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Bammigatti C, M Vinod Babu, T Kadhiravan, R P Swaminathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
Thomas H Snider, Michael C Babin, David A Jett, Gennady E Platoff, David T Yeung
Anticholinesterases, such as organophosphorus pesticides and warfare nerve agents, present a significant health threat. Onset of symptoms after exposure can be rapid, requiring quick-acting, efficacious therapy to mitigate the effects. The goal of the current study was to identify the safest antidote with the highest therapeutic index (TI = oxime 24-hr LD50/oxime ED50) from a panel of four oximes deemed most efficacious in a previous study. The oximes tested were pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM Cl), MMB4 DMS, HLö-7 DMS, and obidoxime Cl2...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B Bird
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
Erin Gallagher, Il Minn, Janice E Chambers, Peter C Searson
BACKGROUND: Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concentration in the brain following systemic injection. METHODS: To assess 2-PAM transport, we studied transwell permeability in three Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cell lines and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs)...
2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
P Leveau
Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides.
July 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Long Yan, Jia Chen, Bin Xu, Lei Guo, Yan Xie, Jijun Tang, Jianwei Xie
The terroristic availability of highly toxic nerve agents (NAs) highlights the necessity for a deep understanding of their toxicities and effective medical treatments. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for a characterization of the NAs poisoning and an evaluation on the efficacy of reactivators in in vitro was developed for the first time. After exposure to sarin or VX and pepsin digestion, the specific peptides of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a purified status, i.e. undecapeptide "GESAGAASVGM" in free, unaged, or aged status was identified and quantified...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nabeel I Uwaydah, Stephen L Hoskins, Stephen P Bruttig, Henry Farrar, Nick C Copper, Donald J Deyo, Michael A Dubick, George C Kramer
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to nerve agents requires prompt treatment. We hypothesized that intraosseous (IO) injections of drug antidotes into the vascularized bone marrow will provide a more rapid and effective means to treat exposure to nerve agents than standard intramuscular (IM) injections. We compared the pharmacokinetics of IM and IO administration of pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM Cl) during normovolemia and hypovolemia, as well as their combined administration during normovolemia in swine...
July 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Timo Wille
The high number of annual fatalities following suicidal poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and the recent homicidal use of the chemical warfare nerve agent sarin against civilian population in Syria underlines the continuous threat by these highly toxic agents. The need for an effective treatment of OP poisoning resulted in the implementation of a combination therapy with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and an oxime for the reactivation of OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Since the invention of the first clinically used oxime pralidoxime (2-PAM) in the 1950s ongoing research attempted to identify more effective oximes...
November 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Matthew K Brittain, Kevin G McGarry, Robert A Moyer, Michael C Babin, David A Jett, Gennady E Platoff, David T Yeung
PURPOSE: Aldicarb and methomyl are carbamate pesticides commonly implicated in human poisonings. The primary toxic mechanism of action for carbamate poisoning is cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. As such, it is logical to assume that the currently accepted therapies for organophosphate poisoning (muscarinic antagonist atropine and the oxime acetylcholinesterase reactivator pralidoxime chloride [2-PAM Cl]) could afford therapeutic protection. However, oximes have been shown to be contraindicated for poisoning by some carbamates...
May 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
C Linn Cadieux, Haoyu Wang, Yuchen Zhang, Jeffrey A Koenig, Tsung-Ming Shih, John McDonough, John Koh, Douglas Cerasoli
Currently fielded treatments for nerve agent intoxication include atropine, an acetylcholine receptor antagonist, and pralidoxime (2PAM), a small molecule reactivator of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). 2PAM reactivates nerve agent-inhibited AChE via direct nucleophilic attack by the oxime moiety on the phosphorus center of the bound nerve agent. Due to a permanently charged pyridinium motif, 2PAM is not thought to cross the blood brain barrier and therefore cannot act directly in the neuronal junctions of the brain...
November 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Bo Zhao, Lanju Yang, Lei Xiao, Baoquan Sun, Xianbao Zou, Dongmei Gao, Xiandong Jian
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning. METHODS: A total of 67 eligible patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning, Who were admitted to the emeryency department of hospital from March 2011 to February 2014, Acording to different treatments au patients were randomly divided into the conventional treatment group (n=34) and the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group (n=35) ...
