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Target-specific anticoagulant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136827/biobarcode-assay-for-the-oral-anticoagulant-acenocoumarol
#1
Marta Broto, J Pablo Salvador, Roger Galve, M Pilar Marco
A novel approach for therapeutic drug monitoring of oral anticoagulants (OA) in clinical samples is reported, based on a NP-based biobarcode assay. The proposed strategy uses specific antibodies for acenocumarol (ACL) covalently bound to magnetic particles (pAb236-MP) and a bioconjugate competitor (hACL-BSA) linked to encoded polystyrene probes (hACL-BSA-ePSP) on a classical competitive immunochemical format. By using this scheme ACL can be detected in low nM range (LOD, 0.96 ± 0.26, N = 3, in buffer) even in complex samples such as serum or plasma (LOD 4 ± 1)...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135251/micellar-thrombin-binding-aptamers-reversible-nanoscale-anticoagulants
#2
Alexander Roloff, Andrea S Carlini, Cassandra E Callmann, Nathan C Gianneschi
Aptamers are nucleic acid-based ligands that exhibit promising features including specific and reversible target binding and inhibition. Aptamers can function as anticoagulants if they are directed against enzymes of the coagulation cascade. However, they typically suffer from nucleolytic digestion and fast clearance from the bloodstream. We present thrombin-binding aptamer amphiphiles that self-assemble into nanoscale polymeric micelles with a densely functionalized aptamer-displaying corona. We show that these micellar aptamers retain their native secondary structure in a crowded environment and are stabilized against degradation by nucleases in human serum...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127864/assessment-of-the-quality-of-anticoagulation-management-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#3
Tamara Roldan, Elena Villamañán, Juan J Rios, Aaron B Waxman
BACKGROUND: Studies assessing the quality of anticoagulation therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of anticoagulation management, the rate of anticoagulation-related complications in patients with PAH, and to identify risk factors for poor anticoagulation. METHODS: This observational, retrospective cohort study included patients with confirmed PAH taking a regimen of oral anticoagulants from two centers: Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, and Hospital Universitario La Paz in Madrid from January 2009 to August 2015...
November 2, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100534/validation-of-a-pan-orthopox-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-viral-genomes-from-nonhuman-primate-blood
#4
Eric M Mucker, Christopher Hartmann, Donna Hering, Wendy Giles, David Miller, Robert Fisher, John Huggins
BACKGROUND: In 1980, smallpox disease was eradicated from nature and Variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, was confined to two laboratories, one located in Russia (Moscow) later moved to VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Siberia) and one in the United States (CDC Atlanta). Vaccinations among the general public ceased shortly after the successful eradication campaign, resulting in an increasingly immunologically susceptible population. Because of the possibility of intentional reintroduction of Variola virus and the emergence of other pathogenic poxviruses, there is a great need for the development of medical countermeasures to treat poxvirus disease...
November 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094808/dietary-vitamin-k-and-association-with-hepatic-vitamin-k-status-in-a-yup-ik-study-population-from-southwestern-alaska
#5
Nicholas T Au, Tove Ryman, Allan E Rettie, Scarlett E Hopkins, Bert B Boyer, Jynene Black, Jacques Philip, Joseph Yracheta, Alison E Fohner, Morayma Reyes, Timothy A Thornton, Melissa A Austin, Kenneth E Thummel
SCOPE: We investigated the relationship between dietary vitamin K and plasma PIVKA-II concentration, a biomarker of hepatic vitamin K status, in a Yup'ik study population in southwestern Alaska. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 659 male and female, self-reported Yup'ik people, ≥ 14 years of age, were enrolled. Blood was collected for genotyping and plasma PIVKA-II biomarker analysis. A Yup'ik-specific dietary food frequency questionnaire was used to assess vitamin K intake...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050502/first-evidence-trap-induced-platelet-aggregation-is-reduced-in-patients-receiving-xabans
#6
Frantisek Nehaj, Juraj Sokol, Jela Ivankova, Michal Mokan, Frantisek Kovar, Jan Stasko, Marian Mokan
The availability of direct oral anticoagulants has caused a paradigm shift in the management of thrombosis. Rivaroxaban and apixaban are 2 direct oral anticoagulants whose target specificity is activated factor X (FXa). However, it is still not fully understood if and how xabans impact platelet function. This observational study aimed to assess the in vitro platelet function in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving xabans. This was a single-center study quantifying platelet aggregation in 41 patients treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban by light transmission aggregometry...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027516/-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-recognition-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
