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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938485/duodenal-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-1-expression-under-fasting-conditions-is-associated-with-post-load-hyperglycemia
#1
Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Evelina Suraci, Gaetano Paride Arcidiacono, Antonio Cimellaro, Chiara Mignogna, Ivan Presta, Francesco Andreozzi, Marta Letizia Hribal, Francesco Perticone, Giuseppe Donato, Francesco Luzza, Giorgio Sesti
Context: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with a higher intestinal expression of the glucose transporters sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2). It is currently unsettled whether prediabetes conditions characterized by post-prandial hyperglycemia, such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-h post-load glucose ≥155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) (NGT-1h-high) are associated with increased expression of these glucose carriers in the intestine...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936585/understanding-intestinal-glucose-transporter-expression-in-obese-compared-to-non-obese-subjects
#2
Rebecca A Deal, Yueming Tang, Reid Fletcher, Alfonso Torquati, Philip Omotosho
INTRODUCTION: The impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on weight loss and co-morbid disease resolution is well established. However, the mechanisms underlying the procedure remain incompletely understood. Intestinal remodeling involving glucose transporters (GLUTs) may play a crucial role. Rat studies have demonstrated morphological adaptation of GLUTs within adipose and intestinal cells in association with the reprogramming of glucose metabolism. There is a limited understanding of the variations in expression amongst GLUT family receptors in the human intestine...
September 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933733/melatonin-decreases-glucose-metabolism-in-prostate-cancer-cells-a-13-c-stable-isotope-resolved-metabolomic-study
#3
David Hevia, Pedro Gonzalez-Menendez, Mario Fernandez-Fernandez, Sergio Cueto, Pablo Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Jose I Garcia-Alonso, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz
The pineal neuroindole melatonin exerts an exceptional variety of systemic functions. Some of them are exerted through its specific membrane receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2) while others are mediated by receptor-independent mechanisms. A potential transport of melatonin through facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT/SLC2A) was proposed in prostate cancer cells. The prostate cells have a particular metabolism that changes during tumor progression. During the first steps of carcinogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation is reactivated while the switch to the "Warburg effect" only occurs in advanced tumors and in the metastatic stage...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933603/autophagy-enables-retromer-dependent-plasma-membrane-translocation-of-slc2a1-glut-to-enhance-glucose-uptake
#4
Srirupa Roy, Jayanta Debnath
Macroautophagy/autophagy is traditionally viewed as an intracellular catabolic pathway that recycles core metabolites during starvation or stress. Recently, we found that autophagy also functions in the control of glucose uptake from the extracellular environment by facilitating cell surface expression of the glucose transporter SLC2A1/GLUT1. In response to increased glycolytic demand or acute glucose starvation, autophagosome induction titrates the RabGAP protein TBC1D5 away from its inhibitory interaction with the retromer complex and into MAP1LC3(+) compartments...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926527/genistein-suppresses-aerobic-glycolysis-and-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-death
#5
Sainan Li, Jingjing Li, Weiqi Dai, Qinghui Zhang, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Tong Liu, Qiang Yu, Shizan Xu, Wenwen Wang, Xiya Lu, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Xiaoming Fan, Wenhui Mo, Ling Xu, Chuanyong Guo
BACKGROUND: Genistein is a natural isoflavone with many health benefits, including antitumour effects. Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) levels and glycolysis in tumour cells are associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer progression, and resistance to therapy. However, the effect of genistein on HIF-1α and glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. METHODS: Cell viability, apoptosis rate, lactate production, and glucose uptake were measured in HCC cell lines with genistein incubation...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926107/fenofibrate-reverses-changes-induced-by-high-fat-diet-on-metabolism-in-mice-muscle-and-visceral-adipocytes
#6
Flávia de Toledo Frias, Karina Cunha E Rocha, Mariana de Mendonça, Gilson Massahiro Murata, Hygor Nunes Araujo, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Érica de Souza, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Nayara de Carvalho Leite, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Rui Curi, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Alice Cristina Rodrigues
The effect of fenofibrate on the metabolism of skeletal muscle and visceral white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was investigated. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for eight weeks. Fenofibrate (50 mg/Kg b.w., daily) was administered by oral gavage during the last two weeks of the experimental period. Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in soleus muscles, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, indirect calorimetry, lipolysis of visceral white adipose tissue, expression of miR-103-3p in adipose tissue and miR-1a, miR-133a/b, miR-206, let7b-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-29-3p, miR-143-3p in soleus muscle, genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, and proteins (phospho-AMPKα2, Pgc1α, Cpt1b), intramuscular lipid staining, and activities of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901427/microrna%C3%A2-106b-regulates-skeletal-muscle-insulin-sensitivity-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-targeting-mitofusion%C3%A2-2
