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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159872/the-dark-side-of-glucose-transporters-in-prostate-cancer-are-they-a-new-feature-to-characterize-carcinomas
#1
REVIEW
Pedro Gonzalez-Menendez, David Hevia, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz
One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is the increased ability to acquire nutrients, particularly glucose and glutamine. Proliferating cells need precursors for cell growth and NADPH reducing equivalents for survival. The principal responsible for glucose uptake is facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), which usually are overexpressed in cancer cells. Besides their role in glucose uptake, GLUT transporters are able to transport other compounds such as dehydroascorbic acid or uric acid. They play a major role in tumor progression and cellular processes such as regulated cell death...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149261/glut10-maintains-the-integrity-of-major-arteries-through-regulation-of-redox-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-function
#2
Yu-Wei Syu, Hao-Wen Lai, Chung-Lin Jiang, Hong-Yuan Tsai, Chung-Chih Lin, Yi-Ching Lee
Glucose transporter 10 (GLUT10) is a member of the GLUT family of membrane transporters, and mutations in this gene cause arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS). However, the physiological role and regulation of GLUT10 in arteries remains unclear. To further understand its physiological roles in major arteries, we examined the regulatory mechanisms of GLUT10 in ASMCs and aortic tissues. Interestingly, we find that targeting of GLUT10 to mitochondria is increased in ASMCs under both stress and aging conditions, which enhances dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) uptake and maintains intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) levels...
November 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144823/the-relationship-of-braf-v600e-mutation-status-to-fdg-pet-ct-avidity-in-thyroid-cancer-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Prasanna Santhanam, Rodhan Khthir, Lilja B Solnes, Paul W Ladenson
OBJECTIVES: Papillary thyroid cancers harboring BRAF (V600E) gene mutation have been shown to exhibit aggressive tumor behaviors and higher risks of recurrence and disease-specific death. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we examine and report published evidence related to the accuracy of FDG-PET-CT in detection of residual disease in patients' with BRAF (V600E) mutated thyroid cancer. METHODS: We extracted data from PUBMED/MEDLINE and EMBASE from January, 1995 to March, 2017...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142405/antihyperglycemic-activity-of-caralluma-fimbriata-an-in-vitro-approach
#4
Shenai Ashwini, Roy Anitha
Background: An increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus necessitates the need to develop new drugs for its effective management. Plants and their bioactive compounds are found to be an alternative therapeutic approach. Caralluma fimbriata, used in this study, is well known for its various biological effects. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic leaf extract of C. fimbriata. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations (1-1000 mg/mL) of the ethanolic leaf extract of C...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142019/molecular-imaging-of-glut1-and-glut5-in-breast-cancer-a-multitracer-pet-imaging-study-in-mice
#5
Melinda Wuest, Ingrit Hamann, Vincent Bouvet, Darryl Glubrecht, Alison Marshall, Brendan Trayner, Olivier Soueidan, Daniel Krys, Michael Wagner, Chris Cheeseman, Frederick West, Frank Wuest
Use of [18F]FDG-PET in clinical breast cancer (BC) imaging is limited mainly due to insufficient expression levels of GLUT1 in up to 50% of all patients. Fructose-specific facilitative hexose transporter GLUT5 represents an alternative biomarker for PET imaging of hexose metabolism in BC. The goal of the present study was to compare uptake characteristics of selected hexose-based PET radiotracers in murine BC model EMT6. Uptake of 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (1-[18F]FDF), 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (6-[18F]FDF), 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-2,5-anhydro-mannitol (1-[18F]FDAM), 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) and 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (6-[18F]FDG) was studied in EMT6 cells, tumors and muscle and correlated to GLUT1 and GLUT5 expression levels...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137482/uphill-running-excessive-training-increases-gastrocnemius-glycogen-content-in-c57bl-6-mice
#6
G P Morais, A da Rocha, A P Pinto, L da C Oliveira, L G de Vicente, G N Ferreira, E C de Freitas, A Sr da Silva
The main aim of the present investigation was to verify the effects of three overtraining (OT) protocols performed in downhill (OTR/down), uphill (OTR/up) and without inclination (OTR) on the protein levels of Akt (Ser473), AMPKalpha (Thr172), PGC-1alpha, plasma membrane GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 as well as on the glycogen contents in mice gastrocnemius. A trained (TR) protocol was used as positive control. Rodents were divided into naive (N, sedentary mice), control (CT, sedentary mice submitted to the performance evaluations), TR, OTR/down, OTR/up and OTR groups...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132538/immunometabolic-profiling-of-t-cells-from-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-reveals-an-impairment-in-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration
#7
Claudia La Rocca, Fortunata Carbone, Veronica De Rosa, Alessandra Colamatteo, Mario Galgani, Francesco Perna, Roberta Lanzillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Giuseppe Orefice, Ilaria Cerillo, Ciro Florio, Giorgia Teresa Maniscalco, Marco Salvetti, Diego Centonze, Antonio Uccelli, Salvatore Longobardi, Andrea Visconti, Giuseppe Matarese
BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming is shaped to support specific cell functions since cellular metabolism controls the final outcome of immune response. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease resulting from loss of immune tolerance against central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Metabolic alterations of T cells occurring during MS are not yet well understood and their studies could have relevance in the comprehension of the pathogenetic events leading to loss of immune tolerance to self and to develop novel therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting MS progression...
