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Michelle L North, Musawir Ahmed, Sepehr Salehi, Kavindi Jayasinghe, Manisha Tilak, Joyce Wu, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Greg J Evans, Chung-Wai Chow
RATIONALE: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction is the biggest impediment to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Studies have shown an increased risk for chronic lung allograft dysfunction in patients exposed to traffic-related air pollution, using residential distance to roadways and outdoor pollution. OBJECTIVES: Personal monitoring and the indoor environment post-lung transplantation have not been investigated. The exposome is a novel conceptual framework that allows for concurrent examination of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including environmental exposures, as well as changes in exposures over time, to elucidate the complex environmental factors that affect health outcomes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kang Zhang, Lingqia Su, Jing Wu
To study the effect of proteases on pullulanase production, six protease-encoding genes (nprB, bpr, mpr, epr, vpr, and wprA) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis strain WS5, which already lacks the protease-encoding genes nprE and aprE, were sequentially disrupted using a CRISPR/Cas9 system. This created strains WS6-WS11, respectively. The strains WS3 (none) and WS4 (ΔnprE) were constructed earlier. After addition of expression plasmid pHYPULd4 into the strains WS3-WS11, the pullulanase production levels of the resulting strains (WS3PUL-WS11PUL, respectively) were investigated in shake-flask cultivations and recombinant strain WS5PUL produced the highest pullulanase activity (148...
April 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yomna H Abdelmoaty, Tsemre-Dingel Tessema, Fatema Akthar Choudhury, Oussama M El-Kadri, Hani M El-Kaderi
The use of fossil fuels for energy production is accompanied by carbon dioxide release into the environment causing catastrophic climate changes. Meanwhile, replacing fossil fuels with carbon-free nuclear energy has the potential to release radioactive iodine during nuclear waste processing and in case of a nuclear accident. Therefore, developing efficient adsorbents for carbon dioxide and iodine capture is of great importance. Two nitrogen-rich porous polymers (NRPPs) derived from 4-bis-(2,4-diamino-1,3,5,-triazine)-benzene building block were prepared and tested for use in CO2 and I2 capture...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Liangliang Jia, Yaping Wang, Yidong Wang, Yuankun Ma, Jian Shen, Zurong Fu, Yue Wu, Sheng'an Su, Yuhao Zhang, Zhejun Cai, Jian'an Wang, Meixiang Xiang
<u>Rationale:</u> To date, our understanding of the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in inflammatory diseases has mostly been limited to its catalytic function and the potential for its heme-related catabolic products to suppress inflammation and oxidative stress. Whether and how HO-1 in macrophages plays a role in the development of septic cardiac dysfunction has never been explored. <u>Objective:</u> Here, we investigated the role of macrophage-derived HO-1 in septic cardiac dysfunction...
April 18, 2018: Circulation Research
Libin Wang, Xianluo Hu
The climate change and energy crisis promote the rapid development of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Of many intriguing physicochemical properties such as excellent chemical stability, high electronic conductivity and large specific surface area, porous carbon materials have always been considering as a promising candidate for electrochemical energy storage. Up to date, a wide variety of porous carbon materials upon molecular design, pore control and compositional tailoring have been proposed for energy-storage applications...
