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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679721/effectiveness-evaluation-of-digital-virtual-simulation-application-in-teaching-of-gross-anatomy
#1
Xiaohua Deng, Guowei Zhou, Bing Xiao, Zirui Zhao, Yicheng He, Chujun Chen
INTRODUCTION: digital virtual simulation (DVS) is increasingly used to supplement the teaching of anatomy. DVS can provide the students with three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic images and precise structures in anatomy teaching. We investigated the effects of digital virtual simulation (DVS) application in gross anatomy teaching. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fourth-year medical students (n=120), majoring clinical medicine in 2013 grade from Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, were assigned into four classes...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679585/personalized-bioactive-nasal-supports-for-postoperative-cleft-rhinoplasty
#2
Christen J Boyer, Jennifer E Woerner, Christopher Galea, Corbin A Gatlin, Ghali E Ghali, David K Mills, Jeffery A Weisman, Jonathan S Alexander
PURPOSE: After cleft lip and palate surgical procedures, patients often need nostril supports to help the reconstructed nostrils retain their shape during healing. Many postoperative nasal stents use a one-size-fits-all approach, in which a standard rubber tube retainer is trimmed and used to support the healing nares. The purpose of this study was to examine photogrammetry and 3-dimensional (3D) printing as a fabrication tool for postoperative patient-specific nasal supports that can be loaded with bioactive agents for localized delivery...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679166/composite-resection-of-the-left-upper-lobe-and-superior-segment-s6-of-the-lower-lobe-for-lung-cancer-with-a-mediastinal-lingular-and-basal-pulmonary-artery
#3
Tomoyuki Nakano, Shigemi Ishikawa, Yasunori Sohara, Shunsuke Endo
BACKGROUND: Preoperative evaluation and awareness of anatomical variations in the pulmonary vessel is essential for a secure pulmonary resection. We herein present a patient who underwent complex pulmonary resection for lung cancer with a mediastinal lingular and basal pulmonary artery that had been detected by preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was an asymptomatic 66-year-old woman who had a 39-pack-year smoking habit...
April 20, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678623/differences-in-subchondral-bone-plate-and-cartilage-thickness-between-women-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstructions-and-uninjured-controls
#4
Jennifer L Bhatla, Andres Kroker, Sarah L Manske, Carolyn A Emery, Steven K Boyd
OBJECTIVE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears increase early onset osteoarthritis (OA) risk leading to cartilage and bone degradation. While the contribution of bone in OA development is unclear, evidence suggests that bone changes accompany cartilage degradation. This study aims to assess if regions with differences in subchondral bone plate thickness have differences in cartilage thickness when comparing ACL reconstructed (ACLR) knees of women ≥5 years post-injury to contralateral and controls with uninjured knees...
April 17, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678613/a-3d-printed-bilayer-oral-solid-dosage-form-combining-metformin-for-prolonged-and-glimepiride-for-immediate-drug-delivery
#5
Christos I Gioumouxouzis, Apostolos Baklavaridis, Orestis L Katsamenis, Catherine K Markopoulou, Nikolaos Bouropoulos, Dimitrios Tzetzis, Dimitrios G Fatouros
Fused Deposition Modelling (a.k.a. FDM-3D printing) has been previously employed in the development of personalized medicines with unique properties and release behavior. In the present work, a bilayer dosage form containing two anti-diabetic drugs with different daily dosage regimens; i.e. metformin and glimepiride, was manufactured via FDM 3D printing, studied using a variety of techniques and characterized in vitro. Metformin and glimepiride were embedded in Eudragit® RL sustained release layer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) layer respectively...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678154/genomic-regions-responsible-for-seminal-and-crown-root-lengths-identified-by-2d-3d-root-system-image-analysis
#6
Yusaku Uga, Ithipong Assaranurak, Yuka Kitomi, Brandon G Larson, Eric J Craft, Jon E Shaff, Susan R McCouch, Leon V Kochian
BACKGROUND: Genetic improvement of root system architecture is a promising approach for improved uptake of water and mineral nutrients distributed unevenly in the soil. To identify genomic regions associated with the length of different root types in rice, we quantified root system architecture in a set of 26 chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between lowland indica rice, IR64, and upland tropical japonica rice, Kinandang Patong, (IK-CSSLs), using 2D & 3D root phenotyping platforms...
