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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608680/extended-versus-bolus-infusion-of-broad-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-for-febrile-neutropenia-an-unblinded-randomized-trial
#1
Ron Ram, Yael Halavy, Odelia Amit, Yael Paran, Eugene Katchman, Bruria Yachini, Svetlana Kor, Irit Avivi, Ronen Ben-Ami
Background: Febrile neutropenia may be a sign of severe infection, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies. Extended infusion of β-lactam antibiotics is associated with greater clinical response than is bolus infusion in non-neutropenic critically ill patients, but data are lacking for febrile neutropenic patients. Methods: We designed a single-center, non-blinded randomized trial comparing extended infusion (4 hours) and bolus infusion (30 minutes) of piperacillin-tazobactam or ceftazidime in high-risk patients with febrile neutropenia...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564363/acute-epiglottitis-in-the-immunocompromised-host-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Cheng Chen, Mukil Natarajan, David Bianchi, Georg Aue, John H Powers
We present a case of acute epiglottitis in a 16-year-old with severe aplastic anemia. He was admitted with a history suggestive of a severe upper airway infection and an absolute neutrophil count of 0 per cubic millimeter. Despite his immunocompromised state, he presented with the classical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis. We review here the presentation and comorbidities of immunocompromised patients with epiglottitis. In addition, the appropriate choice of empirical antibiotic therapy is important for the management of epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients, especially in the post- Haemophilus influenza type B vaccination era...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533955/humanized-exposures-of-a-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-tazobactam-versus-non-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-avibactam-with-or-without-colistin-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-murine-thigh-and-lung-infection-models
#3
Marguerite L Monogue, George Sakoulas, Victor Nizet, David P Nicolau
β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). Colistin retains the highest susceptibility rate against A. baumannii, and has demonstrated synergy with other antimicrobials, including β-lactam-BLIs. Therefore, we assessed the potential individual activity and synergistic combinations in vivo against carbapenem-susceptible (CS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii isolates in neutropenic thigh and lung infection models...
March 13, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514208/fitness-cost-of-mcr-1-mediated-polymyxin-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#4
Sue C Nang, Faye C Morris, Michael J McDonald, Mei-Ling Han, Jiping Wang, Richard A Strugnell, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
Objectives: The discovery of mobile colistin resistance mcr-1, a plasmid-borne polymyxin resistance gene, highlights the potential for widespread resistance to the last-line polymyxins. In the present study, we investigated the impact of mcr-1 acquisition on polymyxin resistance and biological fitness in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: K. pneumoniae B5055 was used as the parental strain for the construction of strains carrying vector only (pBBR1MCS-5) and mcr-1 recombinant plasmids (pmcr-1)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501820/identification-and-bio-evaluation-of-sri-12742-as-a-antimicrobial-agent-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#5
Manjulika Shukla, Isha Soni, Karen Matsuyama, Tran Tran, Mary Tanga, Leyi Gong, Sidharth Chopra
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is one of the most significant nosocomial pathogens, that is increasingly being isolated in healthcare settings worldwide. Owing to its inherent drug-resistant nature, coupled with its ability to readily acquire resistance to other antibiotic classes, there is a real dearth of antibiotics available to treat infections with MDR-AB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercially available library was screened against MDR-AB BAA-1605 to identify novel inhibitory molecules...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456976/respiratory-viruses-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-respiratory-symptoms
#6
Mohsen Meidani, Seyed Alireza Mirmohammad Sadeghi
Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h), upper and lower respiratory symptoms...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451055/early-discontinuation-of-empirical-antibacterial-therapy-in-febrile-neutropenia-the-antibiostop-study
#7
Lenaïg Le Clech, Jean-Philippe Talarmin, Marie-Anne Couturier, Jean-Christophe Ianotto, Christophe Nicol, Ronan Le Calloch, Stéphanie Dos Santos, Pascal Hutin, Didier Tandé, Virginie Cogulet, Christian Berthou, Gaëlle Guillerm
INTRODUCTION: Immediate empirical antibiotic therapy is mandatory in febrile chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, but its optimal duration is unclear, especially in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this 20-month prospective observational study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of short-term antibiotic treatment in afebrile or febrile patients exhibiting FUO, irrespective of their neutrophil count. The secondary objective was to describe the epidemiology of all episodes of febrile neutropenia...