D Ruigrok, P Symersky, P W G Elbers, S Kamminga, L J Meijboom, H J Bogaard
- Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), characterised by pulmonary hypertension and persistent perfusion defects despite adequate anticoagulation, causes significant morbidity and mortality.- Persistent dyspnoea after acute pulmonary embolism is frequent and an indication for additional diagnostics. Only a minority of these patients develop CTEPH.- Echocardiography and perfusion scintigraphy are the cornerstone of diagnostics when suspecting CTEPH. Right-heart catheterisation and pulmonary angiography should confirm the diagnosis...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023569/pancreatic-and-snake-venom-presynaptically-active-phospholipases-a2-inhibit-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#8
Catherine A Vulfius, Igor E Kasheverov, Elena V Kryukova, Ekaterina N Spirova, Irina V Shelukhina, Vladislav G Starkov, Tatyana V Andreeva, Grazyna Faure, Marios Zouridakis, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974047/heparin-mimetics-their-therapeutic-potential
#9
REVIEW
Shifaza Mohamed, Deirdre R Coombe
Heparin mimetics are synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds that are highly sulfated, structurally distinct analogues of glycosaminoglycans. These mimetics are often rationally designed to increase potency and binding selectivity towards specific proteins involved in disease manifestations. Some of the major therapeutic arenas towards which heparin mimetics are targeted include: coagulation and thrombosis, cancers, and inflammatory diseases. Although Fondaparinux, a rationally designed heparin mimetic, is now approved for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism, the search for novel anticoagulant heparin mimetics with increased affinity and fewer side effects remains a subject of research...
October 2, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948451/a-diagnostic-approach-to-stroke-in-young-adults
#10
REVIEW
Christopher A Stack, John W Cole
Optimal diagnosis and management of stroke in young adults benefit from a multidisciplinary team, including a vascular neurology specialist. In addition to the "standard" vascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, one needs to consider alternative etiologies including substance abuse, carotid/vertebral artery dissections, and rare genetic conditions among others. Once a young patient is determined to have had a stroke, the next question a clinician should ask is why did this patient have a stroke? A "heart to head" diagnostic approach is recommended...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930804/venous-thromboembolism-in-gynecological-malignancy
#11
Abigail Cohen, Chung Sim Lim, Alun Huw Davies
OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized complication of gynecological malignancy and represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The review aimed to discuss the incidence, risk factors, and clinical presentation of VTE before examining the literature on the diagnosis, prevention, and management in the context of uterine, cervical, ovarian, and vulval cancers. METHODS/MATERIALS: A literature search was performed using Ovid Medline and Embase with the following words: "gynecological malignancy," "pelvic tumor," "venous thromboembolism," "deep vein thrombosis" and "pulmonary embolism...
November 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926093/pulmonary-hypertension-molecular-aspects-of-current-therapeutic-intervention-and-future-direction
#12
REVIEW
Taruna K Arora, Amit K Arora, Monika K Sachdeva, Satyendra K Rajput, Arun K Sharma
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening lung disorder with towering prevalence and risk for future has been gradually rising worldwide. Even, no specific medications are available for pulmonary hypertension; various classes of treatment based upon the origin and magnitude of hypertension are still used for the treatment of PH. Consideration of molecular or signaling modulation is the imperative approach that can offer a new notion for prevalent pharmacotherapeutic agents. Instead of concurrent targets, including endothelin receptor antagonists (ETA/ETB), phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDF-5), calcium channel blockers, anticoagulants, diuretics, and long acting prostacyclin analog, recent scientific reports revealed the numerous potential alternative therapeutic approaches that can significantly target the pathological signaling alteration associated with PH...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887767/management-of-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#13
REVIEW
Roland Veltkamp, Jan Purrucker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current evidence for medical and surgical treatments of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). RECENT FINDINGS: Therapy with hemostatic agents (e.g. factor VIIa and tranexamic acid) if started early after bleeding onset may reduce hematoma expansion, but their clinical effectiveness has not been shown. Rapid anticoagulation reversal with prothrombin concentrates (PCC) plus vitamin K is the first choice in vitamin K antagonist-related ICH...
