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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873451/a-prospective-randomized-trial-comparing-piperacillin-tazobactam-with-meropenem-as-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-of-febrile-neutropenic-children-and-adolescents-with-hematologic-and-malignant-disorders
#1
Hirozumi Sano, Ryoji Kobayashi, Daisuke Suzuki, Daiki Hori, Kenji Kishimoto, Kunihiko Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: This randomized prospective study was designed to assess whether piperacillin/tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ) is as effective as meropenem (MEPM) as a first-line antibiotic treatment for febrile neutropenia (FN). PROCEDURE: FN episodes were randomly assigned to receive either PIPC/TAZ (337.5 mg/kg per day in three doses, 1-hr DIV, maximum 13.5 g per day) or MEPM (120 mg/kg per day in three doses, 1-hr DIV, maximum 3 g per day). Clinical responses were evaluated 120 hr after the DIV...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872075/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-gepotidacin-against-gram-positive-organisms-using-data-from-murine-infection-models
#2
Catharine C Bulik, Ólanrewaju O Okusanya, Elizabeth A Lakota, Alan Forrest, Sujata M Bhavnani, Jennifer L Hoover, David R Andes, Paul G Ambrose
Gepotidacin (formerly GSK2140944) is a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial topoisomerase inhibitor with in vitro activity against conventional and biothreat pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae Using neutropenic murine thigh- and lung-infection models, the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) of gepotidacin against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were characterized. Single dose PK data from uninfected mice (16-128 mg/kg SC) were fit with candidate models. Dose-fractionation studies (one isolate/organism; 2-512 mg/kg/day) and dose-ranging studies (5 isolates/organism; 2-2048 mg/kg/day; MIC ranges: S...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813352/use-of-computed-tomography-abdomen-and-pelvis-for-investigation-of-febrile-neutropenia-in-adult-haematology-patients
#3
H Y Lim, M Ashby, B Williams, A Grigg
We retrospectively evaluated the use of computed tomography abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) in febrile neutropenic autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. CTAP was more common in ASCT patients (59%) compared with AML (31%; P  < 0.001). Although abnormal findings were reported in 51%, only 10% resulted in therapy change (addition of anaerobic antibiotic/bowel rest), which would have otherwise been instituted based on clinical grounds. CTAP in these patients rarely provide useful information unsuspected clinically...
November 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793737/benzylpenicillin-plus-an-aminoglycoside-versus-meropenem-in-neutropenic-lymphoma-and-leukaemia-patients-with-a-suspected-bacterial-infection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Dag Torfoss, Tone Fladhagen, Harald Holte, Lorentz Brinch, Fredrik Hellem Schjesvold, Yngvar Fløisand, Emil Nyquist, Jakob Dalgaard, Peter Meyer, Anne Kristine Lehmann, Jens Hammerstrøm, Tove Skjelbakken, E Arne Høiby, Leiv Sandvik, Stein Kvaløy
OBJECTIVES: In Norway, initial treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) has traditionally been benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside (PA). Internationally, FN is often treated with a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic. We aimed to compare these two regimens in a prospective, randomized, trial in lymphoma and leukaemia patients with an expected period of neutropenia ≥7days, and a suspected bacterial infection. METHODS: Adult neutropenic patients with lymphoma or leukaemia, and a suspected bacterial infection, were randomized for treatment with PA or meropenem (M)...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790437/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-an-infant-caused-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophila-a-case-report
#5
Neelima Angaali, Nina Dutta Roy, Sudharshan Raj Chitgupikar, Preeti Subramanian, Jaya Lakshmi Pabbati
Stenotrophomonas maltophila (S.maltophila) is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus that is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital setting. The organism is known to cause life threatening infections in immuno-compromised patients especially in those who are neutropenic, on chemotherapy or on broad spectrum antibiotics. We report a case of ventilator associated pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophila in a two-month old infant who later developed multi organ dysfunction syndrome. In seriously ill paediatric patients, S...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749799/making-improvements-in-the-ed-does-ed-busyness-affect-time-to-antibiotics-in-febrile-pediatric-oncology-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department
#6
Christopher A Benner, Erika Mora, Emily Mueller, F Jacob Seagull, Kelly Walkovich, Kaleena Johnson, Schuyler Halverson, Ed Rothman, George Hucks, John G Younger, Michele M Nypaver
OBJECTIVES: Febrile neutropenic pediatric patients are at heightened risk for serious bacterial infections, and rapid antibiotic administration (in <60 minutes) improves survival. Our objectives were to reduce the time-to-antibiotic (TTA) administration and to evaluate the effect of overall emergency department (ED) busyness on TTA. METHODS: This study was a quality improvement initiative with retrospective chart review to reduce TTA in febrile children with underlying diagnosis of cancer or hematologic immunodeficiency who visited the pediatric ED...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738797/impact-of-antibacterial-prophylaxis-during-reinduction-chemotherapy-for-relapse-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#7
Beejal R Ganti, Bernard L Marini, Jerod Nagel, Dale Bixby, Anthony J Perissinotti
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the impact of antibacterial prophylaxis with levofloxacin in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study. Adult patients with relapsed/refractory AML admitted for reinduction chemotherapy between November 1, 2006 and June 15, 2015 were screened for inclusion. A protocol initiating levofloxacin prophylaxis was implemented on December 1, 2013. Patients receiving hypomethylating agents (decitabine/azacitidine) were not administered antibacterial prophylaxis and thus not included in this analysis...
