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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428072/membrane-lipid-alterations-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-the-role-of-dietary-oils
#1
REVIEW
Javier S Perona
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of pathological conditions, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and low HDL levels that is of great concern worldwide, as individuals with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance, the key feature of the metabolic syndrome, might be at the same time cause and consequence of impaired lipid composition in plasma membranes of insulin-sensitive tissues like liver, muscle and adipose tissue...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427288/cigarette-smokers-develop-altered-erythrocyte-membrane-composition-an-investigation-unmasking-the-role-of-membrane-bound-integral-protein-glut-1
#2
Jyotirmoy Sikdar, Paromita Seal, Amartya Roy, Rajen Haldar
Erythrocytes in cigarette smokers are prone to oxidative damage. Here we sought to elucidate the facts behind modifications and possible defense system developed in erythrocyte of cigarette smokers. We observed significant increase in stomatocytes and spherocytes, and osmotic fragility of erythrocyte, along with reduced level of protein thiol and increased fluorescence anisotropy in isolated membrane. Denaturing gel electrophoresis indicated alterations in band 3, band 4.2 and band 4.5. Among those, Glut 1 (i...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410229/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-simultaneous-inhibition-of-glut-1-and-hif-1%C3%AE-by-antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides-on-the-radiosensitivity-of-laryngeal-carcinoma-using-micro-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#3
Li-Fang Shen, Xin Zhao, Shui-Hong Zhou, Zhong-Jie Lu, Kui Zhao, Jun Fan, Min-Li Zhou
PURPOSE: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) are two important hypoxic markers associated with the radioresistance of cancers including laryngeal carcinoma. We evaluated whether the simultaneous inhibition of GLUT-1 and HIF-1α expression improved the radiosensitivity of laryngeal carcinoma. We explored whether the expression of HIF-1α and GLUT-1 was correlated with 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake and whether 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) was appropriate for early evaluation of the response of laryngeal carcinoma to targeted treatment in vivo...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410190/dietary-oleuropein-inhibits-tumor-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-in-the-b16f10-melanoma-allograft-model-a-mechanism-for-the-suppression-of-high-fat-diet-induced-solid-tumor-growth-and-lymph-node-metastasis
#4
Hyerim Song, Do Young Lim, Jae In Jung, Han Jin Cho, So Young Park, Gyoo Taik Kwon, Young-Hee Kang, Ki Won Lee, Myung-Sook Choi, Jung Han Yoon Park
Previously, we reported that high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity stimulates melanoma progression in the B16F10 allograft model. In this study, we examined whether oleuropein (OL), the most abundant phenolic compound in olives, inhibits HFD-induced melanoma progression. Four-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were fed a HFD-diet with or without OL. After 16 weeks of feeding, B16F10-luc cells were subcutaneously injected and the primary tumor was resected 3 weeks later. OL suppressed HFD-induced solid tumor growth. In the tumor tissues, OL reduced HFD-induced expression of angiogenesis (CD31, VE-cadherin, VEGF-A, and VEGFR2), lymphangiogenesis (LYVE-1, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR3), and hypoxia (HIF-1α and GLUT-1) markers as well as HFD-induced increases in lipid vacuoles and M2 macrophages (MΦs)...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407791/accelerated-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#5
Emma K Hollmann, Amanda K Bailey, Archit V Potharazu, M Diana Neely, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann
BACKGROUND: Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which compose the blood-brain barrier (BBB), for research purposes. Unfortunately, the time, expense, and expertise required to differentiate iPSCs to purified BMECs precludes their widespread use. Here, we report the use of a defined medium that accelerates the differentiation of iPSCs to BMECs while achieving comparable performance to BMECs produced by established methods...
April 13, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404916/expression-of-hif-1%C3%AE-in-medullary-thyroid-cancer-identifies-a-subgroup-with-poor-prognosis
#6
Lutske Lodewijk, Paul van Diest, Petra van der Groep, Natalie Ter Hoeve, Abbey Schepers, Johannes Morreau, Johannes Bonenkamp, Adriana van Engen-van Grunsven, Schelto Kruijff, Bettien van Hemel, Thera Links, Els Nieveen van Dijkum, Susanne van Eeden, Gerlof Valk, Inne Borel Rinkes, Menno Vriens
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) comprises only 4% of all thyroid cancers and originates from the parafollicular C-cells. HIF-1α expression has been implied as an indicator of worse prognosis in various solid tumors. However, whether expression of HIF-1α is a prognosticator in MTC remained unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of HIF-1α in patients with MTC. METHODS: All patients with MTC who were operated on between 1988 and 2014 in five tertiary referral centers in The Netherlands were included...
