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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691459/unexpected-impact-of-radiation-friction-enhancing-production-of-longitudinal-plasma-waves
#1
Evgeny Gelfer, Nina Elkina, Alexander Fedotov
We study the penetration of ultra-intense (intensity I [Formula: see text] 1023-24  W/cm2 ) circularly polarized laser pulses into a thick subcritical plasma layer with accounting for radiation friction. We show that radiation pressure is enhanced due to radiation friction in the direction transverse to the laser pulse propagation, and that for stronger and longer laser pulses this mechanism dominates over the ordinary ponderomotive pressure, thus resulting in a substantionaly stronger charge separation than anticipated previously...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691285/relationships-between-chronic-comorbidities-and-the-atherosclerosis-indicators-ankle-brachial-index-and-brachial-ankle-pulse-wave-velocity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Chun-Chuan Lee, Ming-Chieh Tsai, Sung-Chen Liu, Chi-Feng Pan
This study aimed to determine associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) with different comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Records of patients with type 2 DM who received an ABI and baPWV examination between August 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Associations of ABI and baPWV with chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic liver disease (CLD), coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) were examined by regression analysis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691159/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-prevalence-of-exercise-induced-hypertension-in-childhood-following-repair-of-coarctation-of-the-aorta
#3
Taryn L Luitingh, Melissa G Y Lee, Bryn Jones, Remi Kowalski, Sofia Weskamp Aguero, Jane Koleff, Diana Zannino, Michael M H Cheung, Yves d'Udekem
BACKGROUND: Exercise-testing may be a more tolerable method of detecting hypertension in children after coarctation repair compared to gold-standard 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM). This study aims to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced hypertension and end-organ damage in children after coarctation repair, and the effectiveness of exercise-testing compared to 24-hour ABPM in this population. METHODS: Exercise-testing (Bruce protocol), transthoracic echocardiogram, 24-hour ABPM, and pulse wave velocity were performed in 41 patients aged 8 to 18 years with previous coarctation repair...
March 27, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689758/an-experimental-study-of-pulse-wave-measurements-with-magnetic-induction-phase-shift-method
#4
Jian Sun, Wei Zhuang, Gen Li, Gui Jin, Jia Xu, Ke Ma, Feng Wang, Hua Feng
BACKGROUND: Pulse wave monitoring is widely used to evaluate the physiological and pathological states of the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVE: High-sensitivity ring sensors were designed, and a simultaneous acquisition platform based on National Instruments T-Clock technology (NI-TCLK) was used to achieve simultaneous pulse detection using both the traditional method and the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS) method. METHODS: The excitation signal had a frequency of approximately 10...
April 10, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689641/inducing-different-brain-injury-levels-using-shock-wave-lithotripsy
#5
Afshin A Divani, Pascal Salazar, Manoj Monga, Greg J Beilman, Karen S SantaCruz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of inducing different severities of shock wave (SW)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) using lithotripsy. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 36) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 20) received 5 SW pulses, and group 2 (n = 16) received 15 SWs pulses. The SW pulses were delivered to the right side of the frontal cortex. Neurologic and behavioral assessments (Garcia test, beam walking, rotarod, and elevated plus maze) were performed at the baseline and at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after injury...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688778/influence-of-immune-mediated-hemolytic-anemia-on-flow-velocities-in-the-portal-vein-and-caudal-vena-cava-measured-by-use-of-pulsed-wave-doppler-ultrasonography-in-dogs
#6
Rachel Policelli Smith, Amy M Koenigshof, Daniel J Smith, Phillip R Strom, Nathan C Nelson
OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs. PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687613/free-living-continuous-hypo-hydration-and-cardiovascular-response-to-exercise-in-a-heated-environment
#7
Kate S Early, Conrad P Earnest, Bailey Theall, Nathan P Lemoine, Brian Harrell, Neil M Johannsen
Chronic dehydration (DEH) and heat stress combined with poor cardiovascular (CV) health may influence physiological responses to exercise. We examined the effects of free-living induced hypo-hydration on physiological responses to exercise in a heated environment and whether resting CV health is related to these changes. Participants (N = 16, 20.6 ± 1.2 years) were randomized to 3 days of voluntary fluid restriction (DEH) or intake (hydration [HYD]) followed by an exercise bout. CV health was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave analysis, and heart rate variability (HRV)...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686625/modeling-arterial-pulse-pressure-from-heart-rate-during-sympathetic-activation-by-progressive-central-hypovolemia
#8
Björn J P van Der Ster, Nicolaas H Sperna Weiland, Berend E Westerhof, Wim J Stok, Johannes J van Lieshout
