In this paper, a high-performance color sequence particle streak velocimetry (CSPSV) technique is proposed to measure the air velocity in a large three-dimensional (3D) space. Based on the basic principle of CSPSV, a new color sequence illumination pattern is designed to mark seeding bubbles for better imaging performance. Synchronized with the illumination system, cameras record the targets' paths at the start, middle, and end points with different color information more clearly. Thus, a rectification-based stereo corresponding algorithm is presented to reconstruct the 3D trajectory of the bubbles...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469846/dual-view-integral-imaging-three-dimensional-display-using-polarized-glasses
#19
Fei Wu, Guo-Jiao Lv, Huan Deng, Bai-Chuan Zhao, Qiong-Hua Wang
We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) three-dimensional (3D) display using polarized glasses. The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a polarized parallax barrier, a microlens array, and two pairs of polarized glasses. Two kinds of elemental images, which are captured from two different 3D scenes, are alternately arranged on the display panel. The polarized parallax barrier is attached to the display panel and composed of two kinds of units that are also alternately arranged. The polarization directions between adjacent units are perpendicular...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469839/high-dynamic-range-3d-shape-measurement-based-on-the-intensity-response-function-of-a-camera
#20
Liang Zhang, Qian Chen, Chao Zuo, Shijie Feng
Fringe projection profilometry has been widely used in many fields for its advantages such as high speed, high accuracy, and robustness to environmental illumination and surface texture. However, it is vulnerable to high dynamic range (HDR) objects. To this end, we propose a technique that can enhance the dynamic range of the fringe projection profilometry system. According to the surface reflectivities of the measured objects, several groups of fringe patterns with optimal light intensities are generated based on the intensity response function of a camera...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
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