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Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918605/food-or-threat-wild-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-as-both-predators-and-prey-of-snakes
#1
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918566/understanding-the-science-of-resistance-training-an-evolutionary-perspective
#2
William J Kraemer, Nicholas A Ratamess, Shawn D Flanagan, Jason P Shurley, Janice S Todd, Terry C Todd
The history of resistance training research began with anecdotal ideas and a slow growth of research from the late 1890s through the 1970s. The mid-1970s were a nexus point when resistance training studies evolved from just strength assessments to importance in physiological systems, physical health, and physical performance capabilities for individuals interested in physical fitness through to those seeking elite athletic performances. The pursuit of understanding program design and what mediated successful programs continues today as new findings, replication of old concepts, and new visions with the latest technologies fuel both our understanding and interest in this modality...
September 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918464/what-s-next-in-complex-networks-capturing-the-concept-of-attacking-play-in-invasive-team-sports
#3
REVIEW
João Ramos, Rui J Lopes, Duarte Araújo
The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance...
September 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918340/-cervical-lift-an-update
#4
D Labbé, P Guerreschi
The neck is an aesthetic unit for which a rejuvenation request is sometimes very targeted or ore often encompassed in a global surgical project of face-lift. To obtain a long lasting outcome, the plastic surgeon has to make a full, detailed, and exhaustive analysis of the neck in order to choose the best indication within the multiple surgical tools. A full clinical examination is the key point, every aspects are outlined. The numerous surgical choices are described, illustrated, and sometimes revisited in the light of targeted anatomical studies...
September 13, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918312/-reinforcement-learning-to-forage-optimally
#5
REVIEW
Nils Kolling, Thomas Akam
Foraging effectively is critical to the survival of all animals and this imperative is thought to have profoundly shaped brain evolution. Decisions made by foraging animals often approximate optimal strategies, but the learning and decision mechanisms generating these choices remain poorly understood. Recent work with laboratory foraging tasks in humans suggest their behaviour is poorly explained by model-free reinforcement learning, with simple heuristic strategies better describing behaviour in some tasks, and in others evidence of prospective prediction of the future state of the environment...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918303/decoding-noises-in-hiv-computational-genotyping
#6
MingRui Jia, Timothy Shaw, Xing Zhang, Dong Liu, Ye Shen, Amara E Ezeamama, Chunfu Yang, Ming Zhang
Lack of a consistent and reliable genotyping system can critically impede HIV genomic research on pathogenesis, fitness, virulence, drug resistance, and genomic-based healthcare and treatment. At present, mis-genotyping, i.e., background noises in molecular genotyping, and its impact on epidemic surveillance is unknown. For the first time, we present a comprehensive assessment of HIV genotyping quality. HIV sequence data were retrieved from worldwide published records, and subjected to a systematic genotyping assessment pipeline...
September 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918301/mathematical-fundamentals-for-the-noise-immunity-of-the-genetic-code
#7
Elena Fimmel, Lutz Strüngmann
Symmetry is one of the essential and most visible patterns that can be seen in nature. Starting from the left-right symmetry of the human body, all types of symmetry can be found in crystals, plants, animals and nature as a whole. Similarly, principals of symmetry are also some of the fundamental and most useful tools in modern mathematical natural science that play a major role in theory and applications. As a consequence, it is not surprising that the desire to understand the origin of life, based on the genetic code, forces us to involve symmetry as a mathematical concept...