September 8, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884671/detection-of-fungal-pathogens-by-a-new-broad-range-real-time-pcr-assay-targeting-the-fungal-its2-region
#14
Iris Zeller, Claudia Schabereiter-Gurtner, Verena Mihalits, Brigitte Selitsch, Wolfgang Barousch, Alexander M Hirschl, Athanasios Makristathis, Birgit Willinger
PURPOSE: The rise in the incidence of fungal infections and the expanding spectrum of fungal pathogens make early and broad detection of fungal pathogens essential. In the present study, a panfungal real-time PCR assay for the broad-range detection of fungal DNA (Fungi assay) in a wide variety of clinical specimens was developed. METHODOLOGY: Our in-house, HybProbe real-time PCR assay targets the ITS2 region of fungal DNA. The applicability was evaluated by testing 105 clinical samples from 98 patients with suspected fungal infection...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867127/utilization-of-standard-and-target-specific-oral-anticoagulants-among-adults-in-the-united-kingdom-with-incident-atrial-fibrillation
#15
Todd A Durham, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Anthony J Viera, Jason P Fine, Jayanti Mukherjee, Morris Weinberger, Stacie B Dusetzina
New oral anticoagulants (OACs) and updated risk stratification have the potential to improve the quality of care for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). To describe the time from AF diagnosis to the initiation of an OAC, characteristics associated with treatment, and the incidence of switching OACs, we conducted this retrospective cohort study of 23,018 adults with incident AF receiving care between 2010 and 2014 in 647 primary care practices participating in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855397/inflammatory-monocytes-expressing-tissue-factor-drive-siv-and-hiv-coagulopathy
#16
Melissa E Schechter, Bruno B Andrade, Tianyu He, George Haret Richter, Kevin W Tosh, Benjamin B Policicchio, Amrit Singh, Kevin D Raehtz, Virginia Sheikh, Dongying Ma, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Cristian Apetrei, Russel Tracy, Ruy M Ribeiro, Alan Sher, Ivo M B Francischetti, Ivona Pandrea, Irini Sereti
In HIV infection, persistent inflammation despite effective antiretroviral therapy is linked to increased risk of noninfectious chronic complications such as cardiovascular and thromboembolic disease. A better understanding of inflammatory and coagulation pathways in HIV infection is needed to optimize clinical care. Markers of monocyte activation and coagulation independently predict morbidity and mortality associated with non-AIDS events. We identified a specific subset of monocytes that express tissue factor (TF), persist after virological suppression, and trigger the coagulation cascade by activating factor X...
August 30, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844343/inclusion-of-elderly-or-frail-patients-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-targeted-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Amandine Gouverneur, Francesco Salvo, Driss Berdaï, Nicholas Moore, Annie Fourrier-Réglat, Pernelle Noize
Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been modified since the launching of targeted therapies. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common in elderly patients; their representation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is thus crucial. This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the inclusion of elderly/frail patients in RCTs of targeted therapies in mCRC. A systematic review using Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database and ISI Web of Science was performed to identify all phase II/III RCTs of bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, regorafenib and aflibercept in mCRC until January 2015...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818261/contemporary-medical-therapies-of-atherosclerotic-carotid-artery-disease
#18
REVIEW
Suk F Cheng, Martin M Brown
Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808492/assessment-of-anti-factor-xa-activity-of-enoxaparin-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-morbidly-obese-surgical-patients
#19
Nouf Al Otaib, Zohour Bootah, Maha A Al Ammari, Tariq M Aldebasi, Abdulmalik M Alkatheri, Shmeylan A Al Harbi, Salah M AbuRuz, Abdulkareem M AlBekairy
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be encountered by 60% of hospitalized patients. Anticoagulants have been recommended to reduce the risk of VTE in patients with risk factors. However, no specific dosing recommendations for obese patients are provided in the current practice guidelines. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of weight-based dosing of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis among morbidly obese patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: Adult patients were enrolled if they have a body mass index (BMI) of ≥35 kg/m(2) and were scheduled for surgery...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808190/cholesterol-crystal-embolization-following-plaque-rupture-a-systemic-disease-with-unusual-features
#20
Firas Ghanem, Deepthi Vodnala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Sridevi Durga, Noah Thormeier, Prem Subramaniyam, Scott Abela, George S Abela
Cholesterol crystal embolic (CCE) syndrome is often a clinically challenging condition that has a poor prognostic implication. It is a result of plaque rupture with release of cholesterol crystals into the circulation that embolize into various tissue organs. Plaque rupture seems to be triggered by an expanding necrotic core during cholesterol crystallization forming sharp tipped crystals that perforate and tear the fibrous cap. Embolizing cholesterol crystals then initiate both local and systemic inflammation that eventually lead to vascular fibrosis and obstruction causing symptoms that can mimic other vasculitic conditions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
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