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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911947/oral-and-dental-anomalies-in-purebred-brachycephalic-persian-and-exotic-cats
#1
Lisa A Mestrinho, João M Louro, Iněs S Gordo, Maria M R E Niza, João F Requicha, Judith G Force, Jerzy P Gawor
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in brachycephalic cats from various geographic regions and analyze potential relationships with oral disease. DESIGN Prospective multicenter cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 50 purebred Persian (n = 42) and Exotic (8) cats. PROCEDURES Cats were anesthetized, and a complete dental examination, dental charting, 3-view oral photography, and full-mouth dental radiography were performed. RESULTS Malocclusions were observed in 36 (72%) cats. Crowding of the teeth was evident in 28 (56%) cats, with the incisors being most commonly affected...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906664/computed-tomographic-pelvimetry-in-english-bulldogs
#2
Tetyda P Dobak, George Voorhout, Johannes C M Vernooij, Susanne A E B Boroffka
English bulldogs have been reported to have a high incidence of dystocia and caesarean section is often performed electively in this breed. A narrow pelvic canal is the major maternal factor contributing to obstructive dystocia. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the pelvic dimensions of 40 clinically healthy English bulldogs using computed tomography pelvimetry. A control group consisting of 30 non-brachycephalic dogs that underwent pelvic computed tomography was retrospectively collected from the patient archive system...
May 31, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893060/long-term-outcome-of-permanent-tracheostomy-in-15-dogs-with-severe-laryngeal-collapse-secondary-to-brachycephalic-airway-obstructive-syndrome
#3
Matteo Gobbetti, Stefano Romussi, Paolo Buracco, Valerio Bronzo, Samuele Gatti, Matteo Cantatore
OBJECTIVE: To report the long-term outcome of permanent tracheostomy for the management of severe laryngeal collapse secondary to brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Fifteen brachycephalic dogs with severe laryngeal collapse treated with permanent tracheostomy. METHODS: Follow-up data were obtained from medical records or via telephone conversation with the owners...
June 12, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869330/vocal-fold-granulomas-in-six-brachycephalic-dogs-clinical-macroscopical-and-histological-features
#4
D Sarran, A Caron, J P Billet
Vocal cord granulomas are rarely observed in brachycephalic breeds but often reported in humans as contact granulomas. Six French bulldogs were included in this retrospective descriptive study. Endoscopic laryngeal examinations were performed on all dogs under general anaesthesia. Vocal cord lesions were exclusively unilateral, exophytic, approximately 3-mm wide ulcerated mucosal nodules, arising from the vocal cord. Histopathological examination mainly revealed chronic inflammatory changes on the laryngeal epithelium which were consistent with laryngeal granulomas described in humans, except for the location: vocal cord in dogs versus vocal process in humans...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793723/whelping-and-dystocia-maximizing-success-of-medical-management
#5
REVIEW
Erin E Runcan, Marco A Coutinho da Silva
Dystocia can be defined broadly as "difficult birth" or more specifically as difficulty in the bitch expelling the pups through the cervix, vagina, and vestibule. It is a fairly common emergency presented to the small animal practitioner with an incidence rate of approximately 5%. The incidence of dystocia is highest in toy and brachycephalic breeds, and occurs frequently in small litters (<3 pups) due to fetal oversize and delayed onset of labor. As duration of labor progresses, the mortality of the pups and even the bitch increases, with the highest number of stillborn pups occurring after 6 hours from the time of active parturition...
March 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776403/rostral-cranial-fossa-as-a-site-for-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-volumetric-studies-in-dog-breeds-of-different-size-and-morphotype
#6
Wojciech Sokołowski, Norbert Czubaj, Michał Skibniewski, Karolina Barszcz, Marta Kupczyńska, Wojciech Kinda, Zdzisław Kiełbowicz
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a multifactorial condition, whose aetiology is not fully understood. Congenital hydrocephalus frequently occurs in small and brachycephalic dog breeds. Although it is widely accepted that the cribriform plate located in the rostral cranial fossa (RCF) is a site of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, the RCF has not been studied extensively. Literature reports indicate that a decreased caudal cranial fossa (CCF) volume in the course of the Chiari-like malformation may obstruct CSF circulation...
