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Methylation & vitamin D

M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
Geoffrey N Hendy, Lucie Canaff
The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2-7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes-promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation-as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Anna Y Belorusova, Nanjoo Suh, Hong Jin Lee, Jae Young So, Hubert Maehr, Natacha Rochel
Gemini analogs of calcitriol, characterized by the extension of the C21-methyl group of calcitriol with a second chain, act as agonists of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). This second side chain of gemini is accommodated in a new cavity inside the VDR created by the structural rearrangement of the protein core. The resulting conformational change preserves the active state of the receptor and bestows gemini compounds with biological activities that exceed those of calcitriol. Of particular interest are gemini's anti-cancer properties, and in this study we demonstrate anti-proliferative and tumor-reducing abilities of BXL0124 and BXL0097, differing only by the presence or absence, respectively, of the methylene group on the A ring...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Taketo Uchiyama, Norifumi Tatsumi, Sahoko Kamejima, Tsuyoshi Waku, Ichiro Ohkido, Keitaro Yokoyama, Takashi Yokoo, Masataka Okabe
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) disrupts mineral homeostasis and its representative pathosis is defined as secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). SHPT occurs during the early course of progressive renal insufficiency, and is associated with mortality and cardiovascular events. SHPT results in reduction of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the parathyroid glands during CKD. However, the precise mechanism of CaSR and VDR reduction is largely unknown. CKD was induced through two-step 5/6 nephrectomy, and then CKD rats and sham-operated rats were maintained for 8 weeks on diets containing 0...
October 2016: Human Cell
Haidong Zhu, Jigar Bhagatwala, Ying Huang, Norman K Pollock, Samip Parikh, Anas Raed, Bernard Gutin, Gregory A Harshfield, Yanbin Dong
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152849.].
2016: PloS One
Yuanxiu Chen, Xin Li, Ihori Kobayashi, Daisy Tsao, Thomas A Mellman
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and potentially disabling disorder that develops in 1/5 to 1/3 of people exposed to severe trauma. Twin studies indicate that genetic factors account for at least one third of the variance in the risk for developing PTSD, however, the specific role for genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PTSD is not well understood. We studied genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in 12 participants with PTSD and 12 participants who were resilient to similar severity trauma exposure...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Shakira M Nelson, Orestis A Panagiotou, Gabriella M Anic, Alison M Mondul, Satu Männistö, Stephanie J Weinstein, Demetrius Albanes
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been discussed in the context of cardiovascular disease, cancer, bone health and other outcomes. Epidemiological studies have reported on the importance of vitamin D in cancer prevention and treatment. The discovery of vitamin D-associated metabolites through agnostic metabolomics analyses offers a new approach for elucidating disease aetiology and health-related pathway identification. METHODS: Baseline serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 940 serum metabolites were measured in 392 men from eight nested cancer case-control studies in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish male smokers (aged 50-69 years)...
August 14, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Zhaojing Wang, Yawei Zeng, Dianhui Luo
A crude polysaccharide was extracted from the edible fungi Tremella sanguinea Peng, and a polysaccharide TSP-II (31.56%) was separated and purified from the crude polysaccharide. TSP-II was a homogeneous polysaccharide by the high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), had a molecular weight of 356kD and consisted mainly of mannose, xylose, galactose and glucose at a molar ratio 5.9:2.4:1:1.1. The structural assignment of TSP-II was carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, periodate oxidation-smith degradation, partial hydrolysis with acid, methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, and the repeating unit of TSP-II was thus determined...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Renata A N Pertile, Xiaoying Cui, Darryl W Eyles
Vitamin D regulates multiple factors including those involved in the ontogeny of dopaminergic systems. It has been shown that in neonatal rats maternally deprived of vitamin D, dopamine (DA) turnover is decreased with associated reductions in one catabolic enzyme, catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT). To directly examine this signaling relationship, in the present study we have over-expressed the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in order to examine the mechanisms by which the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3, via its receptor VDR, affects DA production and turnover...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Yong-Feng Chen, Wen-Wen Jiang, Shi-Qi Zhang, Jian-Quan Kan, Yong Liang
As a medicinal and edible fungus parasitizing on the trees, Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) is well known for its delicious taste, unique smell, and high medical value for healthcare. One new water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (PST-W with the yield of 0.41%) from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) was purified and identified on structural characteristics for the first time. The characterizations of PST-W were studied on physicochemical properties, main components of monosaccharide(s), and molecular structure...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Simone Ribero, Dan Glass, Veronique Bataille
The field of melanoma genetics is moving at great pace with new platforms to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism, genome sequencing, gene expression, and methylation. Melanoma incidence is still rising mainly because of screening campaigns, which has increased the number of reported melanomas. However, mortality due to melanoma is not decreasing. Many cutaneous phenotypic risk factors have been linked to melanoma, but the association with UV radiation is very complex. The level of vitamin D affects both the risk of melanoma and prognosis, but more studies are needed...
