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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691958/brain-based-treatment-a-new-approach-or-a-well-forgotten-old-one
#1
Vanya Matanova, Zlatomira Kostova, Martin Kolev
For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691787/the-role-of-circle-of-willis-anatomy-variations-in-cardio-embolic-stroke-a-patient-specific-simulation-based-study
#2
Debanjan Mukherjee, Neel D Jani, Jared Narvid, Shawn C Shadden
We describe a patient-specific simulation based investigation on the role of Circle of Willis anatomy in cardioembolic stroke. Our simulation framework consists of medical image-driven modeling of patient anatomy including the Circle, 3D blood flow simulation through patient vasculature, embolus transport modeling using a discrete particle dynamics technique, and a sampling based approach to incorporate parametric variations. A total of 24 (four patients and six Circle anatomies including the complete Circle) models were considered, with cardiogenic emboli of varying sizes and compositions released virtually and tracked to compute distribution to the brain...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691655/loss-of-function-mutations-in-vars-encoding-cytoplasmic-valyl-trna-synthetase-cause-microcephaly-seizures-and-progressive-cerebral-atrophy
#3
Joshi Stephen, Sheela Nampoothiri, Aditi Banerjee, Nathanial J Tolman, Josef Martin Penninger, Ullrich Elling, Chukwuma A Agu, John D Burke, Kalpana Devadathan, Rajesh Kannan, Yan Huang, Peter J Steinbach, Susan A Martinis, William A Gahl, May Christine V Malicdan
Progressive microcephaly and neurodegeneration are genetically heterogenous conditions, largely associated with genes that are essential for the survival of neurons. In this study, we interrogate the genetic etiology of two siblings from a non-consanguineous family with severe early onset of neurological manifestations. Whole exome sequencing identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in VARS that segregated with the proband: a missense (c.3192G>A; p.Met1064Ile) and a splice site mutation (c.1577-2A>G)...
April 24, 2018: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691607/protective-effect-of-nerolidol-loaded-in-nanospheres-against-cerebral-damage-caused-by-trypanosoma-evansi
#4
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Roberta C Riéffel, Maiara C Velho, Andiara P Ramos, Kátia Nascimento, Michele R Sagrillo, Aline F Ourique, Aleksandro S da Silva, Lenita M Stefani, Silvia G Monteiro
Trypanosoma evansi is a zoonotic parasite associated with high animal mortality that has gained importance due to its capacity to infect humans. Recently, some evidences have demonstrated that T. evansi infection causes severe genotoxic and cytotoxic damage in brain cells, contributing to the pathogenesis and clinical signs of the disease. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether nerolidol-loaded in nanospheres, a natural compound with trypanocidal and neuroprotective effects, is able to protect the brain tissue from the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects found during T...
April 24, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691468/large-scale-brain-network-associated-with-creative-insight-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-analyses
#5
Takeshi Ogawa, Takatsugu Aihara, Takeaki Shimokawa, Okito Yamashita
Creative insight occurs with an "Aha!" experience when solving a difficult problem. Here, we investigated large-scale networks associated with insight problem solving. We recruited 232 healthy participants aged 21-69 years old. Participants completed a magnetic resonance imaging study (MRI; structural imaging and a 10 min resting-state functional MRI) and an insight test battery (ITB) consisting of written questionnaires (matchstick arithmetic task, remote associates test, and insight problem solving task)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691467/low-bilirubin-levels-indicate-a-high-risk-of-cerebral-deep-white-matter-lesions-in-apparently-healthy-subjects
#6
Satoshi Higuchi, Yusuke Kabeya, Junko Uchida, Kiyoe Kato, Nobuhiro Tsukada
Recent studies have reported that deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging scans are related to the risk of developing impaired cognitive function in future. Bilirubin exhibits a potent antioxidant effect and an inverse relationship has been reported between bilirubin levels and the risk of several atherosclerotic diseases; however, there is limited evidence with regard to the effect of bilirubin levels on cerebrovascular diseases including DWMLs. This cross-sectional study included 1121 apparently healthy Japanese adults...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690995/two-complement-receptor-one-alleles-have-opposing-associations-with-cerebral-malaria-and-interact-with-%C3%AE-thalassaemia
#7
D Herbert Opi, Olivia Swann, Alexander Macharia, Sophie Uyoga, Gavin Band, Carolyne M Ndila, Ewen Harrison, Mahamadou A Thera, Abdoulaye K Kone, Dapa A Diallo, Ogobara K Doumbo, Kirsten E Lyke, Christopher Plowe, Joann M Moulds, Mohammed Shebbe, Neema Mturi, Norbert Peshu, Kathryn Maitland, Ahmed Raza, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Kirk A Rockett, Thomas Williams, J Alexandra Rowe
Malaria has been a major driving force in the evolution of the human genome. In sub-Saharan African populations, two neighbouring polymorphisms in the Complement Receptor One ( CR1 ) gene, named Sl2 and McCb , occur at high frequencies, consistent with selection by malaria. Previous studies have been inconclusive. Using a large case-control study of severe malaria in Kenyan children and statistical models adjusted for confounders, we estimate the relationship between Sl2 and McCb and malaria phenotypes, and find they have opposing associations...