May 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761492/c7-vertebra-homeotic-transformation-in-domestic-dogs-are-pug-dogs-breaking-mammalian-evolutionary-constraints
#7
J Brocal, S De Decker, R José-López, E G Manzanilla, J Penderis, C Stalin, S Bertram, J J Schoenebeck, C Rusbridge, N Fitzpatrick, R Gutierrez-Quintana
The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is almost constant at seven, regardless of their neck length, implying that there is selection against variation in this number. Homebox (Hox) genes are involved in this evolutionary mammalian conservation, and homeotic transformation of cervical into thoracic vertebrae (cervical ribs) is a common phenotypic abnormality when Hox gene expression is altered. This relatively benign phenotypic change can be associated with fatal traits in humans. Mutations in genes upstream of Hox, inbreeding and stressors during organogenesis can also cause cervical ribs...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738556/novel-contributions-in-canine-craniometry-anatomic-and-radiographic-measurements-in-newborn-puppies
#8
Maria Elena Andreis, Umberto Polito, Maria Cristina Veronesi, Massimo Faustini, Mauro Di Giancamillo, Silvia C Modina
The largest differences in intraspecific head shape among the Carnivora order are to be found in dogs. Based on their skull morphotypes, dog breeds are currently classified as dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic and brachycephalic. Due to the fact that some breeds have not been yet defined, this classification is incomplete; moreover, multi-breed studies on the skull morphology of puppies have never been performed. The aim of this work was to verify (i) whether differences in the skull conformation of purebred puppies are already present within the first week of age; (ii) whether radiographic and anatomic measures could be considered interchangeable, and (iii) to possibly classify puppies from non-categorized breeds thanks to their radiographic cranial measurements using neural nets...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667089/sex-skull-length-breed-and-age-predict-how-dogs-look-at-faces-of-humans-and-conspecifics
#9
Zsófia Bognár, Ivaylo B Iotchev, Enikő Kubinyi
The gaze of other dogs and humans is informative for dogs, but it has not been explored which factors predict face-directed attention. We used image presentations of unfamiliar human and dog heads, facing the observer (portrait) or facing away (profile), and measured looking time responses. We expected dog portraits to be aversive, human portraits to attract interest, and tested dogs of different sex, skull length and breed function, which in previous work had predicted human-directed attention. Dog portraits attracted longer looking times than human profiles...
April 17, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665752/histopathologic-findings-in-canine-pituitary-glands
#10
Margaret A Miller, David S Bruyette, J Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Tina Jo Owen, José A Ramos-Vara, Hsin-Yi Weng, Andrea L Vanderpool, Annie V Chen, Linda G Martin, Deidre M DuSold, Sina Jahan
To optimize the histologic evaluation of hypophysectomy specimens, sections of 207 canine pituitary glands (196 postmortem, 11 hypophysectomy specimens) were reviewed. Adenohypophyseal proliferation was the most common (n = 79) lesion. Proliferative lesions were sparsely to densely granulated; the granules were usually basophilic to chromophobic and periodic acid-Schiff-positive. Adenohypophyseal proliferation was classified as hyperplasia (n = 40) if ≤2 mm diameter with intact reticulin network, as microadenoma (n = 22) for 1-5 mm homogeneous nodules with lost reticulin network, or as macroadenoma (n = 17) for larger tumors...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599258/brachycephalic-obstructive-airway-syndrome
#11
Jane Ladlow, Nai-Chieh Liu, Lajos Kalmar, David Sargan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593167/correlation-between-clinical-severity-and-type-and-degree-of-pectus-excavatum-in-twelve-brachycephalic-dogs
#12
Elham A Hassan, Marwa H Hassan, Faisal A Torad
The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical severity of pectus excavatum with its type and degree based on objective radiographic evaluation. Twelve brachycephalic dogs were included. Grading of the clinical severity was done based on a 6-point grading score. Thoracic radiographs were used to calculate the frontosagittal and vertebral indices at the tenth thoracic vertebra and the vertebra overlying the excavatum. Correlation between the clinical severity score and frontosagittal and vertebral indices was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566674/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-candidate-loci-associated-to-syringomyelia-secondary-to-chiari-like-malformation-in-cavalier-king-charles-spaniels
#13
Frédéric Ancot, Philippe Lemay, Susan P Knowler, Karen Kennedy, Sandra Griffiths, Giunio Bruto Cherubini, Jane Sykes, Paul J J Mandigers, Guy A Rouleau, Clare Rusbridge, Zoha Kibar
BACKGROUND: Syringomyelia (SM) is a common condition affecting brachycephalic toy breed dogs and is characterized by the development of fluid-filled cavities within the spinal cord. It is often concurrent with a complex developmental malformation of the skull and craniocervical vertebrae called Chiari-like malformation (CM) characterized by a conformational change and overcrowding of the brain and cervical spinal cord particularly at the craniocervical junction. CM and SM have a polygenic mode of inheritance with variable penetrance...