December 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128957/expression-of-glut-1-in-malignant-melanoma-and-melanocytic-nevi-an-immunohistochemical-study-of-400-cases
#8
Miroslav Důra, Kristýna Němejcová, Radek Jakša, Michaela Bártů, Ondřej Kodet, Ivana Tichá, Romana Michálková, Pavel Dundr
The glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) is a cell membrane glycoprotein involved in glucose uptake. An increased expression of Glut-1 is an important cell adaptation mechanism against hypoxia. An upregulation of Glut-1 can be found in several types of malignant tumors, which are able to reprogram their metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). However, the data regarding melanocytic lesions is equivocal. We performed comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of the Glut-1 expression in 225 malignant melanomas (MM) and 175 benign nevi...
November 11, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127075/evidence-of-high-transport-and-phosphorylation-capacity-for-both-glucose-and-fructose-in-the-ruby-throated-hummingbird-archilochus-colubris
#9
Alexander M Myrka, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds are able to fuel hovering flight entirely with recently ingested glucose or fructose. Among vertebrates, several steps of sugar flux from circulation to skeletal muscle are potentially rate-limiting, including transport into muscle and subsequent phosphorylation. While capacities for glucose flux are substantial, capacities for fructose flux are comparatively low. The mechanisms underlying apparent high rates of glucose and fructose oxidation in hummingbird flight muscle remain unclear. We examined relative expression of facilitative sugar transporters (GLUTs) and enzymes of fructolysis in ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) tissues involved in energy homeostasis and flight, via qPCR and measured hexokinase activity in pectoralis in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127035/the-high-production-volume-fungicide-pyraclostrobin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-independent-of-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#10
Anthony L Luz, Christopher D Kassotis, Heather M Stapleton, Joel N Meyer
Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126986/functional-redundancy-of-glucose-acquisition-mechanisms-in-the-hindgut-of-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#11
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
This study examined the mechanisms of glucose acquisition in the hindgut of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) using in vitro gut sac techniques. The intestine was determined to have the capacity to digest maltose into glucose along the entirety of the tract, including the foregut. Glucose uptake was biphasic and consisted of a high-affinity, low-capacity concentration-dependent component conforming to Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km 0.37mM, Jmax 8.48nmol/cm(2)/h) as well as a diffusive component. There was no observed difference in glucose flux rate along the length of the intestine, similar to other nutrients investigated in the hagfish intestine...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126976/involvement-of-glucose-related-energy-crisis-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-insinuation-of-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-like-pathology
#12
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Parul Gupta, Abhishek Singh, Shubhangini Tiwari, Poonam Goswami, Sharad Sharma, Sarika Singh
The present study was conducted to correlate the cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer's pathology employing streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental rat model. The STZ was administered in rat brain bilaterally by intracerebroventricular route using stereotaxic surgery followed by donepezil dosing. The Alzheimer's related pathological marker like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, tau phosphorylation and amyloid aggregation were observed after STZ administration. STZ treatment showed decreased glucose and glucose transporters (GLUT) level along with augmented level of calcium in both cortical and hippocampal regions of rat brain...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120354/trans-plasma-membrane-electron-transport-and-ascorbate-efflux-by-skeletal-muscle
#13
Amanda M Eccardt, Thomas P Bell, Lyn Mattathil, Rohan Prasad, Shannon C Kelly, Jonathan S Fisher
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) and the antioxidant roles of ascorbate reportedly play a role in protection of cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle comprises the largest whole-body organ fraction suggesting a potential role of tPMET and ascorbate export as a major source of extracellular antioxidant. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle is capable of tPMET and ascorbate efflux. To measure these processes, we assayed the ability of cultured muscle cells, satellite cells, and isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) to reduce two extracellular electron acceptors, water soluble tetrazolium salt 1 (WST-1), and dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP)...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119942/18f-faza-pet-ct-in-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-nsclc-comparison-with-18f-fdg-and-immunohistochemistry
#14
Paola Mapelli, Valentino Bettinardi, Federico Fallanca, Elena Incerti, Antonia Compierchio, Francesca Rossetti, Angela Coliva, Annarita Savi, Claudio Doglioni, Giampiero Negri, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Picchio
PURPOSE: To assess the capability of 18F-FAZA PET/CT in identifying intratumoral hypoxic areas in early and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to compare 18F-FAZA PET/CT with 18F-FDG PET/CT and histopathological biomarkers and to investigate whether the assessment of tumour to blood (T/B) and tumour to muscle (T/M) ratios provides comparable information regarding the hypoxic fractions of the tumour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled (3 men, 4 women; median age: 71 years; range 63-80)...
