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antibiotic neutropenic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782216/temporal-changes-in-neutropenic-blood-culture-isolates-and-disease-associations-a-single-centre-series-of-1139-episodes
#1
Nathanael Lucas, Michael Humble, Dalice Sim, Michelle Balm, John Carter, Robert Weinkove
Neutropenic infections are life-threatening and require empiric antibiotic treatment. We examined 1139 blood culture isolates from our institution over a 36-year period from neutropenic patients to examine temporal trends and disease associations. Positive associations were found between viridans streptococci and acute myeloid leukaemia, coagulase negative staphylococci and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and indolent B-cell malignancies.
August 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776170/viridans-group-streptococci-bloodstream-infections-in-neutropenic-adult-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy-single-center-experience
#2
J Radocha, P Paterová, A Zavřelová, B Víšek, F Gabalec, H Žemličková, P Žák
Viridans group streptococci bloodstream infections (VGS BSI) remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with severe neutropenia. The goal of our study was to evaluate clinical course and microbiological susceptibility of VGS BSI at our center. Retrospective analysis of all microbiologically documented bloodstream infections caused by VGS during the 9-year time period (from January 2006 until December 2014) was carried out. Only patients with severe neutropenia (< 500/μL) were included in the study...
August 3, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749114/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-admitted-for-intensive-care-a-single-centre-experience
#3
Shafaq Maqsood, Farhana Badar, Abdul Hameed
Background and Purpose: Patients with hematological malignancies admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) generally have a high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of such patients and to identify factors predicting ICU mortality. Material and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre over a period of 5 years, from January 2010 to January 2015. Results: Characteristics :A total of 213 patients were included in this study...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721078/incomplete-recovery-of-the-fecal-flora-of-hematological-patients-with-neutropenia-and-repeated-fluoroquinolone-prophylaxis
#4
Yong Chong, Shinji Shimoda, Noriko Miyake, Takatoshi Aoki, Yoshikiyo Ito, Tomohiko Kamimura, Nobuyuki Shimono
BACKGROUND: Routine fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies is still controversial, because of antibiotic resistance concerns. The recovery of the fecal microbiota to the initial composition in patients receiving multiple courses of quinolone prophylaxis and repeated chemotherapy has not been evaluated. METHODS: We prospectively examined the changes in the fecal bacterial composition before and after levofloxacin prophylaxis...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716109/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia-in-febrile-neutropenic-children-and-adolescents-with-the-impact-of-antibiotic-resistance-a-retrospective-study
#5
Hyo Sup Kim, Bo Kyoung Park, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: Although the proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections has reduced after the introduction of antibiotics with anti-pseudomonal effects, P. aeruginosa bacteremia still causes high mortality in immunocompromised patients. This study determined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of P. aeruginosa bacteremia and the antibiotic susceptibilities of strains isolated from febrile neutropenic patients. METHODS: Thirty-one febrile neutropenic children and adolescents with underlying hematologic/oncologic disorders diagnosed with P...
July 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705670/empiric-antibiotic-protocols-for-cancer-patients-with-neutropenia-a-single-center-study-of-treatment-efficacy-and-mortality-in-patients-with-bacteremia
#6
Eyal Kleinhendler, Matan J Cohen, Allon E Moses, Ora Paltiel, Jacob Strahilevitz, Amos Cahan
BACKGROUND: A number of empiric antibiotic treatment options for febrile neutropenia exist, yet there is no universally-accepted initial protocol. We aimed to assess the performance of a protocol (piperacillin, gentamicin and cefazolin) introduced over 40 years ago and compare its coverage against bacteria isolated from blood of neutropenic patients to that of various commonly used antibiotic treatment protocols. METHODS: Adults with neutropenia admitted between 2003 and 2012 to the hemato-oncologic departments, in whom blood cultures were taken on admission were included...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692817/complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-transplantation-bacterial-infections
#7
REVIEW
Ali S Omrani, Reem S Almaghrabi
Bacterial infections remain a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially in the pre-engraftment phase. The risk of bacterial infections is mainly related to neutropenia, mucositis, and the presence of vascular lines. Most parts of the world have witnessed a shift in epidemiology toward Gram-negative bacteria; a large proportion of which are resistant to fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum beta-lactams, carbapenems, and in some units even colistin. Meticulous infection control practices are essential for prevention of bacterial infections in HSCT...
