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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651367/alternative-rna-splicing-associated-with-mammalian-neuronal-differentiation
#1
Jiancheng Liu, Anqi Geng, Xiwei Wu, Ren-Jang Lin, Qiang Lu
Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) produces multiple isoforms of mRNAs and proteins from a single gene. It is most prevalent in the mammalian brain and is thought to contribute to the formation and/or maintenance of functional complexity of the brain. Increasing evidence has documented the significant changes of AS between different regions or different developmental stages of the brain, however, the dynamics of AS and the possible function of it during neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation is less well known...
June 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651020/the-nervous-system-of-the-adult-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-type-a-ciona-robusta-insights-from-transgenic-animal-models
#2
Tomohiro Osugi, Yasunori Sasakura, Honoo Satake
The nervous system of ascidians is an excellent model system to provide insights into the evolutionary process of the chordate nervous system due to their phylogenetic positions as the sister group of vertebrates. However, the entire nervous system of adult ascidians has yet to be functionally and anatomically investigated. In this study, we have revealed the whole dorsal and siphon nervous system of the transgenic adult ascidian of Ciona intestinalis Type A (Ciona robusta) in which a Kaede reporter gene is expressed in a pan-neuronal fashion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650979/expression-of-cerebral-serotonin-related-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-c57bl-6-offspring-induced-by-repeated-subcutaneous-prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-lipopolysaccharide
#3
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Hsuan-Han Wang, Chiu-Lin Liu, Wei-Fen Ni, Ya-Lei Chen, Jong-Kang Liu
Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which likely occurs due to infection or contact with environmental allergens during pregnancy, is a proposed risk factor that induces anxiety- and autism spectrum disorder-like behaviors in offspring. However, the molecular and behavioral changes in offspring after maternal immune activation have not been completely identified. We hypothesized that a subcutaneous injection of LPS in a pregnant mouse would induce changes in cerebral serotonin (5-HT) in parallel to the appearance of anxiety-like behaviors in the dam's offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650877/the-resurgence-of-botulinum-toxin-injection-for-strabismus-in-children
#4
Marielle Mahan, J Mark Engel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses recent advances in the use of botulinum toxin for the management of strabismus in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Botulinum toxin injection produces similar results compared to surgery for certain subtypes of strabismus, especially acute onset esotropia. It may be more effective in many subtypes of esotropia where surgery has been less reliable, including partially accommodative esotropia, esotropia associated with cerebral palsy, and thyroid eye disease...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650581/deficiency-of-wars2-encoding-mitochondrial-tryptophanyl-trna-synthetase-causes-severe-infantile-onset-leukoencephalopathy
#5
Benjamin E Theisen, Anastasia Rumyantseva, Julie S Cohen, Wendy A Alcaraz, Deepali N Shinde, Sha Tang, Siddarth Srivastava, Jonathan Pevsner, Aleksandra Trifunovic, Ali Fatemi
Pathogenic variants in the mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetases lead to deficiencies in mitochondrial protein synthesis and are associated with a broad range of clinical presentations usually with early onset and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Of the 19 mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, WARS2, encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase, was as of late the only one that had not been associated with disease in humans. A case of a family with pathogenic variants in WARS2 that caused mainly intellectual disability, speech impairment, aggressiveness, and athetosis was recently reported...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649936/berlin-prehospital-or-usual-delivery-of-acute-stroke-care-study-protocol
#6
Martin Ebinger, Peter Harmel, Christian H Nolte, Ulrike Grittner, Bob Siegerink, Heinrich J Audebert
Rationale Prehospital stroke care in specialized ambulances increases thrombolysis rates, reduces alarm-to-treatment times, and improves the prehospital triage. Preliminary analyses suggest cost-effectiveness. However, scientific proof of better functional outcome compared to usual care is still lacking. Aim To prove better functional outcomes after deployment of the Stroke Emergency Mobile compared to regular ambulances. Sample size estimates A sample size of 686 patients will be required in each arm (Stroke Emergency Mobile group vs...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649924/the-value-of-cognitive-neuropsychology-the-case-of-vision-research
#7
Michael McCloskey, Thitaporn Chaisilprungraung
Cognitive neuropsychological evidence is widely viewed as inherently flawed or weak, despite well-reasoned arguments to the contrary by many theorists. Rather than attempting yet another defence of cognitive neuropsychology on logical grounds, we point out through examples that in practice, cognitive neuropsychological evidence is widely accepted as valid and important, and has had a major impact on cognitive theory and research. Objections offered in the abstract rarely arise in the context of actual studies...