September 13, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918073/a-directed-evolution-approach-to-select-for-novel-adeno-associated-virus-capsids-on-an-hiv-1-producer-t-cell-line
#8
Dawn P Wooley, Priyanka Sharma, John R Weinstein, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, David V Schaffer, Katherine J D A Excoffon
A directed evolution approach was used to select for Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids that would exhibit more tropism toward an HIV-1 producer T cell line with the long-term goal of developing improved gene transfer vectors. A library of AAV variants was used to infect H9T cells previously infected or uninfected by HIV-1 followed by AAV amplification with wild-type adenovirus. Six rounds of biological selection were performed, including negative selection and diversification after round three. The H9T cells were successfully infected with all three wild-type viruses (AAV, adenovirus, and HIV-1)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918021/in%C3%A2-vitro-selection-of-cell-internalizing-dna-aptamers-in-a-model-system-of-inflammatory-kidney-disease
#9
Glory Ranches, Melanie Lukasser, Herbert Schramek, Andreas Ploner, Taras Stasyk, Gert Mayer, Günter Mayer, Alexander Hüttenhofer
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive pathological condition marked by a gradual loss of kidney function. Treatment of CKD is most effective when diagnosed at an early stage and patients are still asymptomatic. However, current diagnostic biomarkers (e.g., serum creatinine and urine albumin) are insufficient for prediction of the pathogenesis of the disease. To address this need, we applied a cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) approach and identified a series of DNA aptamers, which exhibit high affinity and selectivity for cytokine-stimulated cells, resembling some aspects of a CKD phenotype...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917887/a-visible-and-controllable-porphyrin-poly-ethylene-glycol-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-hydrogel-nanocomposites-system-for-photo-response
#10
Jie Liang, Xia Dong, Chang Wei, Guilei Ma, Tianjun Liu, Deling Kong, Feng Lv
The real-time controlling and tracking of the evolution and status of the hydrogel are important challenges for accurate and precise assessments. In this article, a visible and controllable hydrogel nanocomposites system for photo response was designed and developed based on a thermosensitive porphyrin-poly(ethylene glycol)/α-cyclodextrin hydrogel loaded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PPEG-MWNTs/α-CD). The PPEG-MWNTs/α-CD hydrogel was simply self-assembled with a carbon nanotubes dispersed porphyrin-poly(ethylene glycol) solution and an aqueous solution of α-cyclodextrin by homogeneous stirring...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917842/multi-scale-simulations-of-biological-systems-using-the-opep-coarse-grained-model
#11
Fabio Sterpone, Sébastien Doutreligne, Thanh Thuy Tran, Simone Melchionna, Marc Baaden, Phuong H Nguyen, Philippe Derreumaux
Biomolecules are complex machines that are optimized by evolution to properly fulfill or contribute to a variety of biochemical tasks in the cellular environment. Computer simulations based on quantum mechanics and atomistic force fields have been proven to be a powerful microscope for obtaining valuable insights into many biological, physical, and chemical processes. Many interesting phenomena involve, however, a time scale and a number of degrees of freedom, notably if crowding is considered, that cannot be explored at an atomistic resolution...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917743/selection-of-an-aptamer-against-muscovy-duck-parvovirus-for-highly-sensitive-rapid-visual-detection-by-label-free-aptasensor
#12
Taofeng Lu, Qin Ma, Wenzhuo Yan, Yuanzhi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Hongyan Chen
Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) causes high mortality and morbidity in ducks. This study investigated a novel aptamer-based, label-free aptasensor detection of MDPV. In this study, we developed an ssDNA aptamer using the filtration partition and lambda exonuclease method with an affinity-based monitor and counter-screening process. After 15 rounds of SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment), the ssDNA aptamer Apt-10, which specifically bound to MDPV with high affinity (Kd = 467nM) was successfully screened, and the aptamer was also found to be good specific to MDPV...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917658/multiple-events-of-gene-manipulation-via-in-pouch-electroporation-in-a-marsupial-model-of-mammalian-forebrain-development
#13
Annalisa Paolino, Laura R Fenlon, Peter Kozulin, Linda J Richards, Rodrigo Suárez
BACKGROUND: The technique of in utero electroporation has been widely used in eutherians, such as mice and rats, to investigate brain development by selectively manipulating gene expression in specific neuronal populations. A major challenge, however, is that surgery is required to access the embryos, affecting animal survival and limiting the number of times it can be performed within the same litter. New method: Marsupials are born at an early stage of brain development as compared to eutherians...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917635/evolutionary-analysis-of-nucleosome-positioning-sequences-based-on-new-symmetric-relative-entropy
#14
Hu Meng, Hong Li, Yan Zheng, Zhenhua Yang, Yun Jia, Suling Bo
New Symmetric Relative Entropy (NSRE) was applied innovatively to analyze the nucleosome sequences in S. cerevisiae, S. pombe and Drosophila. NSRE distributions could well reflect the characteristic differences of nucleosome sequences among three organisms, and the differences indicate a concerted evolution in the sequence usage of nucleosome. Further analysis about the nucleosomes around TSS shows that the constitutive property of +1/-1 nucleosomes in S. cerevisiae is different from that in S. pombe and Drosophila, which indicates that S...