February 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448851/salvage-tigecycline-in-high-risk-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#8
Xin-Ping Zhou, Xiu-Jin Ye, Jian-Ping Shen, Jian-Ping Lan, Hui-Fang Jiang, Jin Zhang, Xue-Jin Zhang, Li Li, Shen-Xian Qian, Hong-Yan Tong
The purpose of this prospective, multi-center study was to examine the efficacy and safety of tigecycline as empirical treatment in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies who failed to respond to first-line antibiotics. A total of 125 patients with persistent fever (>72 h) despite first-line antibiotics received empirical treatment with tigecycline (loading dose of 100 mg, followed by 50 mg every 12 h). The use of other antimicrobial agents was not restricted. Treatment success rate was 68...
February 16, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374371/rethinking-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-the-transplant-patient-in-the-world-of-emerging-resistant-organisms-where-are-we-today
#9
REVIEW
Lucy E Horton, Nina M Haste, Randy A Taplitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of prophylactic antibiotics during the neutropenic period in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the standard of care at most institutions for the past 20 years. We sought to review the benefits and risks of this practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data has highlighted the potential costs of antibacterial prophylaxis, from selecting for antibiotic resistance to perturbing the microbiome and contributing to increase risk for Clostridium difficile and perhaps graft-versus-host-disease, conditions which may lead to poorer outcomes...
February 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324209/using-process-improvement-tools-to-improve-the-care-of-patients-with-neutropenic-fever-in-the-emergency-room
#10
Avantika Dang, Lauren N Gjolaj, Myka Whitman, Gustavo Fernandez
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to improve the care of patients with neutropenic fever in an academic acute care hospital's emergency room (ER). METHODS: Using the define, measure, analyze, improve, control method, a two-phase project with three critical to quality metrics (reduction in time to antibiotic administration, increase in percentage of patients with neutropenic fever identified as an oncology emergency, and increase in patients cohorted on oncology units) was completed...
January 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314297/wound-infection-after-inpatient-pediatric-skin-biopsy
#11
Hannah Song, Arash Mostaghimi, Jennifer T Huang
Punch and shave biopsies are important dermatologic procedures in the inpatient setting but have a risk of wound infection. Data on the incidence of infection in this setting are limited and conflicting. This retrospective study of 127 pediatric inpatients at two tertiary care centers who underwent biopsy demonstrated a low overall risk of infection (n = 1, 0.8%). Twenty-five (19.7%) were neutropenic, and 51 (40.2%) were not taking systemic antibiotics at the time of biopsy; none of these patients developed a wound infection...
March 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310512/moxifloxacin-versus-levofloxacin-for-antibacterial-prophylaxis-in-acute-leukemia-patients
#12
Pauline Lee, Randall W Knoebel, Jennifer Pisano, Natasha N Pettit
Objective The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the incidence of febrile neutropenia among patients receiving either moxifloxacin or levofloxacin for antibacterial prophylaxis. Secondary endpoints were number of documented infections and in-hospital mortality in patients who develop febrile neutropenia. Methods A single-center retrospective cohort analysis at a large tertiary care academic medical center was conducted. This study included adult acute leukemia patients (age ≥18 years old) who received inpatient antibacterial prophylaxis (moxifloxacin or levofloxacin) from 1 July 2012 to 1 October 2014...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290230/antimicrobial-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#13
R Cohen, J Raymond, E Launay, Y Gillet, P Minodier, F Dubos, E Grimprel
Urinary tract infections are the most frequent documented bacterial infections in children. The antibiotic choices proposed in this manuscript are based on the guidelines published by the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the French-Language Infectious Disease Society (SPILF). Dipstick positive for leukocytes and/or nitrites must precede in most circumstances (excluding the newborns, neutropenic patients and those with sepsis), urine culture and antibiotic prescription. The proportion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli strains has increased steadily in recent years, and the situations in which oral antibiotic switch is frequently not available are increasing...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286572/predicting-bacterial-infections-among-pediatric-cancer-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia-external-validation-of-the-picnicc-model
#14
Rohit P Ojha, Peter H Asdahl, Ewout W Steyerberg, Henrik Schroeder
INTRODUCTION: The Predicting Infectious Complications in Neutropenic Children and Young People with Cancer (PICNICC) model was recently developed for antibiotic stewardship among pediatric cancer patients, but limited information is available about its clinical usefulness. We aimed to assess the performance of the PICNICC model for predicting microbiologically documented bacterial infections among pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data for febrile neutropenia episodes at a pediatric cancer center in Aarhus, Denmark between 2000 and 2016...
