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Bipolar, depression, epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933949/epigenetic-drugs-for-mood-disorders
#1
Jacob Peedicayil, Aniket Kumar
There is increasing evidence that changes in epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression are involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Such evidence stems from studies conducted on postmortem brain tissues and peripheral cells or tissues of patients with mood disorders. This article describes and discusses the epigenetic changes in the mood disorders (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) found to date. The article also describes and discusses preclinical drug trials of epigenetic drugs for treating mood disorders...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926532/multigenerational-transmission-of-liability-to-psychiatric-illness-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder
#2
Robert M Post, Lori L Altshuler, Ralph Kupka, Susan L McElroy, Mark A Frye, Michael Rowe, Heinz Grunze, Trisha Suppes, Paul E Keck, Gabriele S Leverich, Willem A Nolen
INTRODUCTION: Instead of the typical assessment of risk of illness in the offspring based on a parent with bipolar disorder, we explored the potential multigenerational conveyance across several disorders of the vulnerability to illness in the offspring of a patient with bipolar disorder. METHODS: A total of 968 outpatients (average age 41 years) with bipolar illness gave informed consent and filled out a detailed questionnaire about a family history in their parents, grandparents, and offspring of: depression; bipolar disorder; alcohol abuse; substance abuse; suicide attempt; or "other" illness...
June 21, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898284/a-within-subject-consideration-of-the-psychotic-spectrum-disorder-concept-in-a-patient-in-remission-associated-with-cortical-gray-matter-recovery
#3
Herbert Y Meltzer, Min Young Sim, Adam Anderson, Christopher Cannistraci, Karu Jayathilake, Daniel Barrett Share, Myung Lee
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic spectrum disorder (PSD) links the syndromes of bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, and schizophrenia, often viewed as unique disorders. AIMS: Application of the PSD concept to a single patient rather than across groups of patients and demonstration of a remarkable remission of schizophrenia phenotype with recovery of gray matter in specific brain regions. RESULTS: We report a woman who experienced discrete, nonoverlapping periods of each of the above syndromes, in the order noted, over a 30-year period, followed by abrupt ending of psychosis and full remission lasting at least 7 years...
July 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707086/epigenetics-of-metabolic-syndrome-as-a-mood-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Sermin Kesebir
Mood disorders comprise major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and the milder forms of these two disorders. Reccurring MDD is also known as unipolar disorder. The distinction between unipolar and bipolar disorders was first suggested in 1957 by Leonard and was made official after support by several studies in 1980. Indeed, in 150 AD, Aretaeus of Cappadocia wrote "It seems to me that melancholia is the beginning and a part of mania". Additionally, Kraepelin, who proposed the first medical disease model in psychiatry a century ago, considered recurrent unipolar depression cases under the category of bipolar disorder and conceptualized spectrum disorders...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573791/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-underpinning-gene-by-environment-interactions-in-psychiatric-disorders-the-fkbp5-model
#5
REVIEW
Natalie Matosin, Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Elisabeth B Binder
Epidemiologic and genetic studies suggest common environmental and genetic risk factors for a number of psychiatric disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Genetic and environmental factors, especially adverse life events, not only have main effects on disease development but also may interact to shape risk and resilience. Such gene by adversity interactions have been described for FKBP5, an endogenous regulator of the stress-neuroendocrine system, conferring risk for a number of psychiatric disorders...
May 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017764/dna-methylation-and-antipsychotic-treatment-mechanisms-in-schizophrenia-progress-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Ellen S Ovenden, Nathaniel W McGregor, Robin A Emsley, Louise Warnich
Antipsychotic response in schizophrenia is a complex, multifactorial trait influenced by pharmacogenetic factors. With genetic studies thus far providing little biological insight or clinical utility, the field of pharmacoepigenomics has emerged to tackle the so-called "missing heritability" of drug response in disease. Research on psychiatric disorders has only recently started to assess the link between epigenetic alterations and treatment outcomes. DNA methylation, the best characterised epigenetic mechanism to date, is discussed here in the context of schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment outcomes...
October 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942748/nutritional-psychiatry-the-present-state-of-the-evidence
#7
Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886448/exploring-hepsin-functional-genetic-variation-association-with-disease-specific-protein-expression-in-bipolar-disorder-applications-of-a-proteomic-informed-genomic-approach
#8
Malik Nassan, Yun-Fang Jia, Greg Jenkins, Colin Colby, Scott Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, Marin Veldic, Susan L McElroy, David J Bond, Richard Weinshilboum, Joanna M Biernacka, Mark A Frye
In a prior discovery study, increased levels of serum Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15), Hepsin (HPN), and Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) were observed in bipolar depressed patients vs controls. This exploratory post-hoc analysis applied a proteomic-informed genomic research strategy to study the potential functional role of these proteins in bipolar disorder (BP). Utilizing the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database to identify cis-acting blood expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs), five eQTL variants from the HPN gene were analyzed for association with BP cases using genotype data of cases from the discovery study (n = 58) versus healthy controls (n = 777)...