November 8, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119246/skeletal-muscle-and-performance-adaptations-to-high-intensity-training-in-elite-male-soccer-players-speed-endurance-runs-versus-small-sided-game-training
#15
Dan Fransson, Tobias Schmidt Nielsen, Karl Olsson, Tobias Christensson, Paul S Bradley, Ioannis G Fatouros, Peter Krustrup, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Magni Mohr
PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21) or a small-sided game group (SSG; n = 18). Over 4 weeks, thrice weekly, SET performed 6-10 × 30-s all-out runs with 3-min recovery, while SSG completed 2 × 7-9-min small-sided games with 2-min recovery...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115598/effects-of-hypoxia%C3%A2-inducible-factor%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-on-endometrial-receptivity-of-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Dongmei Zhao, Qinglan Qu, Huangguan Dai, Yueyang Liu, Lei Jiang, Xin Huang, Cuifang Hao
Embryo implantation is associated with an hypoxic endometrial microenvironment. Hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) is activated under hypoxic conditions. In the present study, the expression pattern of HIF‑1α in endometrial tissue was investigated and its effects on endometrial receptivity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were examined. A total of 81 patients were enrolled for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. They were divided into PCOS (n=40) and Control groups (n=41); both groups were further divided based on body weight (overweight and normal weight subgroups)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111280/akt-activation-a-potential-strategy-to-ameliorate-insulin-resistance
#17
REVIEW
Zhengyi Zhang, Huadong Liu, Jiankang Liu
Insulin resistance is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and obesity while the mechanism remains unclear. Current therapy to treat type 2 diabetes is metformin, the 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, owing to the ability to augment peripheral glucose uptake. However, metformin also displays limitations, as AMPK activation remains intact and regular in most type 2 diabetes and metformin does not seem to facilitate peripheral insulin resistance. Evidence has shown that PI3K-Akt/PKB pathway could be induced via insulin and act as an important effector...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110587/momordica-charantia-extracts-ameliorate-insulin-resistance-by-regulating-the-expression-of-socs-3-and-jnk-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-rats
#18
Chunyu Ma, Hongyu Yu, Ying Xiao, Huijiao Wang
CONTEXT: Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) has long been widely used as a traditional remedy for diabetes mellitus in some countries. However, detailed antidiabetic mechanisms are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study clarified the ameliorating effects of M. charantia ethanol extracts (MCE) on the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2DM rat model was established by high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) injection...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108271/hypoxia-related-biological-markers-as-predictors-of-epirubicin-based-treatment-responsiveness-and-resistance-in-locally-advanced-breast-cancer
#19
Manuela Milani, Sergio Venturini, Simone Bonardi, Giovanni Allevi, Carla Strina, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Silvia Paola Corona, Sergio Aguggini, Alberto Bottini, Alfredo Berruti, Adrian Jubb, Leticia Campo, Adrian L Harris, Kevin Gatter, Stephen B Fox, Daniele Generali, Giandomenico Roviello
Purpose: To identify hypoxia-related biomarkers indicative of response and resistance to epirubicin treatment in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Patients and Methods: One hundred seventy-six women with T2-4 N0-1 breast tumours were randomly assigned to receive epirubicin 120 mg/m2/1-21 (EPI ARM), epirubicin 120 mg/m2/1-21 + erythropoietin 10.000 IU sc three times weekly (EPI-EPO ARM) and epirubicin 40 mg/m2/w-q21 (EPI-W ARM). Sixteen tumour proteins involved in cell survival, hypoxia, angiogenesis and growth factor, were assessed by immunohistochemistry in pre-treatment samples...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104499/erythropoietin-reduces-insulin-resistance-via-regulation-of-its-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-db-db-mice-skeletal-muscle
#20
Yu Pan, Xiu Hong Yang, Li Li Guo, Yan Hong Gu, Qing Yan Qiao, Hui Min Jin
Erythropoietin (EPO) can reduce insulin resistance (IR) in adipocytes; however, it is unknown whether EPO can decrease IR in skeletal muscle. Here we investigated whether EPO could reduce IR in type 2 diabetic mouse skeletal muscle and its possible signaling mechanisms of action. Twelve-week-old db/db diabetic mice were employed in this study. Systemic use of EPO improved glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic mice after 4 and 8 weeks treatment. EPO up-regulated EPOR protein expression in skeletal muscle, and subsequently activated downstream signaling molecules such as JAK2, IRS-1, PI3K, AKT, and eNOS...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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