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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811499/the-role-of-dermcidin-isoform-2-in-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-diabetes
#1
Suman Bhattacharya, Md Mobidullah Khan, Chandradipa Ghosh, Sarbashri Bank, Smarajit Maiti
Diabetes is now epidemic worldwide. Several hundred-million peoples are presently suffering from this disease with other secondary-disorders. Stress, hypertension, sedentary life-style, carbohydrate/lipid metabolic-disorders due to genetic or environmental factors attributes to type-1 and/or type-2 diabetes. Present investigation demonstrates that stress-induced protein dermcidin isoform-2 (DCN-2) which appears in the serum of diabetic-patients play a key-role in this disease pathogenesis/severity. DCN-2 suppresses insulin production-release from liver/pancreas...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803837/silencing-of-glut1-induces-chemoresistance-via-modulation-of-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-survivin-signaling-pathway-in-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Sunhwa Oh, KeeSoo Nam, Hyungjoo Kim, Incheol Shin
Cancer cells require increased aerobic glycolysis to support rapid cell proliferation. For their increased energy demands, cancer cells express glucose transporter (Glut) proteins at a high level. Glut1 is associated with basal-like breast cancer and is considered a potential therapeutic target. To investigate the possibility of Glut1 as a therapeutic target in breast cancer cells, we downregulated Glut1 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines using a short hairpin system. We determined whether Glut1 silencing might enhance anti-proliferative effect of chemotherapeutic agents...
August 10, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803235/18f-fdg-uptake-in-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors-correlates-with-both-ki-67-and-vhl-pathway-inactivation
#3
Margot Bucau, Astrid Laurent-Bellue, Nicolas Poté, Olivia Hentic, Jérôme Cros, Nidaa Mikail, Vinciane Rebours, Philippe Ruszniewski, Rachida Lebtahi, Anne Couvelard
<br>Introduction: 18FDG PET-scanner positivity correlates with poor prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) are markers of agressivity in tumors. Together with pVHL, they are involved in tumor cell metabolism via the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to compare, in a series of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET), the 18-FDG uptake and expression of proliferation marker Ki-67, GLUT-1, CA9 and pVHL...
August 11, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798690/risk-of-myopathy-in-patients-in-therapy-with-statins-identification-of-biological-markers-in-a-pilot-study
#4
Giulia M Camerino, Olimpia Musumeci, Elena Conte, Kejla Musaraj, Adriano Fonzino, Emanuele Barca, Marco Marino, Carmelo Rodolico, Domenico Tricarico, Claudia Camerino, Maria R Carratù, Jean-François Desaphy, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Toscano, Sabata Pierno
Statin therapy may induce skeletal muscle damage ranging from myalgia to severe rhabdomyolysis. Our previous preclinical studies showed that statin treatment in rats involves the reduction of skeletal muscle ClC-1 chloride channel expression and related chloride conductance (gCl). An increase of the activity of protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) isoform, able to inactivate ClC-1, may contribute to destabilize sarcolemma excitability. These effects can be detrimental for muscle function leading to drug-induced myopathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794690/gender-related-prognostic-significance-of-clinical-and-biological-tumor-features-in-rectal-cancer-patients-receiving-short-course-preoperative-radiotherapy
#5
Anna Gasinska, Zbigniew Darasz, Agnieszka Adamczyk, Beata Biesaga, Joanna Niemiec, Marian Reinfuss
AIM: To study the prognostic value of clinical and biological features of rectal cancer and potential gender differences in patients' overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (RFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) after short-course preoperative radiotherapy (SCRT) with short or long interval between RT and surgery (break). BACKGROUND: The length of the interval between RT and surgery in SCRT is debatable and gender-related differences in patients survival are not established yet...
September 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790533/differential-expression-of-glycolysis-related-proteins-in-follicular-neoplasms-versus-h%C3%A3-rthle-cell-neoplasms-a-retrospective-analysis
#6
Hye Min Kim, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: Although currently classified as variants of follicular neoplasms (FNs), Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) exhibit distinct biological characteristics. Hence, the metabolism of both neoplasms may also be different. The aims of this study were to investigate and compare the expression of glycolysis-related proteins in HCNs and FNs and to determine the clinical implications of such expression. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed with 265 samples of FNs (112 follicular carcinomas (FCs) and 153 follicular adenomas (FAs)) as well as 108 samples of HCNs (27 Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCCs) and 81 Hürthle cell adenomas (HCAs))...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783583/influence-of-quercetin-naringenin-and-berberine-on-glucose-transporters-and-insulin-signalling-molecules-in-brain-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#7
Sandeep M S, Nandini C D
Quercetin, naringenin, and berberine are plant bioactives that can cross the blood-brain barrier and offer neuroprotection. In the present study, we looked into the effect of them on expression of various glucose transporters and key components of brain insulin signalling, namely, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS 1), phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), Akt 1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in brain of control, diabetic and bioactive-treated rats by Western blot. Amongst the bioactives tested, quercetin was more potent and restored LRP1 and brain insulin signalling components as well as glucose transporters such as GLUTs 1, 2, 3 and 4 in diabetic animals...
