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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821184/repetitive-dna-in-the-catfish-genome-rdna-microsatellites-and-tc1-mariner-transposon-sequences-in-imparfinis-species-siluriformes-heptapteridae
#1
Juceli Gonzalez Gouveia, Ivan Rodrigo Wolf, Laurival Antonio Vilas-Boas, John Seymour Heslop-Harrison, Trude Schwarzacher, Ana Lúcia Dias
Physical mapping of repetitive DNA families in the karyotypes of fish is important to understand the organization and evolution of different orders, families, genera, or species. Fish in the genus Imparfinis show diverse karyotypes with various diploid numbers and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locations. Here we isolated and characterized Tc1-mariner nucleotide sequences from Imparfinis schubarti, and mapped their locations together with 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and microsatellite probes in Imparfinis borodini and I. schubarti chromosomes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821181/conservation-genetics-of-the-cheetah-lessons-learned-and-new-opportunities
#2
Stephen J O'Brien, Warren E Johnson, Carlos A Driscoll, Pavel Dobrynin, Laurie Marker
The dwindling wildlife species of our planet have become a cause célèbre for conservation groups, governments, and concerned citizens throughout the world. The application of powerful new genetic technologies to surviving populations of threatened mammals has revolutionized our ability to recognize hidden perils that afflict them. We have learned new lessons of survival, adaptation, and evolution from viewing the natural history of genomes in hundreds of detailed studies. A single case history of one species, the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is here reviewed to reveal a long-term story of conservation challenges and action informed by genetic discoveries and insights...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821133/single-helix-in-v-type-starch-carrier-determines-the-encapsulation-capacity-of-ethylene
#3
Linfan Shi, Xiong Fu, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang
V-type starch carriers with different single helix contents were prepared using alcoholic-alkaline treatment followed by ethanol precipitation. Ethylene gas was entrapped into V-type starch carriers using a solid encapsulation method. The morphological and structural properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using scanning electron and light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopy. Aqueous ethanol treatment resulted in swelling and aggregation of starch granules, and B-type diffraction reflections were either reduced or completely lost with evolution of V-type pattern...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821099/xyloglucan-gelation-induced-by-enzymatic-degalactosylation-kinetics-and-the-effect-of-the-molar-mass
#4
Caroline Novak Sakakibara, Maria Rita Sierakowski, Christophe Chassenieux, Taco Nicolai, Rilton Alves de Freitas
Gelation kinetics of aqueous solutions of xyloglucan (XG) extracted from H. courbaril seeds were investigated, in-situ, during enzymatic removal of galactose units by oscillatory shear rheological measurements, at different XG and enzyme (β-galactosidase) concentrations. Increasing the enzyme concentration (Cenz) led to an increase of the gelation rate. Master curves of the evolution of the storage shear modulus at different Cenz could be formed by time-Cenz superposition showing that Cenz influenced the kinetics, but not the gelation process and the final gel stiffness...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821053/exploring-crystalline-structural-variations-of-cellulose-during-pulp-beating-of-tobacco-stems
#5
Deqing Zhao, Fei Yang, Ya Dai, Feiyan Tao, Yi Shen, Wangjun Duan, Xuezheng Zhou, Hongyan Ma, Lvqiao Tang, Jun Li
In this work, crystalline structural variations of cellulose during pulp beating of tobacco stems were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results showed that the correlation between the cellulose crystallinity index and the degree of beating was not a linear but an initially upward and then downward trend followed by a repeating fluctuation as a result of the beating action on amorphous regions first and then on crystalline cellulose. It was proposed that the whole beating process might be presumably divided into two phases in the case of the evolution of the crystallinity index...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820937/impact-of-shell-thickness-on-photoluminescence-and-optical-activity-in-chiral-cdse-cds-core-shell-quantum-dots
#6
Finn Purcell-Milton, Anastasia K Visheratina, Vera A Kuznetsova, Aisling Ryan, Anna O Orlova, Yurii K Gun'ko
Core/Shell quantum dots (QDs) are of high scientific and technological importance as these nanomaterials have found a number of valuable applications. In this paper, we have investigated the dependence of optical activity and photoluminescence upon CdS shell thickness in a range of core-shell structured CdSe/CdS QDs capped with chiral ligands. For our study, five samples of CdSe/CdS were synthesised utilizing successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) to vary the thickness of the CdS shell from 0...
