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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449528/the-link-between-tuberculosis-and-body-mass-index
#1
EDITORIAL
Aaron R Casha, Marco Scarci
The evidence behind the strong correlation between reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) and low body mass index (BMI) was reviewed. This strong association between TB and BMI occurred only with pulmonary TB and not extra-pulmonary TB, indicating that a low-BMI body build may in some way predispose to TB reactivation in the lungs. A possible explanation may be the congenital apical lung bullae that occur in 15% of the population and are likely to enlarge in young low-BMI males since biomechanical modeling of pleural stress has shown a massive 40x increase in apical pleural stress in low antero-posterior (AP) diameter chests associated with a low-BMI build...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447326/ct-colonography-role-in-fobt-based-screening-programs-for-colorectal-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Lapo Sali, Grazia Grazzini, Mario Mascalchi
Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive imaging examination for the colon, and is safe, well tolerated and accurate for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenoma. While the role of CTC as a primary test for population screening of CRC is under investigation, the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) has been recommended for population screening of CRC in Europe. Subjects with positive FOBT are invited to undergo total colonoscopy, which has some critical issues, such as suboptimal compliance, contraindications and the possibility of an incomplete exploration of the colon...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446971/navigation-bronchoscopy-for-diagnosis-and-small-nodule-location
#3
REVIEW
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Virginia R Litle, Hiran C Fernando
Lung cancer continues to be the most common cause of cancer death. Screening programs for high risk patients with the use of low-dose computed tomography (CT) has led to the identification of small lung lesions that were difficult to identify using previous imaging modalities. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) is a novel technique that has shown to be of great utility during the evaluation of small, peripheral lesions, that would otherwise be challenging to evaluate with conventional bronchoscopy...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439653/malignancy-estimation-of-lung-rads-criteria-for-subsolid-nodules-on-ct-accuracy-of-low-and-high-risk-spectrum-when-using-nlst-nodules
#4
Kaman Chung, Colin Jacobs, Ernst T Scholten, Onno M Mets, Irma Dekker, Mathias Prokop, Bram van Ginneken, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop
PURPOSE: Lung-RADS proposes malignancy probabilities for categories 2 (<1%) and 4B (>15%). The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare malignancy rates for Lung-RADS 2 and 4B subsolid nodules (SSNs) on a nodule base. METHODS: We identified all baseline SSNs eligible for Lung-RADS 2 and 4B in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) database. Solid cores and nodule locations were annotated using in-house software. Malignant SSNs were identified by an experienced radiologist using NLST information...
April 24, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437443/relative-predictive-value-of-lung-cancer-screening-ct-versus-myocardial-perfusion-attenuation-correction-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-coronary-calcium
#5
Grant Bailey, Abigail Healy, Bryan D Young, Esseim Sharma, Judith Meadows, Hyung J Chun, Wen-Chih Wu, Gaurav Choudhary, Alan R Morrison
Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) from lung cancer screening computed tomography (LCSCT) or myocardial perfusion attenuation correction computed tomography (ACCT) are not routinely performed or reported. CACS from LCSCT and ACCT have not been directly compared in the same patient population. We identified 66 patients who underwent both LCSCT (non-gated) and ECG-gated cardiac CT (CCT) within a 2-year span. Of this population, 40 subjects had also undergone ACCT. Using the Agatston method, CACS for 264 individual vessels from the LCSCT population and for 160 vessels from ACCT population were calculated and evaluated for agreement with ECG-gated CCT as the gold standard...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431773/atypical-moyamoya-syndrome-with-brain-calcification-and-stenosis-of-abdominal-aorta-and-renal-arteries
#6
Hideki Uchikawa, Katsunori Fujii, Mayuko Fujita, Tomoko Okunushi, Naoki Shimojo
Moyamoya syndrome is a progressive cerebrovascular disease that is characterized by stenosis of the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and its main branches, in combination with an accompanying disease. We herein describe an 8-year-old boy exhibiting transient loss of consciousness, who had recurrent seizures in infancy with progressive brain calcification. On admission, he was alert but magnetic resonance angiography showed bilateral stenosis of the whole internal carotid artery and proliferation of vascular collaterals, and brain CT revealed calcification on bilateral putamen...