September 13, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917590/karyotype-stability-and-unbiased-fractionation-in-the-paleo-allotetraploid-cucurbita-genomes
#15
Honghe Sun, Shan Wu, Guoyu Zhang, Chen Jiao, Shaogui Guo, Yi Ren, Jie Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Guoyi Gong, Zhangcai Jia, Fan Zhang, Jiaxing Tian, William J Lucas, Jeff J Doyle, Haizhen Li, Zhangjun Fei, Yong Xu
The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Here we report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber and watermelon in the Benincaseae tribe. We estimate that the two diploid progenitors successively diverged from Benincaseae around 31 and 26 million years ago (Mya), and the allotetraploidization happened at some point between 26 Mya and 3 Mya, the estimated date when C...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917540/galba-truncatula-and-fasciola-hepatica-genetic-costructures-and-interactions-with-intermediate-host-dispersal
#16
Ana C Correa, Thierry De Meeûs, Gilles Dreyfuss, Daniel Rondelaud, Sylvie Hurtrez-Boussès
Antagonistic interactions between hosts and parasites are key structuring forces in natural populations. Demographic factors like extinction, migration and the effective population size shape host-parasite metapopulational dynamics. Therefore, to understand the evolution of host-parasite systems it is necessary to study the distribution of the genetic variation of both entities simultaneously. In this paper, we investigate the population genetics co-structure of parasites and hosts within a metapopulation of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and two of its intermediate hosts, the main intermediate host in Europe, Galba truncatula, and a new intermediate host, Omphiscola glabra, in Central France...
September 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917534/modeling-the-modified-drug-release-from-curved-shape-drug-delivery-systems-dome-matrix-%C3%A2
#17
D Caccavo, A A Barba, M d'Amore, R De Piano, G Lamberti, A Rossi, P Colombo
The controlled drug release from hydrogel-based drug delivery systems is a topic of large interest for research in pharmacology. The mathematical modeling of the behavior of these systems is a tool of emerging relevance, since the simulations can be of use in the design of novel systems, in particular for complex shaped tablets. In this work a model, previously developed, was applied to complex-shaped oral drug delivery systems based on hydrogels (Dome Matrix®). Furthermore, the model was successfully adopted in the description of drug release from partially accessible Dome Matrix® systems (systems with some surfaces coated)...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917324/targeted-anthelmintic-treatment-of-parasitic-gastroenteritis-in-first-grazing-season-dairy-calves-using-daily-live-weight-gain-as-an-indicator
#18
A Jackson, K A Ellis, J McGoldrick, N N Jonsson, M J Stear, A B Forbes
Control of parasitic gastroenteritis in cattle is typically based on group treatments with anthelmintics, complemented by grazing management, where feasible. However, the almost inevitable evolution of resistance in parasitic nematodes to anthelmintics over time necessitates a reappraisal of their use in order to reduce selection pressure. One such approach is targeted selective treatment (TST), in which only individual animals that will most benefit are treated, rather than whole groups of at-risk cattle. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of implementing TST on three commercial farms, two of which were organic...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917057/the-fungal-tree-of-life-from-molecular-systematics-to-genome-scale-phylogenies
#19
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916913/centromeric-enrichment-of-line-1-retrotransposons-and-its-significance-for-the-chromosome-evolution-of-phyllostomid-bats
#20
Cibele Gomes de Sotero-Caio, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Merilane da Silva Calixto, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cesar Martins, Vilma Loreto, Maria José de Souza, Neide Santos
Despite their ubiquitous incidence, little is known about the chromosomal distribution of long interspersed elements (LINEs) in mammalian genomes. Phyllostomid bats, characterized by lineages with distinct trends of chromosomal evolution coupled with remarkable ecological and taxonomic diversity, represent good models to understand how these repetitive sequences contribute to the evolution of genome architecture and its link to lineage diversification. To test the hypothesis that LINE-1 sequences were important modifiers of bat genome architecture, we characterized the distribution of LINE-1-derived sequences on genomes of 13 phyllostomid species within a phylogenetic framework...
September 15, 2017: Chromosome Research
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