#7
Ying Zhang, Wei He, Yuan-Fu Gao, Zhong-Min Fan, Chun-Lin Gao, Zheng-Kun Xia
MicroRNA‑106b (miR‑106b) is reported to be closely associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present study further investigated the role of miR‑106b in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in vivo. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and infected with lentivirus expressing miR‑106b (miR‑106b mice), miR‑106b sponge (miR‑106b inhibition mice) or the corresponding empty vectors. Mitofusion‑2 (Mfn2) protein expression levels and glucose transporter (Glut)‑4 protein translocation were significantly reduced in the muscle of miR‑106b mice, whereas they were unaffected in miR‑106b inhibition mice...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888936/%C3%AE-arrestin-2-is-involved-in-irisin-induced-glucose-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetes-via-p38-mapk-signaling
#8
Yaling Pang, Haihui Zhu, Jianqin Xu, Lihua Yang, Lingjiao Liu, Jing Li
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disease worldwide. It has been reported that irisin play regulatory role in glucose metabolism in T2DM. However, the underlying mechanism involved in that is not completely known. Herein, we determined the novel role of β-arrestin-2 in irisin-induced glucose utilization in diabetes. Effects of irisin and β-arrestin-2 on glucose utilization were investigated in a rat model of diabetes and in diabetic C2C12 cells in vitro. Results showed that irisin had positive role in glucose metabolism via regulating glucose tolerance as well as uptake in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues, as evidenced by IPGTT, 2-deoxyglucose uptake and plasma membrane GLUT-4 assay...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886437/apple-and-blackcurrant-polyphenol-rich-drinks-decrease-postprandial-glucose-insulin-and-incretin-response-to-a-high-carbohydrate-meal-in-healthy-men-and-women
#9
Monica L Castro-Acosta, Stephanie G Stone, Jonathan E Mok, Rhia K Mhajan, Chi-Ieng Fu, Georgia N Lenihan-Geels, Christopher P Corpe, Wendy L Hall
Postprandial glycemic responses to meals are inhibited by polyphenol-rich plant foods. Combinations of polyphenols may be particularly effective through complementary mechanisms. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded cross-over trial was conducted in healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that apple and blackcurrant polyphenol-rich drinks would reduce postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Secondary outcomes included insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion. Twenty men (mean age 26 y, SD 8) and 5 postmenopausal women (mean age 57 y, SD 3) consumed a placebo drink (CON) and 2 polyphenol-rich drinks containing fruit extracts: either 1200 mg apple polyphenols (AE), or 600 mg apple polyphenols+600 mg blackcurrant anthocyanins (AE+BE), in random order with a starch and sucrose meal...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881518/-refractory-kaposiform-hemangioendothelioma-with-kasabach-merritt-syndrome-clinical-analysis-of-10-cases
#10
G L Zhang, Y Gao, Y Liu, F Gu, W Su, Q Qin, J Y Chen, H H Zhang, J Yang, X Y Liu
Objective: To analyze the clinical value of sirolimus plus prednisone for the treatment of the refractory kaposiform hemangioendothelioma(RKHE) and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome(KMS). Method: Clinical retrospective analysis was carried out for 10 patients recruited in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Paediatrics from January 2014 to January 2017 who were non responders to or relapsers after the treatment of propranolol, prednisone, pingyangmycin and lauromacrogol(5 cases RKHE, 5 cases RKHE plus KMS, age ranged from 6 days to 9 years); patients were treated with sirolimus at the dosage of 0...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879655/pretreatment-with-fish-oil-attenuates-heart-ischemia-consequences-in-rats
#11
Alcione Lescano de Souza Junior, Jorge Mancini Filho, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen, Rui Curi
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA)-rich fish oil supplementation has protective effects on heart ischemic injury. Left ventricular (LV) ischemia was induced in rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Saline, fish oil or soybean oil was administered daily by gavage (3 g kg(-1) b.w.) for 20 days before inducing ischemia. Outcomes were assessed 24 hours after left coronary artery ligation. Pretreatment with fish oil decreased the ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio in the LV. Reduction in infarct size and in the intensity of ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in the fish oil group as compared with the saline or soybean oil groups through echocardiographic evaluation...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875327/the-effects-of-selenium-supplementation-on-gene-expression-related-to-insulin-and-lipid-in-infertile-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-women-candidate-for-in-vitro-fertilization-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Shahrzad Zadeh Modarres, Zahra Heidar, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Zahra Rahmati, Esmat Aghadavod, Zatollah Asemi
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on gene expression related to insulin and lipid in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) candidate for in vitro fertilization (IVF). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 40 infertile women with PCOS candidate for IVF. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either 200-μg selenium (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 8 weeks. Gene expression levels related to insulin and lipid were quantified in lymphocytes of women with PCOS candidate for IVF with RT-PCR method...