July 3, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662943/discovery-of-novel-antimycobacterial-drug-therapy-in-biofilm-of-pathogenic-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-keratitis
#8
Thet Tun Aung, Wei Hong Jeff Chor, Joey Kuok Hoong Yam, Michael Givskov, Liang Yang, Roger W Beuerman
PURPOSE: The potential of slow-growing mycobacteria to form biofilms in human tissues contributes to the problem of establishing an effective treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine new antibiotic strategies to enhance current treatment options for these infections. METHODS: Sensitivities of Mycobacterium fortuitum ATCC 49404 and Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752 were evaluated for different antimicrobials singly and in combination using broth microdilution and FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index) synergy screening...
June 26, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660351/moxifloxacin-versus-levofloxacin-or-ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#9
Daniel J Przybylski, David J Reeves
PURPOSE: Patients receiving intensive chemotherapy regimens are at high risk for infectious complications due to prolonged neutropenia and hospital stay. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, mainly levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, are the mainstay of prophylactic therapy for these patients. There is limited data regarding the utilization of other quinolone antibiotics including moxifloxacin in this setting. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed comparing the use of prophylactic moxifloxacin to that of levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin during periods of prolonged neutropenia...
June 28, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630197/pharmacodynamics-of-cefepime-combined-with-tazobactam-against-clinically-relevant-enterobactereaceae-in-a-neutropenic-mouse-thigh-model
#10
Maria J Melchers, Anita C van Mil, Claudia Lagarde, Jan den Hartigh, Johan W Mouton
The lack of new antibiotics prompted the investigation of the combination of two existing agents cefepime, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin and tazobactam to broaden its efficacy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. We determined the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the combination in a murine neutropenic thigh model in order to establishing its exposure- response relationships (ERR). The PK of cefepime was determined for five doses; that of tazobactam was determined in earlier studies (Melchers et al Antimicrob...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626736/enterococcus-spp-and-s-aureus-colonization-in-neutropenic-febrile-children-with-cancer
#11
Julia R Spinardi, Rodrigo Berea, Patricia A Orioli, Marina M Gabriele, Alessandra Navarini, Marina T Marques, Milton N Neto, Marcelo J Mimica
INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious treatment-related complications in cancer patients. Susceptible to rapidly progressing infections, which result in prolonged hospitalization and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, neutropenic patients are subject to colonization by multiresistant agents, which enhances the risk of infections. METHODS: In this study we included samples collected with nasal, oropharyngeal and anal swabs from hospitalized children with febrile neutropenia following chemotherapy, between March 2014 and 2015, aiming to elucidate colonization by S...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596652/changing-trends-in-the-use-of-granulocyte-transfusions-in-neutropenic-children-with-sepsis-in-india
#12
Ramya Uppuluri, Sreejith Ramachandrakurup, Lakshman Vaidhyanathan, Sathishkumar Kandath, Divya Subburaj, Revathi Raj
We present our data on granulocyte transfusions in children undergoing treatment for cancer and HSCT at our centre and their changing indications. In this retrospective observational analysis of children who received granulocytes from 2007 to 2015, we divided children receiving granulocytes into two groups-the first from January 2007 till December 2013 and the second from January 2014 till December 2015. This division is based on the change in our policy to use granulocytes within 48 h of septicemia as the incidence of drug resistant bacterial strains had increased at our centre...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577308/empirical-antibiotics-targeting-gram-positive-bacteria-for-the-treatment-of-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Ofrat Beyar-Katz, Yaakov Dickstein, Sara Borok, Liat Vidal, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: The pattern of infections among neutropenic patients with cancer has shifted in the last decades to a predominance of gram-positive infections. Some of these gram-positive bacteria are increasingly resistant to beta-lactams and necessitate specific antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of empirical anti-gram-positive (antiGP) antibiotic treatment for febrile neutropenic patients with cancer in terms of mortality and treatment failure...
June 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574735/fatal-course-of-saprochaete-capitata-fungemia-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Zeynep Canan Özdemir, Ayşe Bozkurt Turhan, Yeter Düzenli Kar, Çağrı Ener Dinleyici, Özcan Bör
Saprochaete capitata (S. capitata) is a very rare fungal pathogen that causes disseminated opportunistic infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. Fever resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotic and antifungal treatment is common in the presence of fungemia during the period of profound neutropenia. We describe three cases of leukemic children who died from S. capitata fungemia following a first febrile neutropenic episode after the induction of chemotherapy. S. capitata fungemia is an emergent infection associated with high mortality and low susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins...