April 25, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690971/clinical-spectrum-and-outcome-of-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-in-children
#8
Iram Javed, Tipu Sultan, Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen
OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical spectrum, neuroimaging finding and outcome of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in children. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive and cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Paediatric Neurology, Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from 2015 to 2016. METHODOLOGY: Data was collected in a predesigned proforma by non-probability purposive sampling technique from all enrolled 32 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690927/effects-of-transcranial-led-therapy-on-the-cognitive-rehabilitation-for-diffuse-axonal-injury-due-to-severe-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Renato Amaro Zângaro, Ana Maria Costa Carneiro, Iuri Santana Neville, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate or regenerate tissue. It was discovered that near-infrared wavelengths (800-900 nm) and red (600 nm) light-emitting diodes (LED) are able to penetrate through the scalp and skull and have the potential to improve the subnormal cellular activity of compromised brain tissue. Different experimental and clinical studies were performed to test LED therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) with promising results...
April 24, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690919/lack-of-human-like-extracellular-sortilin-neuropathology-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-and-macaques
#10
Feng-Qin Zhou, Juan Jiang, Chelsea M Griffith, Peter R Patrylo, Huaibin Cai, Yaping Chu, Xiao-Xin Yan
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder bearing multiple pathological hallmarks suggestive of complex cellular/molecular interplay during pathogenesis. Transgenic mice and nonhuman primates are used as disease models for mechanistic and translational research into AD; the extent to which these animal models recapitulate AD-type neuropathology is an issue of importance. Putative C-terminal fragments from sortilin, a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family, have recently been shown to deposit in the neuritic β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the human brain...
April 24, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690910/haemodynamic-outcomes-during-piston-based-mechanical-cpr-with-or-without-active-decompression-in-a-porcine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#11
Mikkel T Steinberg, Jan-Aage Olsen, Morten Eriksen, Andres Neset, Per Andreas Norseng, Jo Kramer-Johansen, Bjarne Madsen Hardig, Lars Wik
BACKGROUND: Experimental active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR is associated with increased haemodynamic outcomes compared to standard mechanical chest compressions. Since no clinically available mechanical chest compression device is capable of ACD-CPR, we modified the LUCAS 2 (Physio-Control, Lund, Sweden) to deliver ACD-CPR, hypothesising it would improve haemodynamic outcomes compared with standard LUCAS CPR on pigs with cardiac arrest. METHODS: The modified LUCAS delivering 5 cm compressions with or without 2 cm active decompression above anatomical chest level was studied in a randomized crossover design on 19 Norwegian domestic pigs...
April 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690795/child-s-quality-of-life-and-mother-s-burden-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-topographical-classification-perspective
#12
Yasemin Ozkan
Objective To evaluate the child's quality of life (QoL), mother's burden, and correlation between these parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Children with spastic CP (n = 120; mean age: 8.64 ± 3.45 years; range: 2-17 years) were classified into three groups of diplegia, hemiplegia, and quadriplegia based on topographical classification. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Zarit Burden Interview were used to determine the child's QoL and the mother's burden scores, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690757/hypercapnia-does-not-shorten-emergence-time-from-propofol-anesthesia-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-study
#13
Ki-Hyug Kwon, Hansu Bae, Hyun Gu Kang, Junyong In
Background: The elimination of anesthetic agents is a decisive factor in the emergence from general anesthesia. In this pilot study, we hypothesized that hypercapnia would decrease the emergence time from propofol anesthesia by increasing cardiac output and cerebral blood flow. Methods: A total of 32 patients were randomly divided into two groups based on the end-tidal carbon dioxide values: 30 mmHg (the hypocapnia group) and 50 mmHg (the hypercapnia group). Propofol and remifentanil were infused to maintain a bispectral index of 40-50...