August 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782537/expression-of-sweet-taste-receptor-and-gut-hormone-secretion-in-modelled-type-2-diabetes
#8
Rilu Feng, Cheng Qian, Qianjing Liu, Yunqiu Jin, Lianyong Liu, Shengxian Li, Yu Liao, Huan Zhou, Wei Liu, Chris K Rayner, Jing Ma
It was detected that sweet taste receptors (STRs) were expressed in L cells which secreted glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut. The STR blocker lactisole reduced GLP-1 secretion and increased blood glucose level. Therefore, we investigated the expression of sweet taste molecules in the proximal and distal small intestine, and gut hormones secretion in healthy control and type 2 diabetic rats. Two groups of rats (Sprague Dawley (SD), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) were involved in the study. Each group (n=10) was performed by an intragastric glucose infusion (50% glucose solution, 2g/kg body weight)...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778020/long-term-effect-of-dietary-overload-lithium-on-the-glucose-metabolism-in-broiler-chickens
#9
Shiping Bai, Shuqin Pan, Keying Zhang, Xuemei Ding, Jianping Wang, Qiufeng Zeng, Yue Xuan, Zuowei Su
Lithium, like insulin, activates glycogen synthase and stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes. To investigate the effect of dietary overload lithium on glucose metabolism in broiler chickens, one-day-old chicks were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg (overload lithium) for 35days. Compared to controls, glucose disappearance rates were lower (p=0.035) 15-120min after glucose gavage, and blood glucose concentrations were lower (p=0.038) 30min after insulin injection in overload lithium broilers...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770335/erythritol-reduces-small-intestinal-glucose-absorption-increases-muscle-glucose-uptake-improves-glucose-metabolic-enzymes-activities-and-increases-expression-of-glut-4-and-irs-1-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#10
Chika Ifeanyi Chukwuma, Ramgopal Mopuri, Savania Nagiah, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon, Md Shahidul Islam
PURPOSE: Studies have reported that erythritol, a low or non-glycemic sugar alcohol possesses anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials but the underlying mode of actions is not clear. This study investigated the underlying mode of actions behind the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic potentials of erythritol using different experimental models (experiment 1, 2 and 3). METHODS: Experiment 1 examined the effects of increasing concentrations (2.5-20%) of erythritol on glucose absorption and uptake in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle, respectively...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764171/evaluation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-glucose-transporter-1-expression-in-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-an-immunohistochemical-study
#11
Iman Seleit, Ola Ahmed Bakry, Dalia Rifaat Al-Sharaky, Rania Abdel Aziz Ragab, Shimaa Ahmed Al-Shiemy
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a mediator enabling cell adaptation to hypoxia. It plays its role mainly through transcription of many target genes including Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT-1) gene. AIM: The present work aimed at evaluating the pattern and distribution of HIF-1α and GLUT-1 in each case and control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control and retrospective study was conducted on archival blocks diagnosed from pathology department as, Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC, 20 cases), cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, 20 cases) and 20 normal site-matched skin biopsies from age and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758327/characterization-of-pva-glutaraldehyde-hydrogels-obtained-using-central-composite-rotatable-design-ccrd
#12
Andreia de Araújo Morandim-Giannetti, Samantha Regina Rubio, Regina Freitas Nogueira, Fernando Dos Santos Ortega, Octaviano Magalhães Junior, Paulo Schor, Patrícia Alessandra Bersanetti
Hydrogels are made from natural or synthetic polymers and, currently, they have many biomedical applications. In this work, the conditions for obtaining a hydrogel with similar physicochemical characteristics to the vitreous humor were defined using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and glutaraldehyde (GLUT) as cross-linker. The concentration of PVA and GLUT were modified, and their effect was analyzed in terms of the refractive index, density, and dynamic viscosity. The hydrogel which was obtained using 3.98% (w/V) of PVA, 3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756087/a-glimpse-of-membrane-transport-through-structures-advances-in-the-structural-biology-of-the-glut-glucose-transporters
#13
REVIEW
Nieng Yan
The cellular uptake of glucose is an essential physiological process, and movement of glucose across biological membranes requires specialized transporters. The major facilitator superfamily glucose transporters GLUTs, encoded by the SLC2A genes, have been a paradigm for functional, mechanistic, and structural understanding of solute transport in the past century. This review starts with a glimpse into the structural biology of membrane proteins and particularly membrane transport proteins, enumerating the landmark structures in the past 25years...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755973/l-cysteine-supplementation-increases-insulin-sensitivity-mediated-by-upregulation-of-gsh-and-adiponectin-in-high-glucose-treated-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#14
Arunkumar E Achari, Sushil K Jain
Diabetic patients have lower blood levels of l-cysteine (LC) and glutathione (GSH). This study examined the hypothesis that LC supplementation positively up regulates the effects of insulin on GSH and glucose metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte model. 3T3L1 adipocytes were treated with LC (250 μM, 2 h) and/or insulin (15 or 30 nM, 2 h), and high glucose (HG, 25 mM, 20 h). Results showed that HG caused significant increase (95%) in ROS and reduction in the protein levels of DsbA-L (43%), adiponectin (64%), GCLC (20%), GCLM (21%), GSH (50%), and GLUT-4 (23%) in adipocytes...