October 14, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723617/-levofloxacin-prophylaxis-in-neutropenic-patients
#8
Alberto A Carena, Laura Jorge, Pablo Bonvehí, Elena Temporiti, Mariela S Zárate, Fabián Herrera
Fluorquinolone-prophylaxis has proven useful in preventing infections in high risk neutropenic patients. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, and outcome of patients in the first episode of febrile neutropenia, comparing those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis with those who didn't. It was a prospective observational study that included all the episodes of inpatients with febrile neutropenia (February 1997- November 2014), also including the first episode in a same patient in different hospitalizations...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704735/antibiotic-resistant-gram-negative-bacteremia-in-febrile-neutropenic-children
#9
Jina Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688611/bloodstream-infections-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-at-a-tertiary-cancer-institute-in-south-india-a-timeline-of-clinical-and-microbial-trends-through-the-years
#10
K Govind Babu, D Lokanatha, K C Lakshmaiah, M C Suresh Babu, Linu A Jacob, Gita R Bhat, Harsha Vardhana, Mahua Sinha, B R Vijaykumar, B G Sumati, R S Jayshree
INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is an oncological emergency. The choice of empiric therapy depends on the locally prevalent pathogens and their sensitivities, the sites of infection, and cost. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines are being followed for the management of FN in India. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care cancer centre from September 2012 to September 2014. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To review the pattern of microbial flora, susceptibility pattern, and important clinical variables among bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659431/increase-in-antibiotic-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections-in-febrile-neutropenic-children
#11
Joon Hee Lee, Seul Ki Kim, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong Gun Lee, Nack Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang, Hack Ki Kim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria has increased recently in febrile neutropenic patients with the increase of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. This study aimed to identify the distribution of causative bacteria and the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia diagnosed in febrile neutropenic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of febrile neutropenic children diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645240/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activities-of-a-bi-aryl-oxazolidinone-rbx-11760-against-gram-positive-bacteria
#12
Tarani Kanta Barman, Manoj Kumar, Tarun Mathur, Tridib Chaira, G Ramkumar, Vandana Kalia, Madhvi Rao, Manisha Pandya, Ajay Singh Yadav, Biswajit Das, Dilip J Upadhyay, Hamidullah, Rituraj Konwar, V Samuel Raj, Harpal Singh
RBx 11760, a bi-aryl oxazolidinone was investigated for antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria. The MIC90 (mg/L) of RBx 11760 and linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus were: 2 and 4, Staphylococcus epidermidis: 0.5 and 2, Enterococcus: 1 and 4, respectively. Similarly against Streptococcus pneumoniae MIC90 was: 0.5 and 2, respectively. In time-kill studies, RBx 11760, tedizolid and linezolid exhibited bacteriostatic effect except S. pneumoniae RBx 11760 showed 2-log10 kill at 4 X MIC while tedizolid and linezolid showed 2 log10 and 1...
