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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453399/monitoring-of-co-in-residences-with-bulk-wood-pellet-storage-in-the-northeast
#1
Alan Rossner, Carolyn E Jordan, Cameron Wake, Lydia Soto-Garcia
The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the Northeastern US as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453385/performance-improvement-of-microbial-fuel-cell-mfc-using-suitable-electrode-and-bioengineered-organisms-a-review
#2
Payel Choudhury, Uma Shankar Prasad Uday, Tarun Kanti Bandyopadhyay, Rup Narayan Ray, Biswanath Bhunia
There is an urgent need to find an environment friendly and sustainable technology for alternative energy due to rapid depletion of fossil fuel and industrialization. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) have operational and functional advantages over the current technologies for energy generation from organic matter as it directly converts electricity from substrate at ambient temperature. However, MFCs are still unsuitable for high energy demands due to practical limitations. The overall performance of an MFC depends on microorganism, appropriate electrode materials, suitable MFC designs, and optimizing process parameters which would accelerate commercialization of this technology in near future...
April 28, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449025/reltime-rates-collapses-to-a-strict-clock-when-estimating-the-timeline-of-animal-diversification
#3
Jesus Lozano-Fernandez, Mario Dos Reis, Philip C J Donoghue, Davide Pisani
Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. To this scope, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the origin of animals, and found results consistent with outdated studies from the 1980es and 1990es that recovered metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin (originating approximately 1...
April 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448928/potential-environmental-impact-of-bioethanol-production-chain-from-fiber-sorghum-to-be-used-in-passenger-cars
#4
Annachiara Forte, Amalia Zucaro, Massimo Fagnano, Angelo Fierro
A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental load of a prospective local bioethanol (EtOH) production system in Southern Italy by using lignocellulosic Fiber sorghum (FS) feedstock. A two steps analysis was carried out considering: (i) a "cradle-to-farm gate" LCA to investigate thoroughly the FS cultivation on hilly marginal land and (ii) a "cradle-to-wheels" system boundary encompassing the environmental pressure of the whole EtOH supply-use chain. Primary data related to lignocellulosic biomass production were combined with experimental feedstock conversion processes through advanced second generation technology...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447666/in-situ-polymerisation-of-isoeugenol-as-a-green-consolidation-method-for-waterlogged-archaeological-wood
#5
Emily McHale, Calin C Steindal, Hartmut Kutzke, Tore Benneche, Stephen E Harding
Waterlogged archaeological wood is often in need of consolidation prior to drying to prevent shrinkage and cracking of the object. There is a need for new greener materials (than for example polyethylene glycol) and methods for consolidation to be developed. The use of wood-based components could provide good interaction between the consolidant and the remaining wood structure and would also support a shift away from fossil fuel-based materials to those with more sustainable sources. Based on this, lignin-like structures have been investigated for their ability to consolidate waterlogged archaeological wood...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447656/mining-threatens-chinese-fossil-site-that-revealed-planet-s-earliest-animals
#6
David Cyranoski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447337/reconstructing-the-ancestral-vertebrate-brain
#7
REVIEW
Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani
Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain...
April 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445536/assessment-of-dental-ontogeny-in-late-miocene-hipparionines-from-the-lamagou-fauna-of-fugu-shaanxi-province-china
#8
Yangfan Li, Tao Deng, Hong Hua, Yongxiang Li, Yunxiang Zhang
A collection of 28 hipparionine skull and mandible fossils with a dated age of approximately 7.4 Ma from Fugu, Shaanxi, northwestern China (belonging to Hipparion chiai and Hipparion cf. coelophyes) shows an age distribution in a successive development sequence. By observing the dentitions in these fossil materials, knowledge of dental ontogeny has been gained, such as the opening time of the posterior wall of post-fossettes, the displacement of the plis hypostyle, the morphologic changes of the protocone and hypocone, etc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445493/polyphyly-of-the-extinct-family-oviparosiphidae-and-its-implications-for-inferring-aphid-evolution-hemiptera-sternorrhyncha
#9
Dagmara Żyła, Agnieszka Homan, Piotr Wegierek
Aphidoidea, the so-called "true aphids" are one of the most challenging groups in terms of solving the phylogenetic relationships. Morphology-based analyses were strongly affected by widespread homoplasy, while the molecular-based attempts struggled with the lack of sufficient phylogenetic signal. Despite significant improvements, the higher classification still remains unresolved and rather controversial. However, the use of the fossil record, one of the most valuable sources of information, was mainly limited to calibration of a phylogenetic tree, without a direct inclusion into the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445464/burgess-shale-fossils-illustrate-the-origin-of-the-mandibulate-body-plan
#10
Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron
Retracing the evolutionary history of arthropods has been one of the greatest challenges in biology. During the past decade, phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have coalesced towards the conclusion that Mandibulata, the most diverse and abundant group of animals, is a distinct clade from Chelicerata, in that its members possess post-oral head appendages specialized for food processing, notably the mandible. The origin of the mandibulate body plan, however, which encompasses myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods, has remained poorly documented...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439557/designer-interphases-for-the-lithium-oxygen-electrochemical-cell
#11
Snehashis Choudhury, Charles Tai-Chieh Wan, Wajdi I Al Sadat, Zhengyuan Tu, Sampson Lau, Michael J Zachman, Lena F Kourkoutis, Lynden A Archer
An electrochemical cell based on the reversible oxygen reduction reaction: 2Li(+) + 2e (-) + O2↔ Li2O2, provides among the most energy dense platforms for portable electrical energy storage. Such Lithium-Oxygen (Li-O2) cells offer specific energies competitive with fossil fuels and are considered promising for electrified transportation. Multiple, fundamental challenges with the cathode, anode, and electrolyte have limited practical interest in Li-O2 cells because these problems lead to as many practical shortcomings, including poor rechargeability, high overpotentials, and specific energies well below theoretical expectations...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439533/the-anatomical-placode-in-reptile-scale-morphogenesis-indicates-shared-ancestry-among-skin-appendages-in-amniotes
#12
Nicolas Di-Poï, Michel C Milinkovitch
Most mammals, birds, and reptiles are readily recognized by their hairs, feathers, and scales, respectively. However, the lack of fossil intermediate forms between scales and hairs and substantial differences in their morphogenesis and protein composition have fueled the controversy pertaining to their potential common ancestry for decades. Central to this debate is the apparent lack of an "anatomical placode" (that is, a local epidermal thickening characteristic of feathers' and hairs' early morphogenesis) in reptile scale development...