September 5, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874144/circadian-disruption-promotes-tumor-growth-by-anabolic-host-metabolism-experimental-evidence-in-a-rat-model
#13
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Raful Navarro-Espíndola, Mara A Guzmán-Ruíz, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ana López-Bago, Ricardo Lascurain, Cinthya Córdoba-Manilla, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to LL or a regular light-dark cycle (LD) for 5 weeks...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869040/the-impact-of-obesity-in-the-cardiac-lipidomic-and-its-consequences-in-the-cardiac-damage-observed-in-obese-rats
#14
Gema Marín-Royo, Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Beatriz Gutiérrez, Raquel Jurado-López, Isabel Gallardo, Olimpio Montero, Mª Visitación Bartolomé, José Alberto San Román, Mercedes Salaices, María Luisa Nieto, Victoria Cachofeiro
AIMS: To explore the impact of obesity on the cardiac lipid profile in rats with diet-induced obesity, as well as to evaluate whether or not the specific changes in lipid species are associated with cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD, 35% fat) or standard diet (3.5% fat) for 6 weeks. Cardiac lipids were analyzed using by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: HFD rats showed cardiac fibrosis and enhanced levels of cardiac superoxide anion (O2), HOMA index, adiposity, and plasma leptin, as well as a reduction in those of cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT 4), compared with control animals...
August 28, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854935/distribution-of-glucose-transporters-in-renal-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Leszek Szablewski
Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney.Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three families of glucose transporters: GLUT proteins, sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) and SWEET...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852964/ppar-%C3%AE-and-akt-regulate-glut1-and-glut3-surface-localization-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#16
Shyamashree Dasgupta, Ramesh Chandra Rai
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as a pathogen stems from its ability to manipulate the host macrophage towards increased lipid biogenesis and lipolysis inhibition. Inhibition of lipolysis requires augmented uptake of glucose into the host cell causing an upregulation of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3 on the cell surface. Mechanism behind this upregulation of the GLUT proteins during Mtb infection is hitherto unknown and demands intensive investigation in order to understand the pathways linked with governing them...
August 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851583/chemical-transport-knockout-for-oxidized-vitamin-c-dehydroascorbic-acid-reveals-its-functions-in-vivo
#17
Hongbin Tu, Yu Wang, Hongyan Li, Lauren R Brinster, Mark Levine
Despite its transport by glucose transporters (GLUTs) in vitro, it is unknown whether dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized vitamin C, DHA) has any in vivo function. To investigate, we created a chemical transport knockout model using the vitamin C analog 6-bromo-ascorbate. This analog is transported on sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters but its oxidized form, 6-bromo-dehydroascorbic acid, is not transported by GLUTs. Mice (gulo(-/-)) unable to synthesize ascorbate (vitamin C) were raised on 6-bromo-ascorbate...
August 22, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843149/berberine-chloride-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-the-pancreas-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Govindasami Chandirasegaran, Chakkaravarthy Elanchezhiyan, Kavisa Ghosh, Subramaniam Sethupathy
Berberine chloride (BC) has been widely used as an unprescribed oral drug in China for the treatment of various diseases, and it is an active ingredient in many traditionally used medicinal plants. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the beneficial effects of BC on oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pancreas of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the male Wistar albino rats using a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ of 40mg/kg b.w. Diabetic rats were treated with BC (50mg/kg b...
August 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837922/development-of-glut4-selective-antagonists-for-multiple-myeloma-therapy
#19
Changyong Wei, Richa Bajpai, Horrick Sharma, Monique Heitmeier, Atul D Jain, Shannon M Matulis, Ajay K Nooka, Rama K Mishra, Paul W Hruz, Gary E Schiltz, Mala Shanmugam
Cancer cells consume more glucose to fuel metabolic programs fundamental to sustaining their survival, growth and proliferation. Among the fourteen SLC2A family members, GLUTs 1 and 4 are high-affinity glucose transporters. GLUT4 (SLC2A4) is highly expressed in muscle and adipose tissue. Basally retained within the cell, GLUT4 traffics to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to insulin and exercise-stimulation. The plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma (MM) exhibits increased constitutive expression of GLUT4 on the PM, co-opting use of GLUT4 for survival and proliferation...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835141/transplantation-of-stromal-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-and-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-primed-insulin-producing-cells-reverses-hyperglycaemia-in-diabetic-rats
#20
Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Azra Mehmood, Muhammad Ali, Hira Butt, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
The defective insulin production is associated with severely reduced islet cell mass leading to diabetes. Growth factors preconditioned stem cells have arisen as an effective therapy to treat many diseases including diabetes. The current study was designed to assess the effect of pretreatment of ASCs derived IPCs with combination of stromal cell derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1α) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in improving glucose tolerance in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed maximally significant reduction in hyperglycaemia and fibrosis, while up-regulation of survival and pancreas-specific genes, insulin levels and homing of transplanted cells in SDF-1α + bFGF IPCs transplanted rats as compared with other groups...
August 24, 2017: Growth Factors
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