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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786505/can-pallars-i-llobateres-a-new-hominoid-bearing-locality-from-the-late-miocene-of-the-vall%C3%A3-s-pened%C3%A3-s-basin-ne-iberian-peninsula
#1
David M Alba, Isaac Casanovas-Vilar, Marc Furió, Israel García-Paredes, Chiara Angelone, Sílvia Jovells-Vaqué, Àngel H Luján, Sergio Almécija, Salvador Moyà-Solà
In the Iberian Peninsula, Miocene apes (Hominoidea) are generally rare and mostly restricted to the Vallès-Penedès Basin. Here we report a new hominoid maxillary fragment with M2 from this basin. It was surface-collected in March 2017 from the site of Can Pallars i Llobateres (CPL, Sant Quirze del Vallès), where fossil apes had not been previously recorded. The locality of provenance (CPL-M), which has delivered no further fossil remains, is located very close (ca. 50 m) to previously known CPL outcrops, and not very far (ca...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785931/first-bone-cracking-dog-coprolites-provide-new-insight-into-bone-consumption-in-borophagus-and-their-unique-ecological-niche
#2
Xiaoming Wang, Stuart C White, Mairin Balisi, Jacob Biewer, Julia Sankey, Dennis Garber, Z Jack Tseng
Borophagine canids have long been hypothesized to be North American ecological 'avatars' of living hyenas in Africa and Asia, but direct fossil evidence of hyena-like bone consumption is hitherto unknown. We report rare coprolites (fossilized feces) of Borophagus parvus from the late Miocene of California and, for the first time, describe unambiguous evidence that these predatory canids ingested large amounts of bone. Surface morphology, micro-CT analyses, and contextual information reveal (1) droppings in concentrations signifying scent-marking behavior, similar to latrines used by living social carnivorans; (2) routine consumption of skeletons; (3) undissolved bones inside coprolites indicating gastrointestinal similarity to modern striped and brown hyenas; (4) B...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785355/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-cytokinin-metabolic-genes-ipts-cyp735a-and-ckxs-in-the-biofuel-plant-jatropha-curcas
#3
Li Cai, Lu Zhang, Qiantang Fu, Zeng-Fu Xu
The seed oil of Jatropha curcas is considered a potential bioenergy source that could replace fossil fuels. However, the seed yield of Jatropha is low and has yet to be improved. We previously reported that exogenous cytokinin treatment increased the seed yield of Jatropha . Cytokinin levels are directly regulated by isopentenyl transferase (IPT), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, family 735, subfamily A (CYP735A), and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX). In this study, we cloned six IPT genes, one JcCYP735A gene, and seven JcCKX genes...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785206/life-cycle-assessment-of-residual-lignocellulosic-biomass-based-jet-fuel-with-activated-carbon-and-lignosulfonate-as-co-products
#4
Francesca Pierobon, Ivan L Eastin, Indroneil Ganguly
Background: Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784796/paleocene-ipomoea-convolvulaceae-from-india-with-implications-for-an-east-gondwana-origin-of-convolvulaceae
#5
Gaurav Srivastava, Rakesh C Mehrotra, David L Dilcher
The morning glory family, Convolvulaceae, is globally important in medicine and food crops. The family has worldwide distribution in a variety of habitats; however, its fossil record is very poorly documented. The current fossil record suggests an origin in North America, which is in contrast to molecular data that indicate an East Gondwana origin. We report Ipomoea leaves from the late Paleocene (Thanetian; 58.7-55.8 million years ago) of India, which was a part of East Gondwana during this time. This is the earliest fossil record for both the family Convolvulaceae and the order Solanales...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784780/early-fossil-record-of-euarthropoda-and-the-cambrian-explosion
#6
Allison C Daley, Jonathan B Antcliffe, Harriet B Drage, Stephen Pates
Euarthropoda is one of the best-preserved fossil animal groups and has been the most diverse animal phylum for over 500 million years. Fossil Konservat-Lagerstätten, such as Burgess Shale-type deposits (BSTs), show the evolution of the euarthropod stem lineage during the Cambrian from 518 million years ago (Ma). The stem lineage includes nonbiomineralized groups, such as Radiodonta (e.g., Anomalocaris ) that provide insight into the step-by-step construction of euarthropod morphology, including the exoskeleton, biramous limbs, segmentation, and cephalic structures...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783957/homeosis-in-a-scorpion-supports-a-telopodal-origin-of-pectines-and-components-of-the-book-lungs
#7
Zhiyong Di, Gregory D Edgecombe, Prashant P Sharma
BACKGROUND: The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a key role in the diversification of arthropods. While the ancestral arthropod appendage is held to be polyramous, terrestriality is associated with the reduction or loss of appendage rami, which may obscure the homology of different appendage derivatives. Proxies for appendage homology have included surveys of cross-reactive antibodies for wing markers like Nubbin/PDM, which have suggested that the abdominal appendages of arachnids (e...