April 18, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429205/comparison-of-digital-tomosynthesis-and-computed-tomography-for-lung-nodule-detection-in-sos-screening-program
#7
Maurizio Grosso, Roberto Priotto, Donatella Ghirardo, Alberto Talenti, Emanuele Roberto, Luca Bertolaccini, Alberto Terzi, Stéphane Chauvie
PURPOSE: To compare the lung nodules' detection of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and computed tomography (CT) in the context of the SOS (Studio OSservazionale) prospective screening program for lung cancer detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two of the 1843 subjects enrolled in the SOS study underwent CT because non-calcified nodules with diameters larger than 5 mm and/or multiple nodules were present in DTS. Two expert radiologists reviewed the exams classifying the nodules based on their radiological appearance and their dimension...
April 20, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428714/predictors-for-difficult-cecal-insertion-in-colonoscopy-the-impact-of-obesity-indices
#8
Soo Yun Moon, Byung Chang Kim, Dae Kyung Sohn, Kyung Su Han, Bun Kim, Chang Won Hong, Bum Joon Park, Kum Hei Ryu, Ji Hyung Nam
AIM: To identify the factors influencing cecal insertion time (CIT) and to evaluate the effect of obesity indices on CIT. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data for participants who received both colonoscopy and abdominal computed tomography (CT) from February 2008 to May 2008 as part of a comprehensive health screening program. Age, gender, obesity indices [body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume on abdominal CT], history of prior abdominal surgery, constipation, experience of the colonoscopist, quality of bowel preparation, diverticulosis and time required to reach the cecum were analyzed...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428081/intraoperative-image-guidance-compared-with-free-hand-methods-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-posterior-spinal-surgery-a-systematic-review-on-screw-related-complications-and-breach-rates
#9
Andrew Chan, Eric Parent, Karl Narvacan, Cindy San, Edmond Lou
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a 3D spinal deformity requiring surgery to stop curve progression. Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion with pedicle screws is the standard surgery for AIS curve correction. Vascular and neurologic complications related to screw-malpositioning are concerns in surgeries for AIS. Breach rates are reported at 15.7%, implant-related complications at 1.1% and neurologic deficit at 0.8%. Free-hand screw insertion remains the prevailing method of screw placement while image guidance has been suggested to improve placement accuracy...
April 17, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425774/profile-of-the-triplex-assay-for-detection-of-chlamydia-gonorrhea-and-trichomonas-using-the-bd-max%C3%A2-system
#10
Barbara Van Der Pol
Chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomonas are the most common curable STI. Improved access to testing could reduce infection rates and prevent sequelae. Nucleic acid amplification tests are the recommend class of diagnostic assay for these infections which are often asymptomatic. Areas Covered: A description of the BD MAX™ System (MAX) and the BD MAX CT/GC/TV assay is provided along with data from a large US clinical trial. The capacity of the system for other tests and for lab developed assays is also described...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424364/time-to-take-ct-screening-to-the-next-level
#11
EDITORIAL
Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Claus Peter Heussel, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424361/computed-tomographic-findings-in-subjects-who-died-from-respiratory-disease-in-the-national-lung-screening-trial
#12
Esther Pompe, Pim A de Jong, David A Lynch, Nikolas Lessmann, Ivana Išgum, Bram van Ginneken, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Firdaus A A Mohamed Hoesein
We evaluated the prevalence of significant lung abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) in patients who died from a respiratory illness other than lung cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST).In this retrospective case-control study, NLST participants in the CT arm who died of respiratory illness other than lung cancer were matched for age, sex, pack-years and smoking status to a surviving control. A chest radiologist and a radiology resident blinded to the outcome independently scored baseline CT scans visually and qualitatively for the presence of emphysema, airway wall thickening and fibrotic lung disease...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422152/towards-automatic-pulmonary-nodule-management-in-lung-cancer-screening-with-deep-learning
#13
Francesco Ciompi, Kaman Chung, Sarah J van Riel, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso Setio, Paul K Gerke, Colin Jacobs, Ernst Th Scholten, Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop, Mathilde M W Wille, Alfonso Marchianò, Ugo Pastorino, Mathias Prokop, Bram van Ginneken
The introduction of lung cancer screening programs will produce an unprecedented amount of chest CT scans in the near future, which radiologists will have to read in order to decide on a patient follow-up strategy. According to the current guidelines, the workup of screen-detected nodules strongly relies on nodule size and nodule type. In this paper, we present a deep learning system based on multi-stream multi-scale convolutional networks, which automatically classifies all nodule types relevant for nodule workup...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421812/the-frequency-of-incidental-findings-and-subsequent-evaluation-in-low-dose-ct-scans-for-lung-cancer-screening
#14
Lillie Morgan, Humberto Choi, Michal Reid, Ali Khawaja, Peter J Mazzone
RATIONALE: The USPSTF recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose chest CT scans (LDCT) for a well-defined high-risk population. Data on the frequency and impact of incidental findings on LDCT scans performed within a centralized lung cancer screening program has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported IFs in the setting of clinical trials. We present our findings in a real clinical setting where the decision to manage these findings may depend on factors that are not captured in a research trial such as disclosing IFs, patient preferences, severity of comorbidities, and physician expertise...