July 27, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753560/enhancement-of-the-anti-tumor-activity-of-fgfr1-inhibition-in-squamous-cell-lung-cancer-by-targeting-downstream-signaling-involved-in-glucose-metabolism
#15
Claudia Fumarola, Daniele Cretella, Silvia La Monica, Mara A Bonelli, Roberta Alfieri, Cristina Caffarra, Federico Quaini, Denise Madeddu, Angela Falco, Andrea Cavazzoni, Graziana Digiacomo, Giulia Mazzaschi, Valentina Vivo, Elisabetta Barocelli, Marcello Tiseo, Pier Giorgio Petronini, Andrea Ardizzoni
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling is a complex pathway which controls several processes, including cell proliferation, survival, migration, and metabolism. FGFR1 signaling is frequently deregulated via amplification/over-expression in NSCLC of squamous histotype (SQCLC), however its inhibition has not been successfully translated in clinical setting. We determined whether targeting downstream signaling implicated in FGFR1 effects on glucose metabolism potentiates the anti-tumor activity of FGFR1 inhibition in SQCLC...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752076/molecular-machineries-of-ph-dysregulation-in-tumor-microenvironment-potential-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Reza Asgharzadeh, Jaleh Barar, Mohammad M Pourseif, Morteza Eskandani, Mojtaba Jafari Niya, Mohammad Reza Mashayekhi, Yadollah Omidi
Introduction: Cancer is an intricate disorder/dysfunction of cells that can be defined as a genetic heterogeneity in human disease. Therefore, it is characterized by several adaptive complex hallmarks. Among them, the pH dysregulation appears as a symbol of aberrant functions within the tumor microenvironment (TME). In comparison with normal tissues, in the solid tumors, we face with an irregular acidification and alkalinization of the extracellular and intracellular fluids. Methods: In this study, we comprehensively discussed the most recent reports on the hallmarks of solid tumors to provide deep insights upon the molecular machineries involved in the pH dysregulation of solid tumors and their impacts on the initiation and progression of cancer...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751307/esglut4-and-chhbp-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis-in-the-crustacean-eriocheir-sinensis
#17
Ran Li, Jin-Ze Tian, Mo-Ran Wang, Li-Na Zhu, Jin-Sheng Sun
Glucose is an essential energy source for both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, glucose uptake is mediated primarily by glucose transporters (GLUTs), members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of passive transporters. Among the GLUTs, GLUT4 is the main glucose transporter in muscles and adipocytes. In skeletal muscle cells, GLUT4 interacts with the lipid raft protein flotillin to transport glucose upon stimulation by insulin. Although several studies have examined GLUT4 function in mammals, few have been performed in crustaceans, which also use glucose as their main energy source...
July 27, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747976/immunohistochemical-localization-of-glucose-transporter-1-and-3-in-the-scrotal-and-abdominal-testes-of-a-dog
#18
Kyu Ri Hahn, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Yang Hee Kim, Young Kwang Jo, Geon A Kim, Jin Young Chung, Jung Hoon Choi, In Koo Hwang, Goo Jang, Yeo Sung Yoon
Glucose is essential for testicular function; the uptake of carbohydrate-derived glucose by cells is mediated by glucose transporters (GLUTs). In the present study, we investigated the activity of GLUT1 and GLUT3, the two main isoforms of GLUTs found in testes, in the left scrotal and right abdominal testes of a German Shepherd dog. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GLUT1 immunoreactivity was absent in the scrotal and abdominal testes. In contrast, weak to moderate GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in mature spermatocytes as well as spermatids in the scrotal testis...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746873/deletion-of-glut1-and-glut3-reveals-multiple-roles-for-glucose-metabolism-in-platelet-and-megakaryocyte-function
#19
Trevor P Fidler, Robert A Campbell, Trevor Funari, Nicholas Dunne, Enrique Balderas Angeles, Elizabeth A Middleton, Dipayan Chaudhuri, Andrew S Weyrch, E Dale Abel
Anucleate platelets circulate in the blood to facilitate thrombosis and diverse immune functions. Platelet activation leading to clot formation correlates with increased glycogenolysis, glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and lactic acid production. Simultaneous deletion of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT3 (double knockout [DKO]) specifically in platelets completely abolished glucose uptake. In DKO platelets, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, such as glutamate, increased...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740135/establishing-a-yeast-based-screening-system-for-discovery-of-human-glut5-inhibitors-and-activators
#20
Joanna Tripp, Christine Essl, Cristina V Iancu, Eckhard Boles, Jun-Yong Choe, Mislav Oreb
Human GLUT5 is a fructose-specific transporter in the glucose transporter family (GLUT, SLC2 gene family). Its substrate-specificity and tissue-specific expression make it a promising target for treatment of diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cancer, but few GLUT5 inhibitors are known. To identify and characterize potential GLUT5 ligands, we developed a whole-cell system based on a yeast strain deficient in fructose uptake, in which GLUT5 transport activity is associated with cell growth in fructose-based media or assayed by fructose uptake in whole cells...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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