December 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754344/the-effect-of-childhood-trauma-on-serum-bdnf-in-bipolar-depression-is-modulated-by-the-serotonin-promoter-genotype
#9
Francesco Benedetti, Oliver Ambrée, Clara Locatelli, Cristina Lorenzi, Sara Poletti, Cristina Colombo, Volker Arolt
In healthy humans, both childhood trauma and the short form of the serotonin promoter transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) are associated with lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In subjects with bipolar disorder (BD), lower levels of BDNF and a higher degree of childhood trauma were observed compared with healthy controls. However, is still unknown if the functional 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms exerts an effect on both abnormalities. In 40 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in the course of BD, we genotyped 5-HTTLPR, measured serum BDNF with ELISA, and assessed early adversities by the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ)...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649671/early-life-stress-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#11
Shariful A Syed, Charles B Nemeroff
Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective...
February 2017: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557385/-telomere-telomerase-system-in-aging-norm-and-pathology-literature-review
#12
K I Pavlov, V N Mukhin, V M Klimenko, V N Anisimov
This literature review presents results of research showing association between functional activity of the telomere-telomerase system and mental cognitive and emotional processes in normal and various pathological states: chronic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging. It also refers to age-specific, psycho-social, economic, immunological, genetic and epigenetic factors that influence these relationships.
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845777/newer-insights-into-the-role-of-mirna-a-tiny-genetic-tool-in-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
REVIEW
V V Giridharan, R A Thandavarayan, G R Fries, C Walss-Bass, T Barichello, N J Justice, M K Reddy, J Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder occurring in about 2-9% of individuals after their exposure to life-threatening events, such as severe accidents, sexual abuse, combat or a natural catastrophe. Because PTSD patients are exposed to trauma, it is likely that epigenetic modifications have an important role in disease development and prognosis. For the past two decades, abnormal expression of the epigenetic regulators microRNAs (miRs) and miR-mediated gene regulation have been given importance in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and viral infection...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774781/fetal-programming-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770494/paternal-age-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748930/mirnas-and-their-role-in-the-correlation-between-schizophrenia-and-cancer-review
#16
REVIEW
E Rizos, N Siafakas, E Skourti, C Papageorgiou, J Tsoporis, T H Parker, D I Christodoulou, D A Spandidos, E Katsantoni, V Zoumpourlis
Schizophrenia (SZ) and cancer (Ca) have a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and a complex biological background, implicating a large number of genetic and epigenetic factors. SZ is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder signified by an increase in the expression of apoptotic molecular signals, whereas Ca is conversely characterized by an increase in appropriate molecular signaling that stimulates uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rather low risk of developing Ca in patients suffering from SZ is a hypothesis that is still under debate...
December 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746310/personalized-medicine-prediction-of-disease-vulnerability-in-mood-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Charles B Nemeroff
Personalized or precision medicine is a medical discipline that proposes tailoring health care to each individual by integrating data from their genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms and environmental exposures. Currently, patients typically present for treatment of mood disorders relatively late in the disease course and this is of great concern both because delay in attaining remission reduces the success of subsequent treatment and depressive episodes have negative cumulative effects on the brain and body...
March 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623124/-olfaction-in-depressive-disorders-issues-and-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
G Brand, B Schaal
Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear...
April 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594595/s-adenosyl-methionine-in-the-therapy-of-depression-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Nataša Karas Kuželički
Preclinical Research S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is a major methyl donor and as such exerts its influence on CNS function through methylation reactions, such as methylation of several catecholamine moiety-containing neurotransmitters, epigenetic changes through methylation of DNA, RNA, RNA-binding proteins and histones, and phospholipid methylation. Based on available evidence, SAM is currently recommended as a next-step (second-line) treatment option following inadequate treatment response to a first-line antidepressant...
November 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594444/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-psychiatric-diseases-and-epigenetic-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Seher Karsli-Ceppioglu
Preclinical Research Epigenetic mechanisms refer covalent modification of DNA and histone proteins that control transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic regulation is involved in the development of the nervous system and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Epigenetic drugs, including histone deacetylation and DNA methylation inhibitors have received increased attention for the management of psychiatric diseases...
November 2016: Drug Development Research
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