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antibiotic neutropenic

Christopher A Benner, Erika Mora, Emily Mueller, F Jacob Seagull, Kelly Walkovich, Kaleena Johnson, Schuyler Halverson, Ed Rothman, George Hucks, John G Younger, Michele M Nypaver
OBJECTIVES: Febrile neutropenic pediatric patients are at heightened risk for serious bacterial infections, and rapid antibiotic administration (in <60 minutes) improves survival. Our objectives were to reduce the time-to-antibiotic (TTA) administration and to evaluate the effect of overall emergency department (ED) busyness on TTA. METHODS: This study was a quality improvement initiative with retrospective chart review to reduce TTA in febrile children with underlying diagnosis of cancer or hematologic immunodeficiency who visited the pediatric ED...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Beejal R Ganti, Bernard L Marini, Jerod Nagel, Dale Bixby, Anthony J Perissinotti
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the impact of antibacterial prophylaxis with levofloxacin in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study. Adult patients with relapsed/refractory AML admitted for reinduction chemotherapy between November 1, 2006 and June 15, 2015 were screened for inclusion. A protocol initiating levofloxacin prophylaxis was implemented on December 1, 2013. Patients receiving hypomethylating agents (decitabine/azacitidine) were not administered antibacterial prophylaxis and thus not included in this analysis...
October 14, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Alberto A Carena, Laura Jorge, Pablo Bonvehí, Elena Temporiti, Mariela S Zárate, Fabián Herrera
Fluorquinolone-prophylaxis has proven useful in preventing infections in high risk neutropenic patients. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, and outcome of patients in the first episode of febrile neutropenia, comparing those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis with those who didn't. It was a prospective observational study that included all the episodes of inpatients with febrile neutropenia (February 1997- November 2014), also including the first episode in a same patient in different hospitalizations...
2016: Medicina
Jina Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
K Govind Babu, D Lokanatha, K C Lakshmaiah, M C Suresh Babu, Linu A Jacob, Gita R Bhat, Harsha Vardhana, Mahua Sinha, B R Vijaykumar, B G Sumati, R S Jayshree
INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is an oncological emergency. The choice of empiric therapy depends on the locally prevalent pathogens and their sensitivities, the sites of infection, and cost. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines are being followed for the management of FN in India. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care cancer centre from September 2012 to September 2014. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To review the pattern of microbial flora, susceptibility pattern, and important clinical variables among bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Joon Hee Lee, Seul Ki Kim, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong Gun Lee, Nack Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang, Hack Ki Kim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria has increased recently in febrile neutropenic patients with the increase of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. This study aimed to identify the distribution of causative bacteria and the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia diagnosed in febrile neutropenic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of febrile neutropenic children diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Tarani Kanta Barman, Manoj Kumar, Tarun Mathur, Tridib Chaira, G Ramkumar, Vandana Kalia, Madhvi Rao, Manisha Pandya, Ajay Singh Yadav, Biswajit Das, Dilip J Upadhyay, Hamidullah, Rituraj Konwar, V Samuel Raj, Harpal Singh
RBx 11760, a bi-aryl oxazolidinone was investigated for antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria. The MIC90 (mg/L) of RBx 11760 and linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus were: 2 and 4, Staphylococcus epidermidis: 0.5 and 2, Enterococcus: 1 and 4, respectively. Similarly against Streptococcus pneumoniae MIC90 was: 0.5 and 2, respectively. In time-kill studies, RBx 11760, tedizolid and linezolid exhibited bacteriostatic effect except S. pneumoniae RBx 11760 showed 2-log10 kill at 4 X MIC while tedizolid and linezolid showed 2 log10 and 1...
September 19, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
David Schnell, Elie Azoulay, Dominique Benoit, Benjamin Clouzeau, Pierre Demaret, Stéphane Ducassou, Pierre Frange, Matthieu Lafaurie, Matthieu Legrand, Anne-Pascale Meert, Djamel Mokart, Jérôme Naudin, Frédéric Pene, Antoine Rabbat, Emmanuel Raffoux, Patricia Ribaud, Jean-Christophe Richard, François Vincent, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Michael Darmon
Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Andrea Zimmer, Alison Freifeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Sweta Shah, Jennifer Hankenson, Smitha Pabbathi, John Greene, Sowmya Nanjappa
OBJECTIVE: Clostridium tertium is considered an uncommon pathogen in humans, but is a cause of bacteremia in patients with underlying hematological malignancies and neutropenia. A case series highlighting 10 years of experience with C. tertium as a cause of bacteremia in this population is presented; the cases were seen at a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center. METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained prior to the start of the study...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Elif Gülsüm Ümit, Figen Kuloğlu, Ahmet Muzaffer Demir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are common pathogens of hospital-acquired infection. Long hospitalization periods, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression are major risks for VRE colonization. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate patients' characteristics and factors which may contribute to VRE colonization. METHODS: Data of 66 patients with colonization and 112 patients without colonization who have been hospitalized in the Hematology clinic were collected...
