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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334278/a-comparative-safety-review-between-glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-sglt2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-treatment
#1
Agostino Consoli, Gloria Formoso, Maria Pompea Antonia Baldassarre, Fabrizio Febo
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are of particular interest in type 2 diabetes treatment strategies, due to their efficacy in reducing HbA1c with a low risk of hypoglycaemia, to their positive effects on body weight and blood pressure and in light of their effects on cardiovascular risk and on nephroprotection emerged from the most recent cardiovascular outcome trials. Since it is therefore very likely that GLP-1RA and SGLT2i use will become more and more common, it is more and more important to gather and discuss information about their safety profile...
January 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334034/improved-exogenous-dna-uptake-in-bovine-spermatozoa-and-gene-expression-in-embryos-using-membrane-destabilizing-agents-in-icsi-smgt
#2
Esther Sánchez-Villalba, María Elena Arias, Fabiola Zambrano, Pía Loren, Ricardo Felmer
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a simple, fast, and economical biotechnological tool for producing transgenic animals. However, transgene expression with this technique in bovine embryos is still inefficient due to low uptake and binding of exogenous DNA in spermatozoa. The present study evaluated the effects of sperm membrane destabilization on the binding capacity, location and quantity of bound exogenous DNA in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa using Triton X-100 (TX-100), lysolecithin (LL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH)...
January 15, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330622/association-of-soil-potassium-and-sodium-concentrations-with-spatial-disparities-of-prevalence-and-mortality-rates-of-hypertensive-diseases-in-the-usa
#3
Hongbing Sun
Crop available soil potassium is generally low and on the decline in the southeastern states of the USA because of the increasing crop and runoff removal and decreasing application of potassium fertilizer. Hypertension-related mortality rates are also high in the southeastern states and are on the rise. Among 41 elements analyzed from 4856 sites across all 48 states, potassium is identified as the only independent element whose soil concentration has significant association with spatial disparities of essential hypertension and hypertension-related mortality rates in the 48 states between 1999 and 2014...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329843/partial-substitution-of-nacl-by-kcl-and-addition-of-flavor-enhancers-on-probiotic-prato-cheese-a-study-covering-manufacturing-ripening-and-storage-time
#4
Hugo L A Silva, Celso F Balthazar, Erick A Esmerino, Roberto P C Neto, Ramon S Rocha, Jeremias Moraes, Rodrigo N Cavalcanti, Robson M Franco, Maria Inês B Tavares, Jânio S Santos, Daniel Granato, Renata G B Costa, Mônica Q Freitas, Márcia C Silva, Renata S L Raices, C Senaka Ranadheera, Filomena Nazzaro, Amir M Mortazavian, Adriano G Cruz
Cheese is a suitable matrix to deliver probiotic strains but it contains a high amount of sodium. The effect of partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and the addition of flavor enhancers (l-arginine, yeast and oregano extract) on probiotic Prato cheese was investigated after 1, 30, and 60 d of refrigerated storage (immediately after manufacturing, and during ripening and storage). Microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 counts and survival under gastrointestinal conditions), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, fatty acids), bioactivity (antioxidant effect and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity), rheological, and water mobility by means of time domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance were investigated...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328684/hydrodynamic-signatures-of-stationary-marangoni-driven-surfactant-transport
#5
M M Bandi, V S Akella, D K Singh, R S Singh, S Mandre
We experimentally study steady Marangoni-driven surfactant transport on the interface of a deep water layer. Using hydrodynamic measurements, and without using any knowledge of the surfactant physicochemical properties, we show that sodium dodecyl sulphate and Tergitol 15-S-9 introduced in low concentrations result in a flow driven by adsorbed surfactant. At higher surfactant concentration, the flow is dominated by the dissolved surfactant. Using camphoric acid, whose properties are a priori unknown, we demonstrate this method's efficacy by showing its spreading is adsorption dominated...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327653/preparation-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-quercetin-loaded-mixed-micelles-for-oral-delivery
#6
Zhen Lu, Cuiping Bu, Weicheng Hu, Hui Zhang, Mengrui Liu, Meiqi Lu, Guangxi Zhai
Quercetin (QT) is a plant polyphenol with various pharmacological properties. However, the low water solubility limits its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, QT-loaded sodium taurocholate-Pluronic P123 (QT-loaded ST/P123) mixed micelles were developed and characterized, and the effect of the formulation on improving the water solubility of QT was investigated. QT-loaded ST/P123 mixed micelles were prepared by thin film hydration-direct dissolution and optimized by uniform design. The optimal formulation possessed high drug loading (12...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327011/highly-reversible-and-fast-sodium-storage-boosted-by-improved-interfacial-and-surface-charge-transfer-derived-from-the-synergistic-effect-of-heterostructures-and-pseudocapacitance-in-sno2-based-anodes
#7
Xin Li, Xiaohong Sun, Zhiwen Gao, Xudong Hu, Rui Ling, Shu Cai, Chunming Zheng, Wenbin Hu
Sodium-ion batteries have attracted worldwide attention as potential alternatives for large scale stationary energy storage due to the rich reserves and low cost of sodium resources. However, the practical application of sodium-ion batteries is restricted by unsatisfying capacity and poor rate capability. Herein, a novel mechanism of improving both interfacial and surface charge transfer is proposed by fabricating a graphene oxide/SnO2/Co3O4 nanocomposite through a simple hydrothermal method. The formation of heterostructures between ultrafine SnO2 and Co3O4 could enhance the charge transfer of interfaces owing to the internal electric field...