April 17, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Patricia M Valdespino-Castillo, Ping Hu, Martín Merino-Ibarra, Luz M López-Gómez, Daniel Cerqueda-García, Roberto González-De Zayas, Teresa Pi-Puig, Julio A Lestayo, Hoi-Ying Holman, Luisa I Falcón
Microbialites are modern analogs of ancient microbial consortia that date as far back as the Archaean Eon. Microbialites have contributed to the geochemical history of our planet through their diverse metabolic capacities that mediate mineral precipitation. These mineral-forming microbial assemblages accumulate major ions, trace elements and biomass from their ambient aquatic environments; their role in the resulting chemical structure of these lithifications needs clarification. We studied the biogeochemistry and microbial structure of microbialites collected from diverse locations in Mexico and in a previously undescribed microbialite in Cuba...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiguo Qiu, Yanting Zhang, Lingling Zhao, Qin He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Jian He
Cotinine, the primary nicotine metabolite, not only more stable and more difficult to degrade in the environment but is a potential health risk to human. To date, little is known about the biodegradation process of cotinine. In this study, a bacterial strain JQ2195 was isolated from municipal wastewater and was identified as Nocardioides sp. based on morphological, physiological characteristics, and 16 S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. This strain utilized cotinine as a sole carbon source and degraded 0...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Arkadiusz Sołtysiak, Holger Schutkowski
OBJECTIVES: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13 C and δ15 N) were used to reconstruct the history of subsistence strategies in the middle Euphrates valley, NE Syria, in six temporal subsets dating from the Early Bronze Age (c. 2300 BCE) to the Modern period (19th/20th century CE). The study aims to demonstrate that changes in political and social organization over time, for which the archaeological record suggests different goals of land use and modes of production, register through dietary patterns that are reflected in isotopic data...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Matthew L Landry, Noah Z Burns
To date, more than 5000 biogenic halogenated molecules have been characterized. This number continues to increase as chemists explore chloride- and bromide-rich marine environments in search of novel bioactive natural products. Naturally occurring organohalogens span nearly all biosynthetic structural classes, exhibit a range of unique biological activities, and have been the subject of numerous investigations. Despite the abundance of and interest in halogenated molecules, enantioselective methods capable of forging carbon-halogen bonds in synthetically relevant contexts remain scarce...
April 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Biao Yuan, Shanyue Guan, Xingming Sun, Xiaoming Li, Haibo Zeng, Zheng Xie, Ping Chen, Shuyun Zhou
Carbon dots (CDs) have potentials to be utilized in optoelectronic devices, bioimaging and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDs with high quantum yield to date were limited in the blue light emission region. Herein, based on the surface electron state engineering, we report a kind of CDs with reversibly switching ability between green and red photoluminescence with quantum yield both up to 80%. Highly efficient green and red solid state luminescence are realized by doping CDs into highly transparent matrix methyltriethoxysilane and 3-Triethoxysilylpropylamine to form CDs/gel-glasses composites with quantum yield of 80% and 78%...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lelin Pan, Feng Ye, Jing-Jing Liu, Xiao-Qun Ba, Qin-Song Sheng
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze and evaluate the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles (CNs) to track lymph nodes (LNs) metastases in right colon tumors, especially for patients who underwent laparoscopic-assisted radical right hemicolectomy. METHOD: A total of 99 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study between November 2015 and September 2017 (control group n = 47). One day before surgery, 1 ml of CNs suspension was injected into the submucosal layer around the site of the primary lesions by colonoscopy...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Kamrun Nahar, Claudia Goyer, Bernie J Zebarth, David L Burton, Sean Whitney
Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested...
April 16, 2018: Phytopathology
Nadia Licciardello, Sebastian Hunoldt, Ralf Bergmann, Garima Singh, Constantin Mamat, Angélique Faramus, John L Z Ddungu, Simone Silvestrini, Michele Maggini, Luisa De Cola, Holger Stephan
Ultrasmall clearable nanoparticles possess enormous potential as cancer imaging agents. In particular, biocompatible silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) and carbon quantum dots (CQDs) hold great potential in this regard. Their facile surface functionalization easily allows the introduction of different labels for in vivo imaging. However, to date, a thorough biodistribution study by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and a comparative study of Si vs. C particles of similar size are missing. In this contribution, ultrasmall (size <5 nm) Si NPs and CQDs were synthesized and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), absorption and steady-state emission spectroscopy...
April 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Dedi Ma, Lei Chen, Hongchao Qu, Yilin Wang, Tom Misselbrook, Rui Jiang
In order to increase crop yield in semi-arid and arid areas, plastic film mulching (PFM) is widely used in Northwestern China. To date, many studies have addressed the effects of PFM on soil physical and biochemical properties in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China, but the findings of different studies are often contradictory. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the impacts of PFM on soil water content, soil nutrients and food production is needed. We compiled the results of 1278 observations to evaluate the overall effects of PFM on soil water content, the distribution of nitrate and soil organic carbon, and crop yield in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China...