August 16, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Günhan Gökahmetoğlu, Fatma Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Ayşe Nedret Koç, Orhan Behret, Selma Gökahmetoğlu, Mustafa Altay Atalay, Ferhan Elmalı, Kamil Darçın
The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Natali Pflug, Sandra Kluth, Jörg J Vehreschild, Jasmin Bahlo, Daniela Tacke, Lena Biehl, Barbara Eichhorst, Kirsten Fischer, Paula Cramer, Anna-Maria Fink, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Michael Hallek, Oliver A Cornely, Maria J G T Vehreschild
Reduced anticancer efficacy of cyclophosphamide and platinum salts has been reported in animals treated with anti-Gram-positive antibiotics. These effects were related to translocation of Gram-positive bacteria during mucositis with subsequent induction of cytotoxic oxygen reactive species and tumor invasion by pathogenic Th17 cells. To assess these hypotheses in a clinical setting, we identified patients receiving cyclophosphamide for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and cisplatin for relapsed lymphoma. Data originated from the CLL8 trial (NCT00281918) and the Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (NCT01821456)...
June 2016: Oncoimmunology
Michele Pohlen, Julia Marx, Alexander Mellmann, Karsten Becker, Rolf M Mesters, Jan-Henrik Mikesch, Christoph Schliemann, Georg Lenz, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Thomas Büchner, Utz Krug, Matthias Stelljes, Helge Karch, Georg Peters, Hans U Gerth, Dennis Görlich, Wolfgang E Berdel
Patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk for bacterial infections during therapy-related neutropenia. However, the use of specific antibiotic regimens for prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic acute myeloid leukemia patients is controversial. We report a retrospective evaluation of 172 acute myeloid leukemia patients who received 322 courses of myelosuppressive chemotherapy and had an expected duration of neutropenia of more than seven days. The patients were allocated to antibiotic prophylaxis groups and treated with colistin or ciprofloxacin through 2 different hematologic services at our hospital, as available...
October 2016: Haematologica
Graeme Mattison, Matthew Bilney, Phil Haji-Michael, Tim Cooksley
PURPOSE: Neutropenic sepsis is a time-dependent emergency with early interventions shown to improve outcomes. Broad spectrum intravenous antibiotic administration is the initial therapy in patients with suspected neutropenic sepsis. Compliance with early antibiotic administration in febrile neutropenia patients is poor. Innovations have been trialled to improve the time to first dose intravenous antibiotics in patients with suspected neutropenic sepsis. Consideration of extending first dose intravenous antibiotic prescribing to trained nursing staff may improve performance in this key standard...
July 25, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Islam M Ghazi, Jared L Crandon, Emil P Lesho, Patrick McGann, David P Nicolau
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to describe the in vivo efficacy of meropenem, in addition to cefepime and levofloxacin as comparators against VIM-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compare the findings to our previous observations with Enterobacteriaceae. METHODS: Eight clinical P. aeruginosa isolates with meropenem MICs from 4 to 512 mg/L were studied in a murine neutropenic thigh infection model. Animals were treated with doses of the antibiotics to simulate the human exposure of meropenem 2 g q8 h 30-min infusion, cefepime 2 g q8 h 30-min infusion and levofloxacin 500 mg q24 h...
June 2016: Heliyon
Carlota Gudiol, Cristina Royo-Cebrecos, Júlia Laporte, Carmen Ardanuy, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Maite Antonio, Montserrat Arnan, Jordi Carratalà
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the clinical features, aetiology and outcomes of bacteraemic pneumonia in neutropenic cancer patients (NCP) in the current era of increasing antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: All episodes of bacteraemia occurring in hospitalized patients with cancer, including haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, from January 2006 to April 2015 were included. RESULTS: We identified 1723 episodes of bacteraemia, of which 795 occurred in neutropenic patients with cancer, and among them, 55 episodes were identified as bacteraemic pneumonia...
July 14, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Won-Tak Choi, Tammy T Chang, Ryan M Gill
Zygomycosis is a rare invasive opportunistic fungal infection that occurs in the setting of hematologic malignancies, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and immunosuppressive therapies. We report the first case of disseminated appendiceal zygomycosis due to Absidia spp. in a neutropenic patient who initially presented as acute appendicitis. A 63-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia presented as acute appendicitis while receiving induction chemotherapy and ultimately succumbed to overwhelming disseminated zygomycosis...
January 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Jeshina Janardhanan, Jayda E Meisel, Derong Ding, Valerie A Schroeder, William R Wolter, Shahriar Mobashery, Mayland Chang
The oxadiazole antibacterials target the bacterial cell wall and are bactericidal. We investigated the synergism of ND-421 with the commonly used β-lactams and non-β-lactam antibiotics by the checkerboard method and by time-kill assays. ND-421 synergizes well with β-lactam antibiotics, and it also exhibits a long postantibiotic effect (4.7 h). We also evaluated the in vivo efficacy of ND-421 in a murine neutropenic thigh infection model alone and in combination with oxacillin. ND-421 has in vivo efficacy by itself in a clinically relevant infection model (1...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Diana Averbuch, Dan Engelhard, Anna Pegoraro, Simone Cesaro
Neutropenic patients with malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are prone to severe infections. Reversal of neutropenia with granulocyte transfusion (GTX) from donors stimulated with GCSF with/without steroids aims to improve outcome of infection. Cochrane analysis of randomized controlled studies, however, failed to show reduced mortality following GTX in conjunction with antibiotics. Non-randomized studies published during the last 20 years produced a very broad spectrum of results...
July 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
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