September 19, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638133/management-of-neutropenic-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-newborns-excluded-recommendations-from-an-expert-panel-from-the-french-intensive-care-society-srlf-with-the-french-group-for-pediatric-intensive-care-emergencies-gfrup-the-french-society-of-anesthesia
#13
REVIEW
David Schnell, Elie Azoulay, Dominique Benoit, Benjamin Clouzeau, Pierre Demaret, Stéphane Ducassou, Pierre Frange, Matthieu Lafaurie, Matthieu Legrand, Anne-Pascale Meert, Djamel Mokart, Jérôme Naudin, Frédéric Pene, Antoine Rabbat, Emmanuel Raffoux, Patricia Ribaud, Jean-Christophe Richard, François Vincent, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Michael Darmon
Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633416/when-to-use-prophylactic-antibiotics-in-neutropenic-patients
#14
Andrea Zimmer, Alison Freifeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575937/clostridium-tertium-in-neutropenic-patients-case-series-at-a-cancer-institute
#15
Sweta Shah, Jennifer Hankenson, Smitha Pabbathi, John Greene, Sowmya Nanjappa
OBJECTIVE: Clostridium tertium is considered an uncommon pathogen in humans, but is a cause of bacteremia in patients with underlying hematological malignancies and neutropenia. A case series highlighting 10 years of experience with C. tertium as a cause of bacteremia in this population is presented; the cases were seen at a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center. METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained prior to the start of the study...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531123/hypogammaglobulinemia-and-poor-performance-status-are-predisposing-factors-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-colonization-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#16
Elif Gülsüm Ümit, Figen Kuloğlu, Ahmet Muzaffer Demir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are common pathogens of hospital-acquired infection. Long hospitalization periods, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression are major risks for VRE colonization. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate patients' characteristics and factors which may contribute to VRE colonization. METHODS: Data of 66 patients with colonization and 112 patients without colonization who have been hospitalized in the Hematology clinic were collected...
August 16, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525399/-determination-of-candida-colonization-and-candida-score-in-patients-in-anesthesia-intensive-care-unit
#17
Günhan Gökahmetoğlu, Fatma Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Ayşe Nedret Koç, Orhan Behret, Selma Gökahmetoğlu, Mustafa Altay Atalay, Ferhan Elmalı, Kamil Darçın
The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471619/efficacy-of-antineoplastic-treatment-is-associated-with-the-use-of-antibiotics-that-modulate-intestinal-microbiota
#18
Natali Pflug, Sandra Kluth, Jörg J Vehreschild, Jasmin Bahlo, Daniela Tacke, Lena Biehl, Barbara Eichhorst, Kirsten Fischer, Paula Cramer, Anna-Maria Fink, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Michael Hallek, Oliver A Cornely, Maria J G T Vehreschild
Reduced anticancer efficacy of cyclophosphamide and platinum salts has been reported in animals treated with anti-Gram-positive antibiotics. These effects were related to translocation of Gram-positive bacteria during mucositis with subsequent induction of cytotoxic oxygen reactive species and tumor invasion by pathogenic Th17 cells. To assess these hypotheses in a clinical setting, we identified patients receiving cyclophosphamide for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and cisplatin for relapsed lymphoma. Data originated from the CLL8 trial (NCT00281918) and the Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (NCT01821456)...
June 2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470601/ciprofloxacin-versus-colistin-prophylaxis-during-neutropenia-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-two-parallel-patient-cohorts-treated-in-a-single-center
#19
Michele Pohlen, Julia Marx, Alexander Mellmann, Karsten Becker, Rolf M Mesters, Jan-Henrik Mikesch, Christoph Schliemann, Georg Lenz, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Thomas Büchner, Utz Krug, Matthias Stelljes, Helge Karch, Georg Peters, Hans U Gerth, Dennis Görlich, Wolfgang E Berdel
Patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk for bacterial infections during therapy-related neutropenia. However, the use of specific antibiotic regimens for prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic acute myeloid leukemia patients is controversial. We report a retrospective evaluation of 172 acute myeloid leukemia patients who received 322 courses of myelosuppressive chemotherapy and had an expected duration of neutropenia of more than seven days. The patients were allocated to antibiotic prophylaxis groups and treated with colistin or ciprofloxacin through 2 different hematologic services at our hospital, as available...
October 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455849/a-nurse-led-protocol-improves-the-time-to-first-dose-intravenous-antibiotics-in-septic-patients-post-chemotherapy
#20
Graeme Mattison, Matthew Bilney, Phil Haji-Michael, Tim Cooksley
PURPOSE: Neutropenic sepsis is a time-dependent emergency with early interventions shown to improve outcomes. Broad spectrum intravenous antibiotic administration is the initial therapy in patients with suspected neutropenic sepsis. Compliance with early antibiotic administration in febrile neutropenia patients is poor. Innovations have been trialled to improve the time to first dose intravenous antibiotics in patients with suspected neutropenic sepsis. Consideration of extending first dose intravenous antibiotic prescribing to trained nursing staff may improve performance in this key standard...
July 25, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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