August 1, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Eva Feigerlova, Lea Demarquet, Hassan Melhem, Rose Ghemrawi, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu, Essi Ewu, Jean-Marc Alberto, Deborah Helle, Georges Weryha, Jean-Louis Guéant
Deficiency in methyl donor (folate and vitamin B12) and in vitamin D is independently associated with altered bone development. Previously, methyl donor deficiency (MDD) was shown to weaken the activity of nuclear receptor coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), for nuclear signaling in rat pups, including estrogen receptor-α and estrogen-related receptor-α; its effect on vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling, however, is unknown. We studied bone development under MDD in rat pups and used human MG-63 preosteoblast cells to better understand the associated molecular mechanism...
October 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
S K Hosseinihashemi, A Dadpour, A Lashgari
Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24...
July 15, 2016: Natural Product Research
Irene Pusceddu, Markus Herrmann, Susanne H Kirsch, Christian Werner, Ulrich Hübner, Marion Bodis, Ulrich Laufs, Thomas Widmann, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Jürgen Geisel, Wolfgang Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B deficiency is common in elderly people and has been associated with an increased risk of developing age-related diseases. B-vitamins are essential for the synthesis and stability of DNA. Telomers are the end caps of chromosomes that shorten progressively with age, and short telomers are associated with DNA instability. OBJECTIVE: In the present randomized intervention study, we investigated whether the one-carbon metabolism is related to telomere length, a surrogate marker for cellular aging...
July 5, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
R Blanco, A Colombo, R Pardo, J Suazo
Animal models have shown evidence of the role of maternal methyl donor status and its metabolism (one-carbon metabolism) in normal embryonic maxillofacial development. Nevertheless, studies in humans have shown conflicting results for the association of maternal methylation status biomarkers in the aetiology of the main craniofacial birth defects: non-syndromic orofacial clefts (NSOFCs). The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis assessing the relationship between maternal levels of methylation status biomarkers (plasma and erythrocyte folates and plasma vitamin B12 and homocysteine) and the risk of NSOFCs...
June 27, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jintian Wu, Jian Zhang, Chao Deng, Fenghua Meng, Zhiyuan Zhong
Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles have attracted an enormous interest for controlled drug delivery. Their clinical applications are, however, partly hindered by lack of biocompatible, biodegradable and functional surfactants. Here, we designed and developed a novel biocompatible surfactant based on amphiphilic vitamin E-oligo(methyl diglycol l-glutamate) (VEOEG) for facile fabrication of robust and tumor-targeting PLGA-based nanomedicines. VEOEG was prepared with controlled Mn of 1.7-2.6 kg/mol and low molecular weight distribution (Đ = 1...
July 11, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Sung Kyun Kim, Gi Jung Im, Yun Suk An, Se Hee Lee, Hak Hyun Jung, Sang Yoo Park
CONCLUSION: D-α-tocopherol succinate significantly reduced a cisplatin-induced hair cell loss in HEI-OC1 cell lines. These effects were mediated by its scavenging activity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of apoptosis. OBJECTIVES: Alpha-tocopherol is a class of methylated phenols, known as fat-soluble antioxidants, and is a different form of vitamin E, which reduces free radicals and acts as an antioxidant. We hypothesized that the antioxidative effect of α-tocopherol could protect against cisplastin-induced cytotoxicity, and thus evaluated its effects on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cells...
July 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jean-Paul Lallès
The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis...
July 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Pravin Bhattarai, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Min Sun Kim, Seong Kyu Han
Vitamin D is a versatile signalling molecule that plays a critical role in calcium homeostasis. There are several studies showing the genomic action of vitamin D in the control of reproduction; however, the quick non-genomic action of vitamin D at the hypothalamic level is not well understood. Therefore, to investigate the effect of vitamin D on juvenile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, excitatory neurotransmitter receptor agonists N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 30 μM) and kainate (10 μM) were applied in the absence or in the presence of vitamin D3 (VitaD3, 10 nM)...
May 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kateřina Kubešová, Aneta Dořičáková, Zdeněk Trávníček, Zdeněk Dvořák
The effects of four copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes [Cu(qui1)(L)]NO3·H2O (1-3) and [Cu(qui2)(phen)]NO3 (4), where qui1=2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone, Hqui2=2-(4-amino-3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-propyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone-7-carboxamide, L=1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (1), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (mphen) (2), bathophenanthroline (bphen) (3), on transcriptional activities of steroid receptors, nuclear receptors and xenoreceptors have been studied. The complexes (1-4) did not influence basal or ligand-inducible activities of glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, thyroid receptor, pregnane X receptor and vitamin D receptor, as revealed by gene reporter assays...
July 25, 2016: Toxicology Letters
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