April 1, 2018: Agricultural Water Management
L Jones, L Lin, T W Chamberlain
Carbon nanomaterials such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphene, fullerenes and nanotubes are on the frontline of materials research due to their excellent physical properties, which in recent years, have started to compete with conventional inorganic materials in charge transfer based applications. Recently, a variety of new structures such as single-walled carbon nanobelts (SWCNBs) have been conceived, however, to date only one 'all-phenyl' example has been synthesised, due to problems with their stability and the challenging synthetic methodologies required...
April 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Sarah Massalkhi, M Agúndez, J Cernicharo, L Velilla Prieto, J R Goicoechea, G Quintana-Lacaci, J P Fonfría, J Alcolea, V Bujarrabal
Context: Silicon carbide dust is ubiquitous in circumstellar envelopes around C-rich AGB stars. However, the main gas-phase precursors leading to the formation of SiC dust have not yet been identified. The most obvious candidates among the molecules containing an Si-C bond detected in C-rich AGB stars are SiC2 , SiC, and Si2 C. To date, the ring molecule SiC2 has been observed in a handful of evolved stars, while SiC and Si2 C have only been detected in the C-star envelope IRC +10216...
March 2018: Astronomy and Astrophysics
Kaishan Song, Zhidan Wen, Yingxing Shang, Hong Yang, Lili Lyu, Ge Liu, Chong Fang, Jia Du, Ying Zhao
As a major fraction of carbon in inland waters, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a crucial role in carbon cycling on a global scale. However, the quantity of DOC stored in lakes and reservoirs was not clear to date. In an attempt to examine the factors that determine the DOC storage in lakes and reservoirs across China, we assembled a large database (measured 367 lakes, and meta-analyzed 102 lakes from five limnetic regions; measured 144 reservoirs, and meta-analyzed 272 reservoirs from 31 provincial units) of DOC concentrations and water storages for lakes and reservoirs that are used to determine DOC storage in static inland waters...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Teofil Nakov, Jeremy M Beaulieu, Andrew J Alverson
Patterns of species richness are commonly linked to life history strategies. In diatoms, an exceptionally diverse lineage of photosynthetic heterokonts important for global photosynthesis and burial of atmospheric carbon, lineages with different locomotory and reproductive traits differ dramatically in species richness, but any potential association between life history strategy and diversification has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We constructed a time-calibrated, 11-gene, 1151-taxon phylogeny of diatoms - the most inclusive diatom species tree to date...
April 6, 2018: New Phytologist
Russell Urie, Deepanjan Ghosh, Inam Ridha, Kaushal Rege
Inorganic nanomaterials have witnessed significant advances in areas of medicine including cancer therapy, imaging, and drug delivery, but their use in soft tissue repair and regeneration is in its infancy. Metallic, ceramic, and carbon allotrope nanoparticles have shown promise in facilitating tissue repair and regeneration. Inorganic nanomaterials have been employed to improve stem cell engraftment in cellular therapy, material mechanical stability in tissue repair, electrical conductivity in nerve and cardiac regeneration, adhesion strength in tissue approximation, and antibacterial capacity in wound dressings...
April 5, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Thao T H Hoang, Sumit Verma, Sichao Ma, Timothy T Fister, Janis Timoshenko, Anatoly I Frenkel, Paul J A Kenis, Andrew A Gewirth
Electrodeposition of CuAg alloy films from plating baths containing 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) as an inhibitor yields high surface area catalysts for the active and selective electroreduction of CO2 to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates. EXAFS shows the co-deposited alloy film to be homogenously mixed. The alloy film containing 6% Ag exhibits the best CO2 electrore-duction performance, with the Faradaic efficiency for C2H4 and C2H5OH production reaching nearly 60 and 25%, respectively, at a cathode potential of just -0...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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