February 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401064/helicobacter-pylori-induced-phosphatidylinositol-3-oh-kinase-mtor-activation-increases-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-to-promote-loss-of-cyclin-d1-and-g0-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-in-human-gastric-cells
#7
Jimena Canales, Manuel Valenzuela, Jimena Bravo, Paulina Cerda-Opazo, Carla Jorquera, Héctor Toledo, Denisse Bravo, Andrew F G Quest
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen that has been linked to the development of several gastric pathologies, such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. In the gastric epithelium, the bacterium modifies many signaling pathways, resulting in contradictory responses that favor both proliferation and apoptosis. Consistent with such observations, H. pylori activates routes associated with cell cycle progression and cell cycle arrest. H. pylori infection also induces the hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1α, a transcription factor known to promote expression of genes that permit metabolic adaptation to the hypoxic environment in tumors and angiogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396610/modulation-of-glucose-metabolism-by-a-natural-compound-from-chloranthus-japonicus-via-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#8
Rongkuan Hu, Huan Yan, Xiaoyan Fei, Haiyang Liu, Jiarui Wu
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor and regulator of glucose metabolism. Here, we demonstrated that shizukaol F, a natural compound isolated from Chloranthus japonicus, can activate AMPK and modulate glucose metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Shizukaol F increased glucose uptake in differentiated C2C12 myotubes by stimulating glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) membraned translocation. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes with shizukaol F decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395363/natural-products-as-lead-compounds-for-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-sglt-inhibitors
#9
Wolfgang Blaschek
Glucose homeostasis is maintained by antagonistic hormones such as insulin and glucagon as well as by regulation of glucose absorption, gluconeogenesis, biosynthesis and mobilization of glycogen, glucose consumption in all tissues and glomerular filtration, and reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys. Glucose enters or leaves cells mainly with the help of two membrane integrated transporters belonging either to the family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) or to the family of sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs)...
April 10, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391691/both-pept1-and-gluts-intestinal-transporters-are-utilized-by-a-novel-glycopeptide-pro-hyp-conh-glcn
#10
Mengmeng Feng, Mirko Betti
Pro-Hyp (PO) accounts for many beneficial biological effects of collagen hydrolysates for skin and bone health. The objective of this study was to conjugate PO with glucosamine (GlcN) to create a novel glycopeptide Pro-Hyp-CONH-GlcN (POGlcN) and then to investigate the potential involvement of multiple transepithelial transport pathways for this glycopeptide. NMR results revealed the amide nature of this glycopeptide with α and β configuration derived from GlcN. This glycopeptide was very resistant to simulated gastrointestinal digestion...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391081/glucose-decorated-gold-nanoclusters-a-membrane-potential-independent-fluorescence-probe-for-rapid-identification-of-cancer-cells-expressing-glut-receptors
#11
Sanjay Singh
The effective nanomedicines require nanoparticles to attach or adhere to the cell surface, which is dictated by several parameters of nanoparticles such as shape, size, charge, and composition. However, these parameters lead to the membrane potential dependent non-specific delivery of therapeutic or imaging nanosystems into cancer cells. This leads to significant complications and results into the serious impediment to effective treatment of cancer. Cancer cells are known to metabolize high amount of glucose in order to support their rapid proliferation and expansion...
April 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390134/primordial-odontogenic-tumor-an-immunohistochemical-profile
#12
R Bologna-Molina, T Mikami, V Pereira-Prado, F-R Pires, R Carlos-Bregni, A Mosqueda-Taylor
BACKGROUND: Primordial Odontogenic Tumor (POT) is a recently described odontogenic tumor characterized by a variably cellular loose fibrous tissue with areas similar to the dental papilla, covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium that resembles the internal epithelium of the enamel organ, surrounded at least partly by a delicate fibrous capsule. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible histogenesis and biological behavior of this rare tumor by means of a wide immunohistochemical analysis of its epithelial and mesenchymal components...
April 8, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387741/effects-of-low-molecular-weight-fucoidan-and-high-stability-fucoxanthin-on-glucose-homeostasis-lipid-metabolism-and-liver-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-ii-diabetes
#13
Hong-Ting Victor Lin, Yu-Chi Tsou, Yu-Ting Chen, Wen-Jung Lu, Pai-An Hwang
The combined effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF) and fucoxanthin (Fx) in terms of antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hepatoprotective activities were investigated in a mouse model of type II diabetes. The intake of LMF, Fx, and LMF + Fx lowered the blood sugar and fasting blood sugar levels, and increased serum adiponectin levels. The significant decrease in urinary sugar was only observed in LMF + Fx supplementation. LMF and Fx had ameliorating effects on the hepatic tissue of db/db mice by increasing hepatic glycogen and antioxidative enzymes, and LMF was more effective than Fx at improving hepatic glucose metabolism...