August 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820908/ribosomopathy-like-properties-of-murine-and-human-cancers
#7
Sucheta Kulkarni, James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Brian P Frodey, Atinuke Dosunmu-Ogunbi, Youjun Li, Marc Fromherz, Audry Kang, Lucas Santana-Santos, Panayiotis V Benos, Edward V Prochownik
Ribosomopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of hematologic and developmental disorders, often characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal and other developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition. They are associated with mutations and/or haplo-insufficiencies of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and inefficient ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing. The resulting ribosomal stress induces the canonical p19ARF/Mdm2/p53 tumor suppressor pathway leading to proliferative arrest and/or apoptosis. It has been proposed that this pathway is then inactivated during subsequent neoplastic evolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820532/topotactic-transition-of-%C3%AE-co-oh-2-to-%C3%AE-co-oh-2-anchored-on-coo-nanoparticles-during-electrochemical-water-oxidation-synergistic-electrocatalytic-effects
#8
Sumana Kundu, Bibhudatta Malik, Amrutha Prabhakaran, Deepak K Pattanayak, Vijayamohanan K Pillai
Herein, we report a single step, anionic surfactant-assisted, low temperature-hydrothermal synthetic strategy of CoO nanoparticles anchored on β-Co(OH)2 nanosheets which show a low overpotential (295 mV @ 10 mA cm(-2)) for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). They also demonstrate much better kinetic parameters compared to the state-of-the-art RuO2. Interestingly, under the OER operational conditions (in alkaline medium), the topotactic transformation of α-Co(OH)2 to a stable Brucite-like β-Co(OH)2 phase leads to a synergistic interaction between the β-Co(OH)2 sheets on the CoO nanoparticles for enhancing the OER electrocatalytic activity...
August 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820431/high-throughput-screening-assay-for-laccase-engineering-toward-lignosulfonate-valorization
#9
David Rodríguez-Escribano, Felipe de Salas, Isabel Pardo, Susana Camarero
Lignin valorization is a pending issue for the integrated conversion of lignocellulose in consumer goods. Lignosulfonates (LS) are the main technical lignins commercialized today. However, their molecular weight should be enlarged to meet application requirements as additives or dispersing agents. Oxidation of lignosulfonates with fungal oxidoreductases, such as laccases, can increase the molecular weight of lignosulfonates by the cross-linking of lignin phenols. To advance in this direction, we describe here the development of a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for the directed evolution of laccases, with lignosulfonate as substrate and the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (FCR), to detect the decrease in phenolic content produced upon polymerization of lignosulfonate by the enzyme...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820425/bioinformatics-analysis-of-phylogeny-and-transcription-of-taa-yuc-auxin-biosynthetic-genes
#10
Axel Poulet, Verena Kriechbaumer
Auxin is a main plant growth hormone crucial in a multitude of developmental processes in plants. Auxin biosynthesis via the tryptophan aminotransferase of arabidopsis (TAA)/YUCCA (YUC) route involving tryptophan aminotransferases and YUC flavin-dependent monooxygenases that produce the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan is currently the most researched auxin biosynthetic pathway. Previous data showed that, in maize and arabidopsis, TAA/YUC-dependent auxin biosynthesis can be detected in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomal fractions, and a subset of auxin biosynthetic proteins are localized to the ER, mainly due to transmembrane domains (TMD)...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820351/genomic-and-chromatin-features-shaping-meiotic-double-strand-break-formation-and-repair-in-mice
#11
Shintaro Yamada, Seoyoung Kim, Sam E Tischfield, Maria Jasin, Julian Lange, Scott Keeney
The SPO11-generated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination occur non-randomly across genomes, but mechanisms shaping their distribution and repair remain incompletely understood. Here, we expand on recent studies of nucleotide-resolution DSB maps in mouse spermatocytes. We find that trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 36 around DSB hotspots is highly correlated, both spatially and quantitatively, with trimethylation of H3 lysine 4, consistent with coordinated formation and action of both PRDM9-dependent histone modifications...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820220/real-time-plasmon-spectroscopy-study-of-the-solid-state-oxidation-and-kirkendall-void-formation-in-copper-nanoparticles
#12
Mariano D Susman, Yishai Feldman, Tatyana A Bendikov, Alexander Vaskevich, Israel Rubinstein
Oxidation and corrosion reactions have a major effect on the application of non-noble metals. Kinetic information and simple theoretical models are often insufficient for describing such processes in metals at the nanoscale, particularly in cases involving formation of internal voids (nano Kirkendall effect, NKE) during oxidation. Here we study the kinetics of solid-state oxidation of chemically-grown copper nanoparticles (NPs) by in situ localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy during isothermal annealing in the range 110-170 °C...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820219/mo-doped-ni2p-nanowire-arrays-an-efficient-electrocatalyst-for-the-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-with-enhanced-activity-at-all-ph-values