June 26, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649759/impact-of-intravenous-thrombolysis-on-recanalization-rates-in-patients-with-stroke-treated-with-bridging-therapy
#8
L Mueller, F Pult, J Meisterernst, M R Heldner, M-L Mono, R Kurmann, M Buehlmann, U Fischer, H P Mattle, M Arnold, P Mordasini, J Gralla, G Schroth, M El-Koussy, S Jung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Randomized controlled trials have shown that bridging endovascular therapy (EVT) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) therapy improves outcome in patients with stroke with large-artery anterior circulation stroke compared with IVT alone. It remains unknown whether IVT adds any benefit to EVT in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess recanalization rates and thrombus dislocation before initiation of EVT in patients receiving bridging therapy. METHODS: All patients in the Bernese stroke registry (2008-2015) in whom bridging therapy was considered were included in this analysis...
June 25, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649640/mri-derived-diffusion-parameters-in-the-human-optic-nerve-and-its-surrounding-sheath-during-head-down-tilt
#9
Darius A Gerlach, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Khader M Hasan, Larry A Kramer, Noam Alperin, Joern Rittweger
More than half of astronauts present with significant neuro-ophthalmic findings during 6-month missions onboard the International Space Station. Although the underlying cause of this Microgravity Ocular Syndrome is currently unknown, alterations in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics within the optic nerve sheath may play a role. In the presented study, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess changes in diffusivity of the optic nerve and its surrounding sheath during head-down tilt, a ground-based model of microgravity...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649490/frequency-dependent-changes-in-local-intrinsic-oscillations-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-a-study-of-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-the-resting-state
#10
Fuqing Zhou, Suhua Huang, Ying Zhuang, Lei Gao, Honghan Gong
New neuroimaging techniques have led to significant advancements in our understanding of cerebral mechanisms of primary insomnia. However, the neuronal low-frequency oscillation remains largely uncharacterized in chronic primary insomnia (CPI). In this study, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), a data-driven method based on resting-state functional MRI, was used to examine local intrinsic activity in 27 patients with CPI and 27 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. We examined neural activity in two frequency bands, slow-4 (between 0...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649479/functional-outcomes-of-childhood-selective-dorsal-rhizotomy-20-to-28-years-later
#11
T S Park, Jenny L Liu, Caleb Edwards, Deanna M Walter, Matthew B Dobbs
BACKGROUND: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical method used to treat childhood spastic cerebral palsy (CP). However, the effects of early SDR on functional outcomes and quality of life decades later in adulthood remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term outcomes in terms of satisfaction and mobility of adult patients who received childhood SDR. METHODS: Adult patients who received SDR in childhood were surveyed...
May 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649478/cerebral-air-embolism-as-possible-cause-of-stroke-during-therapeutic-endobronchial-application-of-argon-plasma-coagulation
#12
Venkatkiran Kanchustambham, Manasa Reddy, Swetha Saladi, Setu Patolia
A 68-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of an endobronchial mass obstructing the right middle lobe (RML) and right lower lobe (RLL) of the lung. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed a notable endobronchial lesion in the bronchus intermedius that completely obstructed the RML and the RLL. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) at 30 watts and gas flow at 0.8 liters/minute to 1 liter/minute were applied to the tumor. In the recovery room, the patient was discovered to have a left-sided facial droop and left-sided weakness...