March 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556623/ultrasonography-driven-combination-antibiotic-therapy-with-tigecycline-significantly-increases-survival-among-patients-with-neutropenic-enterocolitis-following-cytarabine-containing-chemotherapy-for-the-remission-induction-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Novella Pugliese, Paola Salvatore, Dora Vita Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Federico Chiurazzi, Roberta Della Pepa, Claudio Cerchione, Marta Raimondo, Claudia Giordano, Luigia Simeone, Simona Caruso, Fabrizio Pane, Marco Picardi
Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is an abdominal infection reported primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following chemotherapy, especially cytarabine, a notable efficacious cytotoxic agent for AML remission. Specific data regarding the impact of different cytarabine schedules and/or antibacterial regimens for NEC are sparse. The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of outcome within 30 days of NEC onset. NEC episodes were retrospectively pinpointed among 440 patients with newly diagnosed AML hospitalized in our Institution, over a 10-year period, for receiving chemotherapy protocols with 100-6000 mg/m(2) daily of cytarabine...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#16
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510695/effects-of-an-autoinducer-analogue-on-antibiotic-tolerance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Takashi Amoh, Keiji Murakami, Reiko Kariyama, Kenji Hori, Darija Viducic, Katsuhiko Hirota, Jun Igarashi, Hiroaki Suga, Matthew R Parsek, Hiromi Kumon, Yoichiro Miyake
Objectives: Antibiotic tolerance causes chronic, refractory and persistent infections. In order to advance the development of a new type of drug for the treatment of infectious diseases, we herein investigated the effects of a newly synthesized analogue of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing autoinducer named AIA-1 ( a uto i nducer a nalogue) on antibiotic tolerance in P. aeruginosa . Methods: A P. aeruginosa luminescent strain derived from PAO1 was injected into neutropenic ICR mice and bioluminescence images were acquired for a period of time after treatments with antibiotics and AIA-1...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486259/appendicitis-in-a-neutropenic-patient-a-multicentric-retrospective-study
#18
Alberto A Scarpa, Géraldine Hery, Arnaud Petit, Benoit Brethon, Irène Jimenez, Virginie Gandemer, Samuel Abbou, Stéphanie Haouy, Jean Breaud, Marilyne Poiree
To study the management of acute appendicitis in neutropenic patients, we retrospectively reviewed cases of acute appendicitis in neutropenic children treated for cancer. The patients' demographics, medical records, and outcomes were tracked. We compared nonoperative treatment versus emergency or delayed surgery. The cases of 30 patients with a mean age of 8.8 years in 12 French departments of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology between 1995 and 2013 were studied. Most patients (90%) were treated for hematological malignancies...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472260/whole-genome-sequencing-accurately-identifies-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-for-major-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens
#19
Samuel A Shelburne, Jiwoong Kim, Jose M Munita, Pranoti Sahasrabhojane, Ryan K Shields, Ellen G Press, Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Brandi Cantarel, Ying Jiang, Min S Kim, Samuel L Aitken, David E Greenberg
Background: There is marked interest in using DNA based methods to detect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches increasingly being incorporated into clinical care. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) could offer significant advantages over targeted PCR for AMR detection, particularly for species where mutations are major drivers of AMR. Methods: Illumina MiSeq WGS and broth microdilution (BMD) assays were performed on 90 bloodstream isolates of the four most common gram-negative bacteria causing bloodstream infections in neutropenic patients...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469892/chasing-the-golden-hour-lessons-learned-from-improving-initial-neutropenic-sepsis-management
#20
Caroline Forde, Paula Scullin
Neutropenic sepsis remains a time critical and potentially fatal complication of systemic anti-cancer therapy. A target 'door to needle' time of one hour for first dose empirical intravenous antibiotics continues to be promoted nationally. A baseline audit (June 2011) highlighted shortfalls in care in the Belfast Trust, with only 15% of patients receiving antibiotics within sixty minutes. A multi-professional group within the Trust was established to try and initiate the improvements in neutropenic sepsis recognition and initial management that were urgently required...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
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