January 12, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326302/role-of-clc-k-and-barttin-in-low-potassium-induced-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-activation-and-hypertension-in-mouse-kidney
#8
Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Yuanlong Wang, Shintaro Mandai, Taisuke Furusho, Daiei Takahashi, Moko Zeniya, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) has been identified as a key molecule regulating potassium balance. The mechanisms of NCC regulation during low extracellular potassium concentrations have been studied in vitro. These studies have shown that hyperpolarization increased chloride efflux, leading to the activation of chloride-sensitive WNK kinases and their downstream molecules, including STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NCC. However, this mechanism was not studied in vivo Previously, we developed the barttin hypomorphic mouse ( Bsndneo/neo mice), expressing very low levels of barttin and ClC-K channels, because barttin is an essential ß-subunit of ClC-K...
January 11, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325941/towards-shorter-hospitalization-after-endoscopic-transsphenoidal-pituitary-surgery-day-by-day-analysis-of-early-postoperative-complications-and-interventions
#9
Viktoria E Shimanskaya, Margreet A E M Wagenmakers, Ronald H M A Bartels, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, J André Grotenhuis, Ad R M M Hermus, Annenienke C van de Ven, Erik J van Lindert
BACKGROUND: It is unclear which patients have the greatest risk to develop complications in the first days after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (ETS) and how long patients should stay hospitalized after surgery. The objective of this study is to identify which patients are at risk for early postoperative medical and surgical re-interventions in order to optimize the length of hospitalization. METHODS: The medical records of 146 patients who underwent ETS for a pituitary adenoma between January 2013 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325205/a-top-down-strategy-toward-snsb-in-plane-nanoconfined-3d-n-doped-porous-graphene-composite-microspheres-for-high-performance-na-ion-battery-anode
#10
Jian Qin, Tianshuai Wang, Dongye Liu, Enzuo Liu, Naiqin Zhao, Chunsheng Shi, Fang He, Liying Ma, Chunnian He
Engineering of 3D graphene/metal composites with ultrasmall sized metal and robust metal-graphene interfacial interaction for energy storage application is still a challenge and rarely reported. In this work, a facile top-down strategy is developed for the preparation of SnSb-in-plane nanoconfined 3D N-doped porous graphene networks for sodium ion battery anodes, which are composed of several tens of interconnected empty N-graphene boxes in-plane firmly embedded with ultrasmall SnSb nanocrystals. The all-around encapsulation (plane-to-plane contact) architecture that provides a large interface between N-graphene and SnSb nanocrystal not only effectively enhances the electron conductivity and structural integrity of the overall electrode, but also offers excess interfacial sodium storage, thus leading to much enhanced high-rate sodium storage capacity and stability, which has been proven by both experimental results and first-principles simulations...
January 11, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324859/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-detects-differential-lipid-composition-in-mammary-glands-on-low-fat-high-animal-fat-versus-high-fructose-diets
#11
Dianning He, Devkumar Mustafi, Xiaobing Fan, Sully Fernandez, Erica Markiewicz, Marta Zamora, Jeffrey Mueller, Joseph R Sachleben, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Gregory S Karczmar
The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323919/effects-of-aggregate-charge-and-subphase-ionic-strength-on-the-properties-of-spread-polyelectrolyte-surfactant-films-at-the-air-water-interface-under-static-and-dynamic-conditions
#12
Andrea Tummino, Jutta Toscano, Federica Sebastiani, Boris A Noskov, Imre Varga, Richard A Campbell
In this work we demonstrate the ability to tune the formation of extended structures in films of poly(sodium styrene sulfonate)/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide at the air/water interface through control over the charge/structure of aggregates as well as the ionic strength of the subphase. Our methodology to prepare loaded polyelectrolyte/surfactant films from self-assembled liquid crystalline aggregates exploits their fast dissociation and Marangoni spreading of material upon contact with an aqueous subphase...