Heart rate (HR) has an impact on the central blood pressure (BP) wave shape and is related to pulse wave velocity and therefore to timing and duration of systole and diastole. This study tested the hypothesis that in healthy subjects both in rest and during sympathetic stimulation the relation between HR and pulse pressure (PP) is described by a linear effect model. Forty-four healthy volunteers were subjected to sympathetic stimulation by continuous lower body negative pressure (LBNP) until the onset of pre-syncopal symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685202/correlation-between-immunological-inflammatory-markers-and-endothelial-disfunction-in-the-early-stage-of-coronary-heart-disease
#9
Viktor Persic, Ana Lanca Bastiancic, Ivan Rosovic, Damir Raljevic, Dijana Travica Samsa, Luka Bastiancic, Rajko Miskulin, Marko Boban, Gordana Laskarin
Classical risk factors for endothelial dysfunction (ED), such as age, gender, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and smoking history are utilised for the Framingham score and Systemic Coronary Risk Estimation (SCORE) for evaluation of the 10-year cardiovascular risk in routine practice. Nonetheless, pro-inflammatory mediators are deeply involved in the initiation and the progression of ED and coronary artery disease (CAD), and act additionally or independently of metabolic factors before clinical manifestations of the disease appear...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684662/release-of-endothelial-microparticles-in-patients-with-arterial-hypertension-hypertensive-emergencies-and-catheter-related-injury
#10
Roberto Sansone, Maximilian Baaken, Patrick Horn, Dominik Schuler, Ralf Westenfeld, Nicolas Amabile, Malte Kelm, Christian Heiss
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are increased in arterial hypertension. The role of physicomechanical factors that may induce EMP release in vivo is still unknown. We studied the relationship of EMPs and physicomechanical factors in stable arterial hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, and investigated the pattern of EMP release after mechanical endothelial injury. METHODS: In a pilot study, 41 subjects (50% hypertensives) were recruited...
April 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684625/nanomechanics-and-ultrastructure-of-the-internal-mammary-artery-adventitia-in-patients-with-low-and-high-pulse-wave-velocity
#11
Zhuo Chang, Paolo Paoletti, Steve D Barrett, Ya Hua Chim, Eva Caamaño-Gutiérrez, Maria Lyck Hansen, Hans Christian Beck, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Riaz Akhtar
The collagen-rich adventitia is the outermost arterial layer and plays an important biomechanical and physiological role in normal vessel function. While there has been a lot of effort to understand the role of the medial layer on arterial biomechanics, the adventitia has received less attention. In this study, we hypothesized that different ultrastructural and nanomechanical properties would be exhibited in the adventitia of the internal mammary artery (IMA) in patients with a low degree of arterial stiffening as compared to those with a high degree of arterial stiffening...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684119/aortic-stiffness-in-adolescent-turner-and-marfan-syndrome-patients
#12
Michal Schäfer, Lorna P Browne, Uyen Truong, James J Jaggers, Max B Mitchell, Ladonna Malone, Gareth Morgan, Kathryn Chatfield, Daniel McLennan, Harma Turbendian, Danial Vargas, Brian Fonseca, Michael DiMaria, Anar Shah, Margaret P Ivy, Alex J Barker, Kendall S Hunter, Neil Wilson, D Dunbar Ivy, David N Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Turner syndrome (TS) and Marfan syndrome (MFS) are partially characterized by aortopathies with a risk of developing severe aortic dilation, stiffness and consequent dissection and aneurysm formation. The incidence of a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is also increased in TS. We investigated aortic stiffness in teenage TS and MFS patients and evaluated to what degree stiffness in TS patients is augmented by the presence of a BAV. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with TS (n = 37) and MFS (n = 20), as well as 22 controls with similar age and size distribution underwent evaluation of thoracic aortic stiffness using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684105/aortic-pulse-pressure-does-not-adequately-index-cardiovascular-risk-factor-related-changes-in-aortic-stiffness-and-forward-wave-pressure
#13
Tshegofatso H Motau, Gavin R Norton, Pinhas Sareli, Angela J Woodiwiss
Background: Through the impact of conventional risk factors on arteries, several changes in aortic function contribute to cardiovascular events. It is nevertheless uncertain whether these effects are accurately reflected by changes in central aortic pulse pressure (PPc). We therefore aimed to determine the extent to which relations between modifiable risk factors and aortic function translate into increases in PPc. Methods: In 1232 black South Africans from the South West Township (SOWETO) of Johannesburg, we determined risk factors and aortic function from carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic PPc, forward (Pf) and reflected (backward-Pb) wave pressures (applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software)...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682699/effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-cardiovascular-biomarkers-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Yu Ning, Tian-Song Zhang, Wan-Wan Wen, Kun Li, Yun-Xiao Yang, Yan-Wen Qin, Hui-Na Zhang, Yun-Hui Du, Lin-Yi Li, Song Yang, Yun-Yun Yang, Miao-Miao Zhu, Xiao-Lu Jiao, Yan Zhang, Ming Zhang, Yong-Xiang Wei
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers, increased arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, which may lead to increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to quantify the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on cardiovascular biomarkers and to establish predictors of response to CPAP. METHODS: We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library from inception to May 31, 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of CPAP on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with OSA were selected by consensus...