June 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439472/new-findings-of-pleistocene-fossil-turtles-geoemydidae-kinosternidae-and-chelydridae-from-santa-elena-province-ecuador
#13
Edwin A Cadena, Juan Abella, Maria D Gregori
New Pleistocene fossilized turtle remains from five localities of western Ecuador (Santa Elena Province) are described here. All these shell (carapace and plastron) fossil remains come from the Tablazo Formation and belong to three different lineages of cryptodires ("hidden-necked" turtles). The most abundant remains belong to geoemydids, attributed here to the genus Rhinoclemmys (indeterminate species). Less abundant in occurrence are the kinosternidids, attributed to Kinosternon (indeterminate species), and the first fossil record of chelydrids, Chelydra(indeterminate species), in the entirety of Central and South America...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439466/arrival-and-diversification-of-mabuyine-skinks-squamata-scincidae-in-the-neotropics-based-on-a-fossil-calibrated-timetree
#14
Anieli Guirro Pereira, Carlos G Schrago
BACKGROUND: The evolution of South American Mabuyinae skinks holds significant biogeographic interest because its sister lineage is distributed across the African continent and adjacent islands. Moreover, at least one insular species, Trachylepis atlantica, has independently reached the New World through transoceanic dispersal. To clarify the evolutionary history of both Neotropical lineages, this study aimed to infer an updated timescale using the largest species and gene sampling dataset ever assembled for this group...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438318/the-affinities-of-homo-floresiensis-based-on-phylogenetic-analyses-of%C3%A2-cranial-dental-and-postcranial-characters
#15
Debbie Argue, Colin P Groves, Michael S Y Lee, William L Jungers
Although the diminutive Homo floresiensis has been known for a decade, its phylogenetic status remains highly contentious. A broad range of potential explanations for the evolution of this species has been explored. One view is that H. floresiensis is derived from Asian Homo erectus that arrived on Flores and subsequently evolved a smaller body size, perhaps to survive the constrained resources they faced in a new island environment. Fossil remains of H. erectus, well known from Java, have not yet been discovered on Flores...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438227/characterization-of-carbon-monoxide-exposure-during-hurricane-sandy-and-subsequent-nor-easter
#16
Amy Schnall, Royal Law, Amy Heinzerling, Kanta Sircar, Scott Damon, Fuyuen Yip, Josh Schier, Tesfaye Bayleyegn, Amy Wolkin
OBJECTIVE: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. METHODS: We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures...
April 25, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436942/diversity-and-ecological-adaptations-in-palaeogene-lichens
#17
Ulla Kaasalainen, Alexander R Schmidt, Jouko Rikkinen
Lichens are highly specialized symbioses between heterotrophic fungi and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria. The mycobionts of many lichens produce morphologically complex thalli to house their photobionts. Lichens play important roles in ecosystems and have been used as indicators of environmental change. Here we report the finding of 152 new fossil lichens from European Palaeogene amber, and hence increase the total number of known fossil lichens from 15 to 167. Most of the fossils represent extant lineages of the Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-symbiotic class of Ascomycota...
April 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436525/graphitic-c3n4-nanosheets-synergistic-effects-of-hydrogenation-and-n-n-junctions-for-enhanced-photocatalytic-activities
#18
Minjie Zhou, Zhaohui Hou, Xiaobo Chen
The increasing concern about environmental pollution and fossil fuel energies have urged researchers to seek renewable energy sources and methods for pollutant decomposition. Photocatalysis seems to be one of the most promising approaches, which uses natural sunlight to produce hydrogen from water and removes organic pollutants from the environment. Among the various photocatalysts, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has recently attracted much attention as a metal-free photocatalyst; however, it did not give a satisfactory performance...
April 24, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435777/recent-progress-in-metal-organic-frameworks-for-applications-in-electrocatalytic-and-photocatalytic-water-splitting
#19
REVIEW
Wei Wang, Xiaomin Xu, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
The development of clean and renewable energy materials as alternatives to fossil fuels is foreseen as a potential solution to the crucial problems of environmental pollution and energy shortages. Hydrogen is an ideal energy material for the future, and water splitting using solar/electrical energy is one way to generate hydrogen. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous materials with unique properties that have received rapidly growing attention in recent years for applications in water splitting due to their remarkable design flexibility, ultra-large surface-to-volume ratios and tunable pore channels...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434542/the-neandertal-vertebral-column-2-the-lumbar-spine
#20
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Mikel Arlegi, Alon Barash, Jay T Stock, Ella Been
Here we provide the most extensive metric and morphological analysis performed to date on the Neandertal lumbar spine. Neandertal lumbar vertebrae show differences from modern humans in both the vertebral body and in the neural arch, although not all Neandertal lumbar vertebrae differ from modern humans in the same way. Differences in the vertebral foramen are restricted to the lowermost lumbar vertebrae (L4 and L5), differences in the orientation of the upper articular facets appear in the uppermost lumbar vertebrae (probably in L1 and L2-L3), and differences in the horizontal angle of the transverse process appear in L2-L4...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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