January 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323902/maillard-conjugation-of-sodium-alginate-to-whey-protein-for-enhanced-resistance-to-surfactant-induced-competitive-displacement-from-air-water-interfaces
#13
Bingqing Cai, Anna Saito, Shinya Ikeda
Whey protein adsorbed to an interface forms a viscoelastic interfacial film but is displaced competitively from the interface by a small-molecule surfactant added afterward. The present study evaluated the impact of the covalent conjugation of high- or low-molecular-weight sodium alginate (HA or LA) to whey protein isolate (WPI) via the Maillard reaction on the ability of whey protein to resist surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface. Surfactant added after the pre-adsorption of conjugate to the interface increased surface pressure...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321686/effect-of-monitoring-salt-concentration-of-home-prepared-dishes-and-using-low-sodium-seasonings-on-sodium-intake-reduction
#14
Misako Nakadate, Junko Ishihara, Motoki Iwasaki, Kaori Kitamura, Erika Kato, Junta Tanaka, Kazutoshi Nakamura, Takuma Ishihara, Ayumi Shintani, Ribeka Takachi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Objective methods such as the monitoring of salt concentrations in home-prepared dishes may be effective in reducing salt intake. We investigated the effect of monitoring the salt concentration of home-prepared dishes (Monitoring) on salt reduction and change in taste threshold, and the effect of the simultaneous use of low-sodium seasonings (Seasoning) to compare the effect of Monitoring with the conventional method. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled study using a 2 × 2 factorial design with two interventions...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321483/extracellular-total-electrolyte-concentration-imaging-for-electrical-brain-stimulation-ebs
#15
Saurav Z K Sajib, Mun Bae Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Eung Je Woo, Oh In Kwon
Techniques for electrical brain stimulation (EBS), in which weak electrical stimulation is applied to the brain, have been extensively studied in various therapeutic brain functional applications. The extracellular fluid in the brain is a complex electrolyte that is composed of different types of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca+). Abnormal levels of electrolytes can cause a variety of pathological disorders. In this paper, we present a novel technique to visualize the total electrolyte concentration in the extracellular compartment of biological tissues...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320601/surfactant-enhanced-electroosmotic-flushing-in-a-trichlorobenzene-contaminated-clayey-soil
#16
Wenjing Qiao, Shujun Ye, Jichun Wu, Ming Zhang
Remediation of the sites contaminated with organic contaminants, such as chlorobenzenes, remains a challenging issue. Electroosmotic flushing can be a promising approach which is based on mechanism of electrokinetic remediation for removal of organic contaminants from fluids in low-permeability soil. To select an optimum surfactant that can effectively enhance electroosmotic flushing, three common surfactants, Triton X-100 (EK2), Tween 80 (EK3), and a mixture of sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100 (EK4) buffered with Na2 HPO4 /NaH2 PO4 solution, were tested...
January 10, 2018: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320529/how-exogenous-nitric-oxide-regulates-nitrogen-assimilation-in-wheat-seedlings-under-different-nitrogen-sources-and-levels
#17
Sadegh Balotf, Shahidul Islam, Gholamreza Kavoosi, Bahman Kholdebarin, Angela Juhasz, Wujun Ma
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients for plants and nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling plant growth regulator involved in nitrogen assimilation. Understanding the influence of exogenous NO on nitrogen metabolism at the gene expression and enzyme activity levels under different sources of nitrogen is vitally important for increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). This study investigated the expression of key genes and enzymes in relation to nitrogen assimilation in two Australian wheat cultivars, a popular high NUE cv...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319903/sns2-sb2s3-heterostructures-anchored-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-with-superior-rate-capability-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#18
Shijian Wang, Shuaishuai Liu, Xuemei Li, Cong Li, Rui Zang, Zengming Man, Pengxin Li, Yuhan Wu, Guoxiu Wang
Tin disulfide, as a promising high-capacity anode material for sodium-ion batteries, exhibits a large theoretical capacity but poor practical electrochemical properties due to its low electrical conductivity. Constructing heterostructures has been considered as an effective approach to enhance charge transfer and ion diffusion kinetics. In this work, SnS2/Sb2S3 heterostructures composited with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets have been synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the composite showed a high reversible capacity of 642 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0...
January 10, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318782/recent-progress-in-iron-based-electrode-materials-for-grid-scale-sodium-ion-batteries
#19
REVIEW
Yongjin Fang, Zhongxue Chen, Lifen Xiao, Xinping Ai, Yuliang Cao, Hanxi Yang
Grid-scale energy storage batteries with electrode materials made from low-cost, earth-abundant elements are needed to meet the requirements of sustainable energy systems. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) with iron-based electrodes offer an attractive combination of low cost, plentiful structural diversity and high stability, making them ideal candidates for grid-scale energy storage systems. Although various iron-based cathode and anode materials have been synthesized and evaluated for sodium storage, further improvements are still required in terms of energy/power density and long cyclic stability for commercialization...
January 10, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316616/revitalising-silver-nitrate-for-caries-management
#20
REVIEW
Sherry Shiqian Gao, Irene Shuping Zhao, Steve Duffin, Duangporn Duangthip, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun Hung Chu
Silver nitrate has been adopted for medical use as a disinfectant for eye disease and burned wounds. In dentistry, it is an active ingredient of Howe's solution used to prevent and arrest dental caries. While medical use of silver nitrate as a disinfectant became subsidiary with the discovery of antibiotics, its use in caries treatment also diminished with the use of fluoride in caries prevention. Since then, fluoride agents, particularly sodium fluoride, have gained popularity in caries prevention. However, caries is an infection caused by cariogenic bacteria, which demineralise enamel and dentine...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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