May 21, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782157/the-role-of-marine-snows-in-microplastic-fate-and-bioavailability
#8
Adam Porter, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway, Ceri N Lewis
Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transport microplastics of different shapes, sizes and polymers away from the water surface and enhance their bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sinking rates of all tested microplastics increased when incorporated into snows, with large changes observed for the buoyant polymer polyethylene with an increase in sinking rate of 818 m day-1 and for denser polyamide fragments of 916 m day-1...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781610/sulfur-speciation-in-biochars-by-very-high-resolution-benchtop-k%C3%AE-x-ray-emission-spectroscopy
#9
William Holden, Gerald T Seidler, Singfoong Cheah
The analytical chemistry of sulfur-containing materials poses substantial technical challenges, especially due to the limitations of 33S NMR and the time-intensive preparations required for wet-chemistry analyses. A number of prior studies have found that synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements can give detailed speciation of sulfur chemistry in such cases. However, due to the obvious access limitations, synchrotron XANES of sulfur cannot be part of routine analytical practice across the chemical sciences community...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780669/an-examination-of-the-impact-of-olson-s-extinction-on-tetrapods-from-texas
#10
Neil Brocklehurst
It has been suggested that a transition between a pelycosaurian-grade synapsid dominated fauna of the Cisuralian (early Permian) and the therapsid dominated fauna of the Guadalupian (middle Permian) was accompanied by, and possibly driven by, a mass extinction dubbed Olson's Extinction. However, this interpretation of the record has recently been criticised as being a result of inappropriate time-binning strategies: calculating species richness within international stages or substages combines extinctions occurring throughout the late Kungurian stage into a single event...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780299/the-first-loranthaceae-fossils-from-africa
#11
Friðgeir Grímsson, Alexandros Xafis, Frank H Neumann, Louis Scott, Marion K Bamford, Reinhard Zetter
An ongoing re-investigation of the early Miocene Saldanha Bay (South Africa) palynoflora, using combined light and scanning electron microscopy (single grain method), is revealing several pollen types new to the African fossil record. One of the elements identified is Loranthaceae pollen. These grains represent the first and only fossil record of Loranthaceae in Africa. The fossil pollen grains resemble those produced by the core Lorantheae and are comparable to recent Asian as well as some African taxa/lineages...
2018: Grana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780202/common-occurrence-of-sharpey-s-fibres-in-amphibian-phalanges
#12
Krzysztof Kolenda, Anna Najbar, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Ewa Serwa, Tomasz Skawiński
Sharpey's fibres are known mainly as providing anchorage between tooth and the periodontal ligament but they occur also in other types of bones. In the postcranial skeleton these fibres are usually present at the muscle or tendon attachment sites. They were reported in all major groups of extant vertebrates, as well as in putative lissamphibian ancestors-temnospondyls and lepospondyls. However, it was recently stated that their presence was very rarely described in extant amphibians. In limbs, they were reported predominantly from proximal bones...