April 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690753/correlation-between-regional-tissue-perfusion-saturation-and-lactate-level-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#14
Yoon-Sook Lee, Woon Young Kim, Ji Won Yoo, Hyun Don Jung, Too Jae Min
Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause systemic hypoperfusion, which remains undetected by routine monitoring of physiological parameters. Noninvasive tissue perfusion monitoring offers a clinical benefit by detecting low systemic perfusion. In this study, we tried to evaluate whether regional tissue perfusion saturation reflects systemic hypoperfusion during CPB. Methods: This retrospective study included 29 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II-III, who required cardiac surgery with CPB...
April 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690732/-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-of-the-protective-effect-of-shrna-on-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rats
#15
Y Zhang, J L Cheng, Y Li
Objective: To investigate the cerebral protective effect of shRNA down-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) on cerebral infarction rats. Methods: 32 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 for each group): group A (sham operation group): the branches of external carotid artery were only separated and ligated and were not be inserted thread; group B (MCAO group): rat MCAO models were made referring to the conventional Longa method; group C (physiological saline group): rats were injected with 5 μl saline two weeks before MCAO models; group D (lentivirus intervention group): rats were injected with 5 μl lentivirus-mediated shRNA two weeks before MCAO models...
April 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690709/-influence-of-intravenous-thrombolysis-on-prognosis-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-leukoaraiosis
#16
Y Y Liu, M Zhang, P Gao, Z X Zhang, X J Zhou, W W Yun
Objective: To investigate the influence of intravenous thrombolysis on prognosis of acute ischemic stroke in patients with moderate to severe leukoaraiosis and to analyze influencing factors of the clinical prognosis. Methods: We consecutively included acute ischemic stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion ( n =101) from Department of Neurology or Emergency, and patients were divided into two groups according to whether on intravenous thrombolysis therapy (IVT) or not. The Fugl-Meyer scale score (FMS) was used to assess motor function outcome and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was used to assess neurologic function...
April 3, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690700/-the-state-of-the-art-research-findings-on-the-relationship-between-chronic-periodontitis-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review
#17
X S Qian, S Ge
Along with the development of periodontal medicine, there is a growing number of evidence showing that periodontitis could influence systemic health. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by microbial infection mediated by dental plaque. Periodontal pathogenic microorganisms and its toxic products can disseminate through the blood stream or may cause the host immune response, which may lead to pathological changes of cerebral vessels and brain tissues to establish connection with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689717/mechanism-of-tau-hyperphosphorylation-involving-lysosomal-enzyme-asparagine-endopeptidase-in-a-mouse-model-of-brain-ischemia
#18
Gustavo Basurto-Islas, Jin-Hua Gu, Yunn Chyn Tung, Fei Liu, Khalid Iqbal
Dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD) are multifactorial disorders that involve several different etiopathogenic mechanisms. Cerebral ischemia has been suspected in the altered regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau and further neurofibrillary pathology, a key hallmark of AD and related neurodegenerative diseases. However, the deregulation of these enzymes and their relationship with ischemia and AD remain unclear. Previously, we reported a mechanism by which the lysosomal enzyme asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is associated with brain acidosis and AD...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689641/inducing-different-brain-injury-levels-using-shock-wave-lithotripsy
#19
Afshin A Divani, Pascal Salazar, Manoj Monga, Greg J Beilman, Karen S SantaCruz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of inducing different severities of shock wave (SW)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) using lithotripsy. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 36) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 20) received 5 SW pulses, and group 2 (n = 16) received 15 SWs pulses. The SW pulses were delivered to the right side of the frontal cortex. Neurologic and behavioral assessments (Garcia test, beam walking, rotarod, and elevated plus maze) were performed at the baseline and at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after injury...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689593/transcatheter-technologies-for-valvular-replacement-an-update
#20
Antonio Nenna, Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Simone Morganti, Laura Mazzocchi, Ferdinando Auricchio, Massimo Chello, Francesco Nappi
This report provides a brief overview of the basic principles, recent advances, and recommendations for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in adults. Approaches that avoid neurological, cardiac and peripheral vascular complications have been developed. In addition, TAVR can be performed in intermediate- and low-risk patients. However, these procedures require specialized training and may not allow for complete resolution of the underlying issue. Even if cardiologists learn to perform the procedure and despite advancements in device technology, TAVR is still susceptible to structural valve degeneration, thrombosis and late cerebral embolization...
April 23, 2018: Surgical Technology International
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