April 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381136/expression-of-glut-1-in-normal-endometrium-and-endometrial-lesions
#14
Kristýna Němejcová, Jana Rosmusová, Michaela Bártů, Miroslav Důra, Ivana Tichá, Pavel Dundr
BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) is a membrane glycoprotein that is, together with other glucose transporters, responsible for the regulation of glucose uptake. An increased expression of this protein seems to be a general feature of several malignant tumors that are able to reprogram their metabolism and switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. METHODS: We performed comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of Glut-1 expression in 336 endometrial samples, including tumors, nontumor lesions, and normal tissues...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379195/avian-and-mammalian-facilitative-glucose-transporters
#15
REVIEW
Mary Shannon Byers, Christianna Howard, Xiaofei Wang
The GLUT members belong to a family of glucose transporter proteins that facilitate glucose transport across the cell membrane. The mammalian GLUT family consists of thirteen members (GLUTs 1-12 and H⁺-myo-inositol transporter (HMIT)). Humans have a recently duplicated GLUT member, GLUT14. Avians express the majority of GLUT members. The arrangement of multiple GLUTs across all somatic tissues signifies the important role of glucose across all organisms. Defects in glucose transport have been linked to metabolic disorders, insulin resistance and diabetes...
April 5, 2017: Microarrays
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377317/dehydroascorbate-derivatized-chitosan-particles-for-targeting-antimalarial-agents-to-infected-erythrocytes
#16
Hasham Shafi, D V Siva Reddy, Tabassum Khan, Rajeev Ranjan, Ashish Srivastava, Suniti Vaishya, Tanuj Sharma, Mohammad Imran Siddiqui, Saman Habib, Amit Misra
The mammalian glucose transporter GLUT-1 and Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT1 are overexpressed on human RBC infected with the parasite (iRBC), presumably for enhanced glucose uptake. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) competes out glucose in GLUT-1 binding. We prepared particles containing chloroquine phosphate using novel derivatives of chitosan (CSN). CSN was either pre-derivatized with DHA (PRE) or particles made of CSN were derivatized by surface-grafting DHA (POST). The optimized formulations were analyzed for size (170-200nm) drug content (about 40%) entrapment efficiency (50-57%), in vitro drug release (80% in 72h, Higuchi's model), hemolysis on exposure to whole blood or RBC at 5% hematocrit, cytotoxicity towards cultured HEK 293T (kidney) and HepG2 (hepatic) cells, targeting iRBC and in vitro efficacy against P...
April 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365520/lack-of-effect-of-the-procarcinogenic-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-nutrient-uptake-by-the-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cell-line
#17
C Nunes, C Silva, A Correia-Branco, F Martel
Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the population, especially in older women. Estrogen is known to be a key hormone in the development and progression of mammary carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated if the procarcinogenic effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) in breast cancer MCF-7 cells is dependent on changes in glucose or folic acid cellular uptake. The effect of E2 on uptake of (3)H-deoxy-d-glucose, (3)H-folic acid, cell proliferation (3-thymidine incorporation assay), culture growth (sulforhodamine B assay), viability (lactate dehydrogenase activity assay), lactate production and migration capacity (injury assay) was evaluated...
March 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364599/flavonoids-from-enicostema-littorale-blume-enhances-glucose-uptake-of-cells-in-insulin-resistant-human-liver-cancer-hepg2-cell-line-via-irs-1-pi3k-akt-pathway
#18
Priyanka Mokashi, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
Diabetes mellitus has spread over the world with 347 million people affected. Insulin resistance is a main pathogenic event in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) leading to a reduction in glucose uptake by peripheral tissue and increased hepatic glucose output. In this study, we have isolated four flavonoid rich fractions fraction A (FA), fraction B (FB), fraction C (FC) and fraction D (FD) from Enicostema littorale. All the fractions were preliminary screened for TLC fingerprinting, total flavonoid content. Total eight flavonoids were identified by LC/MS...
March 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352546/bioactivities-of-fish-protein-hydrolysates-from-defatted-salmon-backbones
#19
Rasa Slizyte, Katariina Rommi, Revilija Mozuraityte, Peter Eck, Kathrine Five, Turid Rustad
Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346751/d-fructose-modification-enhanced-internalization-of-mixed-micelles-in-breast-cancer-cells-via-glut5-transporters
#20
Xu Zhou, Xianyan Qin, Tao Gong, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Yao Fu
d-Fructose modified poly(ε-caprolactone)-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG-Fru) diblock amphiphile is synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry, which self-assembles with D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) into PCL-PEG-Fru/TPGS mixed micelles (PPF MM). It has been proven that glucose transporter (GLUT)5 is overexpressed in MCF-7 cells other than L929 cells. In this study, PPF MM exhibit a significantly higher uptake efficiency than fructose-free PCL-PEG-N3 /TPGS mixed micelles in both 2D MCF-7 cells and 3D tumor spheroids...
March 27, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
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