April 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677356/volume-rendered-projection-resolved-oct-angiography-3d-lesion-complexity-is-associated-with-therapy-response-in-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
Peter L Nesper, Brian T Soetikno, Alison D Treister, Amani A Fawzi
Purpose: To explore whether quantitative three-dimensional (3D) analysis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography (PR-OCTA) is associated with treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 51 eyes of 49 patients undergoing individualized anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD. Patients were classified as "good" or "poor" responders, requiring injections at less or more frequently than 6-week intervals, respectively...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677337/determinants-of-neural-responses-to-disparity-in-natural-scenes
#8
Yiran Duan, Alexandra Yakovleva, Anthony M Norcia
We studied disparity-evoked responses in natural scenes using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in an event-related design. Thirty natural scenes that mainly included outdoor settings with trees and buildings were used. Twenty-four subjects viewed a series of trials composed of sequential two-alternative temporal forced-choice presentation of two different versions (two-dimensional [2D] vs. three-dimensional [3D]) of the same scene interleaved by a scrambled image with the same power spectrum. Scenes were viewed orthostereoscopically at 3 m through a pair of shutter glasses...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677217/optimisation-of-three-dimensional-lower-jaw-resection-margin-planning-using-a-novel-black-bone-magnetic-resonance-imaging-protocol
#9
Astrid M Hoving, Joep Kraeima, Rutger H Schepers, Hildebrand Dijkstra, Jan Hendrik Potze, Bart Dorgelo, Max J H Witjes
BACKGROUND: MRI is the optimal method for sensitive detection of tumour tissue and pre-operative staging in oral cancer. When jawbone resections are necessary, the current standard of care for oral tumour surgery in our hospital is 3D virtual planning from CT data. 3D printed jawbone cutting guides are designed from the CT data. The tumour margins are difficult to visualise on CT, whereas they are clearly visible on MRI scans. The aim of this study was to change the conventional CT-based workflow by developing a method for 3D MRI-based lower jaw models...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676978/diagnosis-of-pit-and-fissure-caries-using-three-dimensional-scanned-images
#10
J K Mitchell, A R Furness, R J Sword, S W Looney, W W Brackett, M G Brackett
Diagnosis of the extent of pit-and-fissure caries has been subjective and thus difficult to teach and categorize for treatment planning. This in vitro study compares occlusal caries diagnosis of extracted posterior teeth (n=49) using three-dimensional (3D) scanned images vs visual examination, according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The surfaces chosen for study represent all ICDAS classifications. Five experienced restorative faculty members examined scanned images for 60 seconds from a standardized series of views of each surface and scored them independently...
May 2018: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676240/motion-management-in-pet-ct-technological-solutions
#11
Elena De Ponti, Sabrina Morzenti, Cinzia Crivellaro, Federica Elisei, Andrea Crespi, Luca Guerra
BACKGROUND: Motion due to patient's breathing can introduce heavy bias in PET/CT, both in image quality and quantification. AIM: To review technical aspects of the main solutions available to manage movement in PET/CT studies. METHODS: The following tools were described: Respiratory Gated (RG), Motion Free (MF), End Expiration (EE), Banana Artefact Management (BAM) and Data Driven Gating (DDG). RESULTS: The most diffused solutions (RG, MF, EE) are based on LIST mode acquisition of a PET Field of View (4D FOV), centered on the anatomical region of interest; to link PET data not only to time and to spatial position but also to the corresponding breathing phase, the synchronized acquisition of the patient's breathing curve is performed by an external tracking device...
April 19, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676206/fabrication-of-vascularized-bone-flaps-with-sustained-release-of-rhbmp-2-and-arteriovenous-bundle
#12
Bo Li, Changshun Ruan, Yufei Ma, Zhifeng Huang, Zhenfei Huang, Gang Zhou, Jing Zhang, Hai Wang, Zhihong Wu, Guixing Qiu
INTRODUCTION: It is a common treatment strategy in the clinic to transplant a vascularized bone flap for a large bone defect. But it is difficult for peripheral blood vessels to grow into the central region of a large bone construct. In this study, we fabricated a vascularized bone flap from a 3D-printed biodegradable PLGA/β-TCP scaffold using the combination of an arteriovenous (AV) bundle and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A degradable porous poly (lactide-co-glycolide) /-tri-calcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) scaffold was prepared by adopting 3D plotting and a low-temperature deposition technique...
