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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350955/long-lived-species-enhance-summertime-attribution-of-north-american-ozone-to-upwind-sources
#1
Yixin Guo, Junfeng Liu, Denise L Mauzerall, Xiaoyuan Li, Larry W Horowitz, Wei Tao, Shu Tao
Ground-level ozone, harmful to most living things, is produced from both domestic and foreign emissions of anthropogenic precursors. Previous estimates of the linkage from distant sources rely on the sensitivity approach (i.e., modeling the change of ozone concentrations that result from modifying precursor emissions) as well as tagging approach (i.e., tracking ozone produced from specific O3 precursors emitted from one region). Here, for the first time, we tag all O3 precursors (i.e., nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ) from East Asia and explicitly track their physicochemical evolution without perturbing the non-linear O3 chemistry...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350952/future-advances-in-spine-surgery-the-aospine-north-america-perspective
#2
Michael G Fehlings, Christopher S Ahuja, Thomas Mroz, Wellington Hsu, James Harrop
This focus issue highlights state-of-the-art techniques, equipment, and practices in the modern era of spine surgery while providing a glimpse into the next generation of patient care. A broad range of topics are presented to cover the full spectrum of the field. Degenerative diseases are discussed in a series of 3 articles on (1) pathophysiology, management, and surgical approaches to degenerative cervical myelopathy; (2) novel approaches to degenerative thoracolumbar disease (eg, interspinous process spacers, minimally invasive/endoscopic approaches); and (3) animal models and emerging therapeutics in degenerative disk disease...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350943/controversies-in-spinal-trauma-and-evolution-of-care
#3
James S Harrop, George N Rymarczuk, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael P Steinmetz, Lindsay A Tetreault, Michael G Fehlings
Management of spinal trauma is a complex and rapidly evolving field. To optimize patient treatment algorithms, an understanding of and appreciation for current controversies and advancing technologies in the field of spinal trauma is necessary. Therefore, members of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Trauma initiative used a modified Delphi method to compile a list of controversial issues and emerging technologies in the field of spinal trauma, and a list of the 14 most relevant topics was generated. A total of 45 440 manuscripts covering the breadth of spine and spinal trauma were initially identified...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350903/advancing-diagnostics-to-address-antibacterial-resistance-the-diagnostics-and-devices-committee-of-the-antibacterial-resistance-leadership-group
#4
Ephraim L Tsalik, Elizabeth Petzold, Barry N Kreiswirth, Robert A Bonomo, Ritu Banerjee, Ebbing Lautenbach, Scott R Evans, Kimberly E Hanson, Jeffrey D Klausner, Robin Patel
Diagnostics are a cornerstone of the practice of infectious diseases. However, various limitations frequently lead to unmet clinical needs. In most other domains, diagnostics focus on narrowly defined questions, provide readily interpretable answers, and use true gold standards for development. In contrast, infectious diseases diagnostics must contend with scores of potential pathogens, dozens of clinical syndromes, emerging pathogens, rapid evolution of existing pathogens and their associated resistance mechanisms, and the absence of gold standards in many situations...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350863/the-relationship-between-least-cost-and-resistance-distance
#5
Robby R Marrotte, Jeff Bowman
Least-cost modelling and circuit theory are common analogs used in ecology and evolution to model gene flow or animal movement across landscapes. Least-cost modelling estimates the least-cost distance, whereas circuit theory estimates resistance distance. The bias added in choosing one method over the other has not been well documented. We designed an experiment to test whether both methods were linearly related. We also tested the sensitivity of these metrics to variation in Euclidean distance, spatial autocorrelation, the number of pixels representing the landscape, and data aggregation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350855/diversification-of-spatiotemporal-expression-and-copy-number-variation-of-the-echinoid-hbox12-pmar1-micro1-multigene-family
#6
Vincenzo Cavalieri, Fabiana Geraci, Giovanni Spinelli
Changes occurring during evolution in the cis-regulatory landscapes of individual members of multigene families might impart diversification in their spatiotemporal expression and function. The archetypal member of the echinoid hbox12/pmar1/micro1 family is hbox12-a, a homeobox-containing gene expressed exclusively by dorsal blastomeres, where it governs the dorsal/ventral gene regulatory network during embryogenesis of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Here we describe the inventory of the hbox12/pmar1/micro1 genes in P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350681/evolution-of-a-surgical-philosophy-in-orthognathic-surgery