May 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649229/cortical-and-subcortical-structural-plasticity-associated-with-the-glioma-volumes-in-patients-with-cerebral-gliomas-revealed-by-surface-based-morphometry
#13
Jinping Xu, Ahmed Elazab, Jinhua Liang, Fucang Jia, Huimin Zheng, Weimin Wang, Limin Wang, Qingmao Hu
Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649223/pretreatment-with-sodium-phenylbutyrate-alleviates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-upregulating-dj-1-protein
#14
Rui-Xin Yang, Jie Lei, Bo-Dong Wang, Da-Yun Feng, Lu Huang, Yu-Qian Li, Tao Li, Gang Zhu, Chen Li, Fang-Fang Lu, Tie-Jian Nie, Guo-Dong Gao, Li Gao
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649204/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiological-responses-cognitive-function-and-exercise-performance-at-moderate-and-very-high-simulated-altitude
#15
Oliver M Shannon, Lauren Duckworth, Matthew J Barlow, Kevin Deighton, Jamie Matu, Emily L Williams, David Woods, Long Xie, Blossom C M Stephan, Mario Siervo, John P O'Hara
Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during acute altitude exposure, contributing toward the decline in physiological and cognitive function in this environment. This study evaluated the effects of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) supplementation on NO bioavailability, physiological and cognitive function, and exercise performance at moderate and very-high simulated altitude. Methods:Ten males (mean (SD): [Formula: see text]: 60.9 (10.1) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) rested and performed exercise twice at moderate (~14...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649199/glyx-13-a-nmda-receptor-glycine-site-functional-partial-agonist-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-injury-in-vivo-and-vitro-by-differential-modulations-of-nmda-receptors-subunit-components-at-different-post-ischemia-stage-in-mice
#16
Chen Zheng, Zhi H Qiao, Meng Z Hou, Nan N Liu, Bin Fu, Ran Ding, Yuan Y Li, Liang P Wei, Ai L Liu, Hui Shen
Excessive activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is implicated in pathological synaptic plasticity also known as post-ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) which was produced by glutamate mediated excitotoxicity after stroke. In the past decades, many NMDARs inhibitors failed in clinical investigations due to severe psychotomimetic side effects. GLYX-13 is a NMDAR modulator with glycine site partial agonist properties and has potential protective effects on ischemic neuronal death. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of GLYX-13 attenuating the ischemic neuronal damage remains elusive...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648974/a-set-of-care-quality-indicators-for-stroke-management
#17
I M Navarro Soler, E Ignacio García, J Masjuan Vallejo, J Gállego Culleré, J J Mira Solves
OBJECTIVE: This study proposes a set of quality indicators for care outcomes in patients with acute cerebral infarction. These indicators are understandable and relevant from a clinical viewpoint, as well as being acceptable and feasible in terms of time required, ease of data capture, and interpretability. METHOD: The method consisted of reaching consensus among doctors after having reviewed the literature on quality indicators in stroke. We then designed and conducted a field study to assess the understandability and feasibility of the set of indicators...
June 22, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648945/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#18
Joakim N E Ölmestig, Ida R Marlet, Atticus H Hainsworth, Christina Kruuse
Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), such as sildenafil (Viagra®) are widely used for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Preclinical studies suggest that PDE5i may improve functional outcome following ischemic stroke. In this systematic review we aimed to evaluate the effects of selective PDE5i in animal models of brain ischaemia. A systematic search in Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library was performed including studies in English assessing the effects of selective PDE5i. 32 publications were included describing outcome in 3646 animals...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648888/benchmarking-laminar-fmri-neuronal-spiking-and-synaptic-activity-during-top-down-and-bottom-up-processing-in-the-different-layers-of-cortex
#19
REVIEW
Matthew W Self, Timo van Kerkoerle, Rainer Goebel, Pieter R Roelfsema
High resolution laminar fMRI is beginning to probe responses in the different layers of cortex. What can we expect this exciting new technique to discover about cortical processing and how can we verify that it is producing an accurate picture of the underlying laminar differences in neural processing? This review will address our knowledge of laminar cortical circuitry gained from electrophysiological studies in macaque monkeys with a focus on the primary visual cortex, as this area has been most often targeted in both laminar electrophysiological and fMRI studies...
June 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648810/can-somatosensory-and-visual-evoked-potentials-predict-neurological-outcome-during-targeted-temperature-management-in-post-cardiac-arrest-patients
#20
Seung Pill Choi, Kyu Nam Park, Jung Hee Wee, Jeong Ho Park, Chun Song Youn, Han Joon Kim, Sang Hoon Oh, Yoon Sang Oh, Soo Hyun Kim, Joo Suk Oh
PURPOSES: In cardiac arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM), it is not certain if somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can predict neurological outcomes during TTM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of SEPs and VEPs during TTM and after rewarming. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included comatose patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest and treated with TTM between March 2007 and July 2015...
June 22, 2017: Resuscitation
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