April 20, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675962/dual-wavelength-hybrid-optoacoustic-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-for-functional-imaging-of-large-scale-cerebral-vascular-networks
#13
Johannes Rebling, Héctor Estrada, Sven Gottschalk, Gali Sela, Michael Zwack, Georg Wissmeyer, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Daniel Razansky
A critical link exists between pathological changes of cerebral vasculature and diseases affecting brain function. Microscopic techniques have played an indispensable role in the study of neurovascular anatomy and functions. Yet, investigations are often hindered by sub-optimal trade-offs between the spatiotemporal resolution, field-of-view and type of contrast offered by the existing optical microscopy techniques. We present a hybrid dual-wavelength optoacoustic biomicroscope capable of rapid transcranial visualization of large-scale cerebral vascular networks...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675354/quantification-of-liver-iron-concentration-using-the-apparent-susceptibility-of-hepatic-vessels
#14
Saifeng Liu, Chaoyue Wang, Xiaoqi Zhang, Panli Zuo, Jiani Hu, E Mark Haacke, Hongyan Ni
Background: The quantification of liver iron concentration (LIC) is important for the monitoring of the body iron level in patients with iron overload. Conventionally, LIC is quantified through R2 or R2* mapping using MRI. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative approach for LIC quantification through measuring the apparent susceptibility of hepatic vessels using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Methods: QSM was performed in the liver region with the iterative susceptibility weighted imaging and mapping (iSWIM) algorithm, using the geometry of the vessels extracted from magnitude images as constraints...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675316/widefield-standing-wave-microscopy-of-red-blood-cell-membrane-morphology-with-high-temporal-resolution
#15
Peter W Tinning, Ross Scrimgeour, Gail McConnell
We report the first demonstration of widefield standing wave (SW) microscopy of fluorescently labelled red blood cells at high speeds that allow for the rapid imaging of membrane deformations. Using existing and custom MATLAB functions, we also present a method to generate 2D and 3D reconstructions of the SW data for improved visualization of the cell. We compare our technique with standard widefield epifluorescence imaging and show that the SW technique not only reveals more topographical information about the specimen but does so without increasing toxicity or the rate of photobleaching and could make this a powerful technique for the diagnosis or study of red blood cell morphology and biomechanical characteristics...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675307/image-restoration-approach-to-address-reduced-modulation-contrast-in-structured-illumination-microscopy
#16
Nurmohammed Patwary, Ana Doblas, Chrysanthe Preza
The performance of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is hampered in many biological applications due to the inability to modulate the light when imaging deep into the sample. This is in part because sample-induced aberration reduces the modulation contrast of the structured pattern. In this paper, we present an image restoration approach suitable for processing raw incoherent-grid-projection SIM data with a low fringe contrast. Restoration results from simulated and experimental ApoTome SIM data show results with improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and optical sectioning compared to the results obtained from existing methods, such as 2D demodulation and 3D SIM deconvolution...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675291/incorporating-reflection-boundary-conditions-in-the-neumann-series-radiative-transport-equation-application-to-photon-propagation-and-reconstruction-in-diffuse-optical-imaging
#17
Abhinav K Jha, Yansong Zhu, Simon Arridge, Dean F Wong, Arman Rahmim
We propose a formalism to incorporate boundary conditions in a Neumann-series-based radiative transport equation. The formalism accurately models the reflection of photons at the tissue-external medium interface using Fresnel's equations. The formalism was used to develop a gradient descent-based image reconstruction technique. The proposed methods were implemented for 3D diffuse optical imaging. In computational studies, it was observed that the average root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the output images and the estimated absorption coefficients reduced by 38% and 84%, respectively, when the reflection boundary conditions were incorporated...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674753/combining-fluorescence-imaging-with-hi-c-to-study-3d-genome-architecture-of-the-same-single-cell
#18
David Lando, Srinjan Basu, Tim J Stevens, Andy Riddell, Kai J Wohlfahrt, Yang Cao, Wayne Boucher, Martin Leeb, Liam P Atkinson, Steven F Lee, Brian Hendrich, Dave Klenerman, Ernest D Laue
Fluorescence imaging and chromosome conformation capture assays such as Hi-C are key tools for studying genome organization. However, traditionally, they have been carried out independently, making integration of the two types of data difficult to perform. By trapping individual cell nuclei inside a well of a 384-well glass-bottom plate with an agarose pad, we have established a protocol that allows both fluorescence imaging and Hi-C processing to be carried out on the same single cell. The protocol identifies 30,000-100,000 chromosome contacts per single haploid genome in parallel with fluorescence images...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674712/when-light-hurts-comparative-morphometry-of-human-brainstem-in-traumatic-photalgia
#19
Lora T Likova, Christopher W Tyler
Traumatic brain injury is an increasingly common affliction, although many of its serious repercussions are still underappreciated. A frequent consequence is the development of light-induced pain, or 'photalgia', which can often lead to prolonged debilitation. The mechanism underlying the sensitivity to light, however, remains unresolved. Since tissue oedema (swelling) is a common feature of traumatic brain injury, we propose that the brainstem oedema, in particular, might sensitize the brainstem trigeminal complex to signals from ocular mechanisms activated in bright light...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674416/altered-white-matter-microstructure-in-the-corpus-callosum-and-its-cerebral-interhemispheric-tracts-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analysis
#20
C Xue, L Shi, S C N Hui, D Wang, T P Lam, C-B Ip, B K W Ng, J C Y Cheng, W C W Chu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neural system was one of the important contributors to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; additionally, the morphology of corpus callosum interconnecting both hemispheres of the brain was found to be altered morphologically. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the microstructural changes of the corpus callosum and its interhemispheric white matter fiber tracts interconnecting both cerebral hemispheres in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging...
April 19, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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