#7
Harvey M Rosen
A surgical philosophy of orthognathic surgery is presented. It has evolved over an entire surgical career as orthognathic surgical goals have evolved to become primarily aesthetic. In this context, the occlusal result serves as a means of achieving the aesthetic ends. It relies on the physical examination, using qualitative concepts of facial appearance, to be the most important determinant of treatment plans. It makes a distinction between a quantitatively normal face and one that is visually well proportioned and emphasizes the attributes of the soft tissue...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350655/high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-aging-upper-face-fat-compartments
#8
Rémi Foissac, Olivier Camuzard, Sébastien Piereschi, Pascal Staccini, Olivier Andreani, Charalambos Georgiou, Marc Benatar
BACKGROUND: Age-related changes in fat compartments have yet to be fully characterized. Uncertainty remains in terms of volume gains/losses or shape fluctuations over time. The authors' aim was to determine the evolution of subcutaneous fat in the aging upper face, focusing on shifts in volume and dimension. METHODS: Over the course of 4.5 years, 100 faces of living female Caucasian patients were prospectively studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350649/oncoplastic-breast-reduction-technique-and-outcomes-an-evolution-over-20-years
#9
Albert Losken, Alexandra M Hart, Justine S Broecker, Toncred M Styblo, Grant W Carlson
BACKGROUND: Reduction mammaplasty at the time of lumpectomy is a good option in women with breast cancer and macromastia. We critically evaluated refinements and outcomes of this technique. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database was reviewed of all women with breast cancer who received lumpectomy and reduction mammaplasty at our institution from 1994 to 2015. Patients' demographics were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative patient satisfaction (BREAST-Q) was determined...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350499/determining-selection-across-heterogeneous-landscapes-a-perturbation-based-method-and-its-application-to-modeling-evolution-in-space
#10
Jonas Wickman, Sebastian Diehl, Bernd Blasius, Christopher A Klausmeier, Alexey B Ryabov, Åke Brännström
Spatial structure can decisively influence the way evolutionary processes unfold. To date, several methods have been used to study evolution in spatial systems, including population genetics, quantitative genetics, moment-closure approximations, and individual-based models. Here we extend the study of spatial evolutionary dynamics to eco-evolutionary models based on reaction-diffusion equations and adaptive dynamics. Specifically, we derive expressions for the strength of directional and stabilizing/disruptive selection that apply both in continuous space and to metacommunities with symmetrical dispersal between patches...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350498/evolutionary-assembly-of-communities-in-butterfly-mimicry-rings
#11
Jahnavi Joshi, Anupama Prakash, Krushnamegh Kunte
Species co-occurrence in ecological communities is thought to be influenced by multiple ecological and evolutionary processes, especially colonization and competition. However, effects of other interspecific interactions and evolutionary relationships are less explored. We examined evolutionary histories of community members and roles of mutualistic and parasitic interactions (Müllerian and Batesian mimicry, respectively) in the assembly of mimetic butterfly communities called mimicry rings in tropical forests of the Western Ghats, India...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350497/clines-arc-through-multivariate-morphospace
#12
Brian K Lohman, Daniel Berner, Daniel I Bolnick
Evolutionary biologists typically represent clines as spatial gradients in a univariate character (or a principal-component axis) whose mean changes as a function of location along a transect spanning an environmental gradient or ecotone. This univariate approach may obscure the multivariate nature of phenotypic evolution across a landscape. Clines might instead be plotted as a series of vectors in multidimensional morphospace, connecting sequential geographic sites. We present a model showing that clines may trace nonlinear paths that arc through morphospace rather than elongating along a single major trajectory...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350496/fundamental-theorems-of-evolution
#13
David C Queller