2018: Zoomorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779746/art-and-brain-coevolution
#13
Camilo José Cela-Conde, Francisco J Ayala
The competence for appreciating beauty appears to be a human universal trait. This fact points out to a phylogenetically derived capacity that, somehow, evolved by means of natural selection. To detail how this evolutionary process took place is difficult to determine, because appreciating beauty is an elusive capacity, impossible to be detected in the fossil record. However, efforts have been made to understand the main characteristics of such competence, particularly by means of the advances of neuroaesthetics...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779686/a-2ma-old-baboon-like-monkey-from-northern-greece-and-new-evidence-to-support-the-paradolichopithecus-procynocephalus-synonymy-primates-cercopithecidae
#14
Dimitris S Kostopoulos, Franck Guy, Zoi Kynigopoulou, George D Koufos, Xavier Valentin, Gildas Merceron
A new fossil cranium of a large papionin monkey from the Lower Pleistocene site of Dafnero-3 in Western Macedonia, Greece, is described by means of outer and inner morphological and metric traits using high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Comparisons with modern cercopithecids and contemporaneous Eurasian fossil taxa suggest that the new cranium could equally be ascribed to either the Eurasian Paradolichopithecus or to the East Asian Procynocephalus. The combination of the available direct and indirect fossil evidence, including the new cranium from Dafnero, revives an earlier hypothesis that considers these two sparsely documented genera as synonyms...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778408/ancient-cancers-and-infection-induced-oncogenesis
#15
Paul W Ewald
Cancers have been reported in bone and soft tissue of ancient agricultural populations. Fossilized bones from prehistoric periods provide evidence of tumors but only one example of cancer. Difficulties in diagnosing the causes of lesions in mummified tissue and fossilized bone, and in interpreting the prevalence of cancers from remains, draw attention to the need for complementary approaches to assess the occurrence of cancer in ancient populations. This paper integrates current knowledge about pathogen induction of cancer with phylogenetic analyses of oncogenic pathogens, and concludes that pathogen-induced cancers were probably generally present in ancient historic and prehistoric human populations...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778246/re-dating-zhoukoudian-upper-cave-northern-china-and-its-regional-significance
#16
Feng Li, Christopher J Bae, Christopher B Ramsey, Fuyou Chen, Xing Gao
Due to the presence of multiple partial modern human skeletons thought to have been interred along with a diversity of evidence of symbolic behavior, Zhoukoudian Upper Cave (ZKD UC; formally "Choukoutien") from northern China has long been a critical site for understanding Late Quaternary human evolution and particularly the role eastern Asia played. Unfortunately, uncertainty regarding ZKD UC's chronology has long hindered determination of its importance in the debate over modern human origins. This situation has been particularly problematic because dates from the primary archaeological layers of ZKD UC have ranged from the Late Pleistocene to the Early Holocene (∼34-10 ka), with clearly different implications depending on which age is used...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776927/ecological-engineering-helps-maximize-function-in-algal-oil-production
#17
Sara L Jackrel, Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Robert B Levine, David C Hietala, Phillip E Savage, Todd H Oakley, Vincent J Denef, Bradley J Cardinale
Algal biofuels have the potential to curb emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, but current growing methods fail to produce fuels that meet the multiple standards necessary for economical industrial use. For example, algae grown as monocultures for biofuel production have not simultaneously and economically achieved high yields of the high-quality, lipid-rich biomass desired for the industrial-scale production of bio-oil. Decades of study in the field of ecology have demonstrated that simultaneous increases in multiple functions, such as the quantity and quality of biomass, can occur in natural ecosystems by increasing biological diversity...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774238/chitinase-genes-chia-s-provide-genomic-footprints-of-a-post-cretaceous-dietary-radiation-in-placental-mammals
#18
Christopher A Emerling, Frédéric Delsuc, Michael W Nachman
The end-Cretaceous extinction led to a massive faunal turnover, with placental mammals radiating in the wake of nonavian dinosaurs. Fossils indicate that Cretaceous stem placentals were generally insectivorous, whereas their earliest Cenozoic descendants occupied a variety of dietary niches. It is hypothesized that this dietary radiation resulted from the opening of niche space, following the extinction of dinosaurian carnivores and herbivores. We provide the first genomic evidence for the occurrence and timing of this dietary radiation in placental mammals...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773229/oldowan-technological-behaviour-at-hwk-ee-olduvai-gorge-tanzania
#19
Ignacio de la Torre, Rafael Mora
HWK EE (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) is a late Oldowan site dated to ∼1.7 Ma that contains a large fossil and lithic assemblage. This paper reports on the technology of the recently excavated stone tool collection, over 18,000 pieces. Our results indicate that reduction sequences were generally short, flaking productivity was low, and knapping methods were largely simple and expedient, lacking the technical skills observed in other Oldowan assemblages. Conspicuous differences are observed in the chaînes opératoires of the three main raw materials used at HWK EE: the quartzite reduction sequence can be reconstructed in full at the site, most of the lava detached pieces are missing, and there is a preferential use of chert for retouched tools...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772529/microbial-bio-fuels-a-solution-to-carbon-emissions-and-energy-crisis
#20
Arun Kumar, Sumit Kaushal, Shubhini A Saraf, Jay Shankar Singh
Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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