April 19, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419040/measurement-of-distal-ulnar-hounsfield-units-accurately-predicts-bone-mineral-density-of-the-forearm
#15
Scott C Wagner, Theodora C Dworak, Patrick D Grimm, George C Balazs, Scott M Tintle
BACKGROUND: Hounsfield unit (HU) measurement obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of the wrist is a potential new screening method for low bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized that HU measurements of the ulnar head obtained from CT scans would correlate with BMD assessed with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the forearm. METHODS: Patients with both upper-extremity CT and DXA scans performed at a single institution were included in the study...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418451/cost-effectiveness-of-common-diagnostic-approaches-for-evaluation-of-asymptomatic-microscopic-hematuria
#16
Joshua A Halpern, Bilal Chughtai, Hassan Ghomrawi
Importance: Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH) is highly prevalent and may signal occult genitourinary (GU) malignant abnormality. Common diagnostic approaches differ in their costs and effectiveness in detecting cancer. Given the low prevalence of GU malignant abnormality among patients with AMH, it is important to quantify the cost implications of detecting cancer for each approach. Objective: To estimate the effectiveness, costs, and incremental cost per cancer detected (ICCD) for 4 common diagnostic approaches evaluating AMH...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418099/influence-of-divalent-counterions-on-the-dynamics-in-dna-probed-by-a-minor-groove-binder
#17
Sneha Paul, Tasnim Ahmed, Anunay Samanta
Dynamics in DNA to which water, counterions and DNA motions contribute is a topic of considerable interest as it is closely related to the efficiency of biological functions performed by it. Simulation studies and experiments suggest that counterion dynamics in DNA probed by a minor groove binder is similar for various monovalent counterions. As the influence of higher valent counterions, which are also present around DNA and known to bind more strongly to it compared to the monovalent ions, on the dynamics in DNA has not been studied so far, we investigate in this work the dynamics in presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+, chosen for their relative abundance in the cell, using 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), a minor groove-binder, as fluorescence probe...
April 18, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416969/repeatability-and-agreement-of-ultrasonography-with-computed-tomography-for-evaluating-forefoot-structure-in-the-coronal-plane
#18
Keisuke Matsubara, Tomofumi Matsushita, Yuto Tashiro, Seishiro Tasaka, Takuya Sonoda, Yasuaki Nakayama, Yuki Yokota, Yusuke Suzuki, Mirei Kawagoe, Tomoki Aoyama
BACKGROUND: Forefoot structure is important to understand some foot problems such as hallux valgus and metatarsalgia. Ultrasonography (US) is a highly portable, noninvasive, low cost, and fast imaging method, especially when compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radiography. As the use of US for evaluating forefoot bony structure has not been validated, except for the presence of synovitis, erosions and bursitis within the forefoot in people with inflammatory arthritis, the purpose of this study was to determine whether US is a reliable method for evaluating forefoot structure...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415730/a-polymorphism-at-igf1-locus-is-associated-with-anemia
#19
Maria Adelaide Marini, Gaia Chiara Mannino, Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Francesco Andreozzi, Francesco Perticone, Giorgio Sesti
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that IGF-1 has a role in erythropoiesis. There is evidence that the rs35767 C/T polymorphism near IGF1 is associated with plasma IGF-1 levels. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and anemia. The study group comprised 3286 adult Whites. The rs35767 polymorphism was screened using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The rs35767 polymorphism was not associated with age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, smoking, blood pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1c, type 2 diabetes, HOMA-IR, hsCRP, eGFR, and lipid profile...
March 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413202/conventional-versus-molecular-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-among-males-in-a-sexually-transmitted-infections-clinic
#20
S F Situ, C H Ding, S Nawi, A Johar, R Ramli
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are important bacterial pathogens of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. This study sought to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of conventional methods against a rapid molecular method in detecting STIs caused by these bacteria. METHODS: Ninety five first-time male attendees of the Genito-urinary Medicine Clinic in Hospital Kuala Lumpur were included in this cross-sectional study...
April 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
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