January 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
André-Guilhem Calas, José Dias, Catherine Rousseau, Mélanie Arboléas, Mélanie Touvrey-Loiodice, Guillaume Mercey, Ludovic Jean, Pierre-Yves Renard, Florian Nachon
Organophosphorus nerve agents, like VX, are highly toxic due to their strong inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE inhibited by VX can be reactivated using powerful nucleophilic molecules, most commonly oximes, which are one major component of the emergency treatment in case of nerve agent intoxication. We present here a comparative in vivo study on Swiss mice of four reactivators: HI-6, pralidoxime and two uncharged derivatives of 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinaldoxime that should more easily cross the blood-brain barrier and display a significant central nervous system activity...
March 10, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Devyani Swami, Hitendra N Karade, Jyotiranjan Acharya, Pravin Kumar
In vivo antidotal efficacy of new bis- quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK series), to counter multiples of lethal doses of nerve agent sarin (GB) and reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. [Protection index PI; median lethal dose (LD50) of sarin with treatment/LD50 of sarin] was estimated, using 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 LD50 as treatment doses of all the oximes with atropine against sarin poisoning. Dose-dependent time course study was conducted at 0...
March 9, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Hui Gao, Mai-liang Zhao, Ai-min Zhou, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-hai Song, Wen-ping Guo, Zhi-an Deng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) of Zusanli (ST 36) on gastrointestinal activities in organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) patients undergoing emergency treatment so as to explore its action in scavenging gastrointestinal toxicant. METHODS: A total of 116 OPP patients were randomly divided into control group and TAES group (n=58 in each group) according to the simple random sampling method. All the patients received comprehensive treatment including gastric lavage, catharsis, oral administration of atropine Pralidoxime Chloride, Omeprazole, etc...
December 2015: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Lina Wang, Shuming Pan
BACKGROUND: Crude rhubarb has been used to treat critically ill patients for many years. However, no previous meta-analysis has been investigated the benefits of crude rhubarb in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). OBJECTIVE: To summarize the beneficial effects of adjuvant treatment with crude rhubarb in patients with AOPP by conducting a meta-analysis. METHODS: A literature search of the databases through Pubmed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wanfang were performed for studies published up to October 2014...
December 2015: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Elaine da Conceição Petronilho, Magdalena do Nascimento Rennó, Newton Gonçalves Castro, Fernanda Motta R da Silva, Angelo da Cunha Pinto, José Daniel Figueroa-Villar
Analogs of pralidoxime, which is a commercial antidote for intoxication from neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds, were designed, synthesized, characterized, and tested as potential inhibitors or reactivators of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using the Ellman's test, nuclear magnetic resonance, and molecular modeling. These analogs include 1-methylpyridine-2-carboxaldehyde hydrazone, 1-methylpyridine-2-carboxaldehyde guanylhydrazone, and six other guanylhydrazones obtained from different benzaldehydes. The results indicate that all compounds are weak AChE reactivators but relatively good AChE inhibitors...
December 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Steven Setford, Antony Smith, David McColl, Mike Grady, Krisna Koria, Hilary Cameron
OBJECTIVES: Assess laboratory and in-clinic performance of the OneTouch Select(®) Plus test system against ISO 15197:2013 standard for measurement of blood glucose. METHODS: System performance assessed in laboratory against key patient, environmental and pharmacologic factors. User performance was assessed in clinic by system-naïve lay-users. Healthcare professionals assessed system accuracy on diabetes subjects in clinic. RESULTS: The system demonstrated high levels of performance, meeting ISO 15197:2013 requirements in laboratory testing (precision, linearity, hematocrit, temperature, humidity and altitude)...
2015: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Hong-Xiang Liu, Chang-Fang Liu, Wan-Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: Our study sought to assess the effectiveness of a constant micropump infusion of atropine and pralidoxime chloride compared with repeated-bolus doses in patients with severe acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning (AOPP). METHODS: A total of 60 patients with severe AOPP, defined as cholinergic crisis with respiratory failure or cerebral edema, were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each. In the experimental group, patients received a continuous micropump of atropine and pralidoxime chloride; in the control group, patients were given intermittent injections of atropine and pralidoxime chloride...
December 2015: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
P A Ferchmin, Dinely Pérez, Brenda L Cuadrado, Marimée Carrasco, Antonio H Martins, Vesna A Eterović
Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase and a surrogate of the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent sarin. The neurotoxicity of DFP was assessed as a reduction of population spike (PS) area elicited by synaptic stimulation in acute hippocampal slices. Two classical antidotes, atropine, and pralidoxime, and two novel antidotes, 4R-cembranotriene-diol (4R) and a caspase nine inhibitor, were tested. Atropine, pralidoxime, and 4R significantly protected when applied 30 min after DFP...
October 2015: Neurochemical Research
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