April 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227565/limited-utility-of-routine-chest-x-ray-in-initial-evaluation-of-neutropenic-fever-in-patients-with-haematological-diseases-undergoing-chemotherapy
#15
Ortis Estacio, Zoe Loh, Amy Baker, Geoff Chong, Andrew Grigg, Leonid Churilov, Eliza A Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Routine chest X-Ray (CXR) is recommended for neutropenic fever(NF) management however its role is relatively understudied in haematology patients. METHODS: Retrospective, single-centre analysis of haematology patients admitted with NF between January 2011-December 2015. Baseline demographics, treatment details and outcomes were collected from electronic patient records. CXRs underwent independent radiology review. Primary endpoints were proportion of NF episodes in which CXR detected a probable chest infection in the absence of respiratory symptoms/signs, and/or resulted in a change in antibiotic management...
December 11, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224317/-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-of-pathogenic-bacteria-distribution-and-drug-resistance-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-hematological-diseases-in-shanghai
#16
J Zhu, J Hu, Y F Mao, F Y Chen, J Y Zhu, J M Shi, D D Yu, S G Hao, R Tao, P Liu, S Y Gu, J Hou, H Y He, A B Liang, Y Ding, L G Liu, Y H Xie, Q Zhu, Y H Yu, Y H Yao, W Chen, H L Xu, X H Han, C Wang
Objective: To investigate the pathogen spectrum distribution and drug resistance of febrile neutropenic patients with hematological diseases in Shanghai. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the clinical isolates from the febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in the departments of hematology in 12 general hospitals in Shanghai from January 2012 to December 2014. The drug susceptibility test was carried out by Kirby-Bauer method. WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze pathogenic bacteria and drug susceptibility data...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212978/-acute-myeloid-leukemia-complicated-by-pneumonia-and-vertebral-osteomyelitis-during-induction-chemotherapy
#17
Yuki Kamata, Yuki Fujiwara, Kentaro Mizuhara, Naoya Mochizuki, Shiro Kubonishi, Yasushi Hiramatsu
A 76-year-old woman was operated on for rectal cancer in 2011 without chemotherapy and was followed up in the outpatient department. Decrease in white blood cell count was observed from 2013, and she developed anemia in 2015. Bone marrow aspiration was performed, and she was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML/MRC). First, remission induction therapy was initiated with idarubicin and cytarabine administration, but pneumonia and vertebral osteomyelitis developed during the neutropenic period...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205493/impact-of-pretreatment-neutrophil-count-on-chemotherapy-administration-and-toxicity-in-dogs-with-lymphoma-treated-with-chop-chemotherapy
#18
Q Fournier, J-C Serra, I Handel, J Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Prechemotherapy absolute neutrophil count (ANC) cutoffs are arbitrary and vary across institutions and clinicians. Similarly, subjective guidelines are utilized for the administration of prophylactic antibiotics in neutropenic dogs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of various ANC cutoffs on chemotherapy administration in dogs with lymphoma treated with CHOP chemotherapy and to determine whether an association between prechemotherapy ANC and subsequent toxicity exists...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205079/combination-antibiotic-therapy-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-the-question-still-remains
#19
Kate L McCarthy, Jacob D Cherian, Minyon L Avent, David L Paterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173155/imaging-of-bacteria-is-there-any-hope-for-the-future-based-on-past-experience
#20
Thomas Ebenhan, Elena Lazzeri, Olivier Gheysens
Infectious diseases remain a major health problem and cause of death worldwide. It is expected that the socio-economic impact will further intensify due to escalating resistance to antibiotics, an ageing population and an increase in the number of patients under immunosuppressive therapy and implanted medical devices. Even though radiolabeled probes and leukocytes are routinely used in clinical practice, it might still be difficult to distinguish sterile inflammation from inflammation caused by bacteria. Moreover, the majority of these probes are based on the attraction of leukocytes which may be hampered in neutropenic patients...
November 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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