April 22, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682539/effect-of-kisspeptin-on-the-developmental-competence-and-early-transcript-expression-in-porcine-oocytes-parthenogenetically-activated-with-different-methods
#15
Islam M Saadeldin, Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Aaser M Abdelazim, Essam A Almadaly
Recent studies showed the modulatory effect of kisspeptin (KP) on calcium waves through the cell membrane and inside the cell. Spermatozoon can induce similar ooplasmic calcium oscillations at fertilization to trigger meiosis II. Here, we evaluated the effect of KP supplementation with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) for 4 h on embryonic development after oocyte activation with single electric pulse, 5 µ M ionomycin, or 8% ethanol. Compared to control nonsupplemented groups, KP significantly improved embryo developmental competence electric- and ethanol-activated oocytes in terms of cleavage (75...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679491/ionizing-radiation-induced-acoustics-for-radiotherapy-and-diagnostic-radiology-applications
#16
Susannah Hickling, Liangzhong Xiang, Kevin C Jones, Katia Parodi, Walter Assmann, Stephen Avery, Maritza Hobson, Issam El Naqa
Acoustic waves are induced via the thermoacoustic effect in objects exposed to a pulsed beam of ionizing radiation. This phenomenon has interesting potential applications in both radiotherapy dosimetry and treatment guidance as well as low dose radiological imaging. After initial work in the field in the 1980s and early 1990s, little research was done until 2013 when interest was rejuvenated, spurred on by technological advances in ultrasound transducers and the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery systems...
April 21, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677465/the-effect-of-sex-menstrual-cycle-phase-and-monophasic-oral-contraceptive-pill-use-on-local-and-central-arterial-stiffness-in-young-adults
#17
Stacey E Priest, Ninette Shenouda, Maureen J MacDonald
Arterial stiffness is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Previous sex-based investigations of local and central stiffness report inconsistent findings and have not controlled for menstrual cycle phase in women. There is also evidence that sex hormones influence the vasculature, but their impact on arterial stiffness across a natural menstrual (NAT) or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) cycle has been understudied. This study sought to 1) examine potential sex differences in local and central stiffness, 2) compare stiffness profiles between NAT and OCP cycles, and 3) investigate the relationship between duration of OCP use and arterial stiffness...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677054/effects-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-on-arterial-stiffness-and-cerebrovascular-pulsatility-in-adults-with-and-without-hypertension
#18
Wesley K Lefferts, Jacob P DeBlois, Candace N Receno, Tiago V Barreira, Tom D Brutsaert, Robert L Carhart, Kevin S Heffernan
OBJECTIVES: Stiffer central arteries, as seen in hypertension (HTN), foster transmission of pulsatile hemodynamics into fragile cerebral vessels. Aerobic exercise is recommended for adults with HTN, but its effects on arterial stiffness and pulsatility in this group are unclear. This study sought to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness and cerebrovascular pulsatility in 30 adults with treated HTN and 30 age, sex, and BMI-matched adults without HTN (56 ± 6 years, BMI 28...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676417/electron-paramagnetic-resonance-of-a-copper-doped-ch-3-2-nh-2-zn-hcoo-3-hybrid-perovskite-framework
#19
Mantas Šimėnas, Aneta Ciupa, Gediminas Usevičius, Kęstutis Aidas, Daniel Klose, Gunnar Jeschke, Mirosław Mączka, Georg Völkel, Andreas Pöppl, Jūras Banys
We report a continuous-wave (CW) and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as well as pulse electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) study of Cu2+ doped [(CH3)2NH2][Zn(HCOO)3] hybrid perovskite which exhibits a structural phase transition. The multifrequency (X, Q and W-band) CW EPR measurements allow the temperature evolution of the Cu2+ ion local environment to be studied. The spectrum of the ordered (low-temperature) phase reveals an axially distorted octahedral Cu2+ site confirming the successful replacement of the Zn2+ ions and formation of the CuO6 octahedra...
April 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675755/new-445-nm-blue-laser-for-laryngeal-surgery-combines-photoangiolytic-and-cutting-properties
#20
Markus M Hess, Susanne Fleischer, Marcel Ernstberger
BACKGROUND: Photoangiolytic lasers have broadened the surgical armamentarium for many phonosurgical interventions. However, the pulse dye laser and potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser have technical drawbacks and a smaller spectrum of indications. METHODS AND RESULTS: The new 445 nm wavelength laser, the so-called 'blue laser', proves to show tissue effects comparable to the KTP laser and is also capable of treating subepithelial vessels due to its photoangiolytic properties, it can coagulate and carbonize at higher energy levels, and can be used via glass fibers in non-contact and contact mode for in-office procedures...
April 19, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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