#13
Yiqiang Sun, Lifeng Hang, Qi Shen, Tao Zhang, Huilin Li, Xiaomin Zhang, Xianjun Lyu, Yue Li
We report the successful synthesis of Mo doped Ni2P nanowires (NWs) on a Ni foam (NF) substrate by a two-step strategy, which could be used as an efficient and stable hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalyst over the whole pH range (0-14). Electrochemical investigations demonstrated that Mo doping made the catalytic activity of Ni2P significantly enhanced. To achieve a current density of 10 mA cm(-2), Mo-Ni2P NWs/NF required an overpotential of 67 mV in acidic solution, 78 mV in alkaline solution and 84 mV in neutral solution...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820215/how-exfoliated-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-organize-at-the-water-interface-evidence-for-a-spontaneous-bilayer-self-assembly
#14
Nathalie Bonatout, François Muller, Philippe Fontaine, Ignacio Gascon, Oleg Konovalov, Michel Goldmann
In this study, we have characterized graphene oxide films formed at the air-water interface by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction using synchrotron sources. Surprisingly, the results of both measurements show that at non zero surface pressures, the film is organized as a bilayer of sheets interfaced between air and water with water molecule bridges. Such a spontaneous bilayer structure and its evolution with respect to the surface pressure has been observed for the first time. These results should allow precise control of the density of sheets deposited on the substrate when these films are transferred through the Langmuir Blodgett or Schaefer procedures...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820214/mediated-water-electrolysis-in-biphasic-systems
#15
Micheál D Scanlon, Pekka Peljo, Lucie Rivier, Heron Vrubel, Hubert H Girault
The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820209/nizn-double-hydroxide-nanosheet-anchored-nitrogen-doped-graphene-enriched-with-the-%C3%AE-niooh-phase-as-an-activity-modulated-water-oxidation-electrocatalyst
#16
Ayasha Nadeema, Vishal M Dhavale, Sreekumar Kurungot
Herein, we report a facile solvothermal process to synthesize an active electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in an alkaline medium by anchoring nanosheets of a NiZn double hydroxide over nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide after enriching the system with the γ-NiOOH phase. This catalyst possesses a thin, porous and open layered structure, which makes the system more efficient and accessible for a better electrochemical water oxidation reaction. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrated that incorporation of Zn via a single-step solvothermal method provides an easy approach to obtain plenty of exposed γ-NiOOH phases to make the system more viable for OER with a small overpotential of 290 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and a Tafel slope of 44 mV per decade...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820150/component-corneal-surgery-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Prafulla K Maharana, Pranita Sahay, Deepali Singhal, Itika Garg, Jeewan S Titiyal, Namrata Sharma
Several decades ago, penetrating keratoplasty was a challenge to corneal surgeons. Constant effort by the corneal surgeon to improve the outcomes as well as utilization of the available resources has led to a revolutionary change in the field of keratoplasty. All these efforts have led to the evolution of techniques that allow a corneal surgeon to disease-specific transplant of individual layers of corneal "so-called component corneal surgery" depending on the layer of cornea affected. This has led to an improvement in corneal graft survival as well as a better utilization of corneal tissues...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820125/fungal-genomes-and-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-kingdom
#18
Jason E Stajich
The kingdom Fungi comprises species that inhabit nearly all ecosystems. Fungi exist as both free-living and symbiotic unicellular and multicellular organisms with diverse morphologies. The genomes of fungi encode genes that enable them to thrive in diverse environments, invade plant and animal cells, and participate in nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The continuously expanding databases of fungal genome sequences have been generated by individual and large-scale efforts such as Génolevures, Broad Institute's Fungal Genome Initiative, and the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project (http://1000...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#19
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819912/a-case-of-q-fever-with-erythema-nodosum
#20
E Meriglier, L Asquier, F Roblot, P Roblot, C Landron
BACKGROUND: Acute Q fever is asymptomatic in 60% of the patients, while the reminder may present with fever, pneumoniae, and hepatitis. Skin manifestations are uncommon including transient punctiform rashes, purpuric, or maculopapular eruptions. Erythema nodosum have seldom been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old female presented with fever for 1 month and skin lesions consists of erythematous painful nodule of the legs. Serological testing for Coxiella burnetii was positive...
August 17, 2017: Infection
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