Evolutionary biology is undergirded by an extensive and impressive set of mathematical models. Yet only one result, Fisher's theorem about selection and fitness, is generally accorded the status of a fundamental theorem. I argue that although its fundamental status is justified by its simplicity and scope, there are additional results that seem similarly fundamental. I suggest that the most fundamental theorem of evolution is the Price equation, both because of its simplicity and broad scope and because it can be used to derive four other familiar results that are similarly fundamental: Fisher's average-excess equation, Robertson's secondary theorem of natural selection, the breeder's equation, and Fisher's fundamental theorem...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350495/out-group-threat-responses-in-group-bias-and-nonapeptide-involvement-are-conserved-across-vertebrates-a-comment-on-bruintjes-et-al-out-group-threat-promotes-within-group-affiliation-in-a-cooperative-fish
#14
Martin Kavaliers, Elena Choleris
The challenges and threats posed by out-groups have major effects on human social behavior and how individuals interact with one another. We briefly review evidence here that out-group threat similarly affects nonhuman animal behavior. Actual and potential threats posed by out-group individuals (unfamiliar and genetically nonrelated individuals of the same species) affect social behavior promoting "out-group" avoidance and "in-group" bias and enhancing in-group (familiar and/or genetically related individuals) affiliation and interactions...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350450/evolution-of-the-spin-magnetic-moments-and-atomic-valence-of-vanadium-in-vcux-vagx-and-vaux-clusters-x-3-14
#15
William H Blades, Arthur C Reber, Shiv N Khanna, Luis Lopez-Sosa, Patrizia Calaminici, Andreas M Koster
The atomic structures, bonding characteristics, spin magnetic moments, and stability of VCux(+), VAgx(+), and VAux(+) (x = 3 - 14) clusters have been examined using density functional theory. Our studies indicate that the effective valence of vanadium is size-dependent and at small sizes some of the valence electrons of vanadium are localized on vanadium while at larger sizes the 3d orbitals of the vanadium participate in metallic bonding eventually quenching the spin magnetic moment. The electronic stability of the clusters may be understood through a split-shell model that partitions the valence electrons in either a delocalized shell or localized on the vanadium atom...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346938/star-formation-inside-a-galactic-outflow
#16
R Maiolino, H R Russell, A C Fabian, S Carniani, R Gallagher, S Cazzoli, S Arribas, F Belfiore, E Bellocchi, L Colina, G Cresci, W Ishibashi, A Marconi, F Mannucci, E Oliva, E Sturm
Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy...
March 27, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346934/summary-of-evolution-of-human-microbiota
#17
W Allan Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346890/high-throughput-system-wide-engineering-and-screening-for-microbial-biotechnology
#18
REVIEW
Yannick Vervoort, Alicia Gutiérrez Linares, Miguel Roncoroni, Chengxun Liu, Jan Steensels, Kevin J Verstrepen
Genetic engineering and screening of large number of cells or populations is a crucial bottleneck in today's systems biology and applied (micro)biology. Instead of using standard methods in bottles, flasks or 96-well plates, scientists are increasingly relying on high-throughput strategies that miniaturize their experiments to the nanoliter and picoliter scale and the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize different high-throughput system-wide genome engineering and screening strategies for microbes...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346658/spatially-heterogeneous-selection-in-nature-favors-phenotypic-plasticity-in-anuran-larvae
#19
Josh Van Buskirk
Theory holds that adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves under spatial or temporal variation in natural selection. I tested this prediction in a classic system of predator-induced plasticity: frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) reacting to predaceous aquatic insects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment manipulating exposure to Aeshna dragonfly larvae revealed plasticity in most characters: growth, development, behavior, and external morphology. I measured selection by placing 1927 tadpoles into enclosures within natural ponds; photographs permitted identification of the survivors 6-9 days later...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346548/kinetics-of-light-induced-ordering-and-deformation-in-lc-azobenzene-containing-materials
#20
Vladimir Toshchevikov, Tatiana Petrova, Marina Saphiannikova
Azobenzene-containing smart materials are able to transform the energy of light into directional mechanical stress. We develop a theory of time-dependent light-induced ordering and deformation in azobenzene materials starting from the kinetic equations of photoisomerization. The liquid crystalline (LC) interactions between rod-like trans-isomers are taken into account. Angular selectivity of the photoisomerization known as an "angular hole burning" or the Weigert effect leads to the light-induced ordering and deformation of the azobenzene materials...
March 27, 2017: Soft Matter
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