March 22, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523203/computer-simulation-of-syringomyelia-in-dogs
#14
Srdjan Cirovic, Robert Lloyd, Jelena Jovanovik, Holger A Volk, Clare Rusbridge
BACKGROUND: Syringomyelia is a pathological condition in which fluid-filled cavities (syringes) form and expand in the spinal cord. Syringomyelia is often linked with obstruction of the craniocervical junction and a Chiari malformation, which is similar in both humans and animals. Some brachycephalic toy breed dogs such as Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) are particularly predisposed. The exact mechanism of the formation of syringomyelia is undetermined and consequently with the lack of clinical explanation, engineers and mathematicians have resorted to computer models to identify possible physical mechanisms that can lead to syringes...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519855/evaluation-of-radiography-as-a-screening-method-for-detection-and-characterisation-of-congenital-vertebral-malformations-in-dogs
#15
Josep Brocal, Steven De Decker, Roberto José-López, Julien Guevar, Maria Ortega, Tim Parkin, Gert Ter Haar, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana
Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) are common in brachycephalic 'screw-tailed' dogs; they can be associated with neurological deficits and a genetic predisposition has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiography as a screening method for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic 'screw-tailed' dogs by comparing it with CT. Forty-nine dogs that had both radiographic and CT evaluations of the thoracic vertebral column were included. Three observers retrospectively reviewed the images independently to detect CVMs...
May 19, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486686/a-modified-technique-for-extraction-site-closure-of-the-maxillary-molars-in-a-dog
#16
Curt Ritchie
Performing oral surgery in dogs can present unique challenges. Among those challenges are the varying size and anatomical shape of the oral cavity in veterinary patients. Very small dogs and brachycephalic breeds provide limited exposure to the caudal maxilla. With the addition of an endotracheal tube and tie, the operating window can be quite limited and difficult to visualize and instrument. The following is a simple yet effective step-by-step procedure of tension-free closure of maxillary molar extractions in the dog...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440606/gait-abnormalities-in-brachycephalic-breeds-should-we-be-more-concerned
#17
COMMENT
Aurelien Jeandel, Laurent Garosi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380865/nasopharyngeal-sialoceles-in-11-brachycephalic-dogs
#18
Davide De Lorenzi, Diana Bertoncello, Chiara Mantovani, Enrico Bottero
OBJECTIVE: To report clinical features, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcomes of brachycephalic dogs with nasopharyngeal sialoceles (NPS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Eleven brachycephalic dogs with NPS. METHODS: Diagnosis of NPS was based on identification of cystic nasopharyngeal masses containing saliva-like mucoid material on retroflexed endoscopy. Biopsies were obtained to support the diagnosis...
April 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374126/continuing-the-campaign-on-brachycephalic-dogs
#19
LETTER
Mark Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359973/magnetic-resonance-imaging-evaluation-of-olfactory-bulb-angle-and-soft-palate-dimensions-in-brachycephalic-and-nonbrachycephalic-dogs
#20
David A Barker, Carlos Rubiños, Olivier Taeymans, Jackie L Demetriou
OBJECTIVE To determine from MRI measurements whether soft palate length (SPL) and thickness are correlated in dogs, evaluate the association between the olfactory bulb angle (OBA) and degree of brachycephalia, and determine the correlation between soft palate-epiglottis overlap and OBA in dogs. ANIMALS 50 brachycephalic and 50 nonbrachycephalic client-owned dogs without abnormalities of the head. PROCEDURES Medical records and archived midsagittal T2-weighted MRI images of brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs' heads were reviewed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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