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Carbon dating

V Conte, A Selva, P Colautti, G Hilgers, H Rabus, A Bantsar, M Pietrzak, S Pszona
The biological action of ionizing charged particles is initiated at the DNA level, and the effectiveness with which the initial physical effect changes into measurable biological damage is likely ruled by the stochastics of ionizations produced by the incident ions in subcellular nanometric volumes. Based on this hypothesis, experimental nanodosimetry aims at establishing a new concept of radiation quality that builds on measurable characteristics of the particle track structure at the nanometer scale. Three different nanodosimetric detection systems have been developed to date that allow measurements of the number of ionizations produced by the passage of a primary particle in a nanometer-size gas volume (in unit density scale)...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Derek Vance, Susan H Little, Corey Archer, Vyllinniskii Cameron, Morten B Andersen, Micha J A Rijkenberg, Timothy W Lyons
Isotopic data collected to date as part of the GEOTRACES and other programmes show that the oceanic dissolved pool is isotopically heavy relative to the inputs for zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). All Zn sinks measured until recently, and the only output yet measured for Ni, are isotopically heavier than the dissolved pool. This would require either a non-steady-state ocean or other unidentified sinks. Recently, isotopically light Zn has been measured in organic carbon-rich sediments from productive upwelling margins, providing a potential resolution of this issue, at least for Zn...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Fatma Uysal, Saffet Ozturk, Gokhan Akkoyunlu
DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms and plays important roles during oogenesis and early embryo development in mammals. DNA methylation is basically known as adding a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites. This mechanism is composed of two main processes: de novo methylation and maintenance methylation, both of which are catalyzed by specific DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. To date, six different DNMTs have been characterized in mammals defined as DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3C, and DNMT3L...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
Jianxin Liu, Yongqing Xu, Liguo Zhang, Wei Li, Zhenxue Cai, Fei Li, Mu Peng, Fenglan Li, Baozhong Hu
BACKGROUND: Rumex patientia L. is consumed as a green vegetable in several parts of the world, and can withstand extremely low temperatures (-35°C). However, little or no available genomic data for this species has been reported to date. Here, we used Illumina Hiseq technology for transcriptome assembly in R. patientia under normal and cold conditions to evaluate how it responds to cold stress. RESULTS: After an in-depth RNA-Seq analysis, 115,589 unigenes were produced from the assembled transcripts...
2017: PloS One
Xiaoyi Wang, Tao Wang, Hui Guo, Dan Liu, Yutong Zhao, Taotao Zhang, Qiang Liu, Shilong Piao
While seasonal snow is recognized as an important component in the global climate system, the ability of snow to affect plant production remains an important unknown for assessing climate-change impacts on vegetation dynamics at high-latitude ecosystems. Here we compile data on satellite observation of vegetation greenness and spring onset date, satellite-based soil moisture, passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) and climate data to show that winter SWE can significantly influence vegetation greenness during the early growing season (the period between spring onset date and peak photosynthesis timing) over nearly one-fifth of the land surface in the region north of 30 degrees, but the magnitude and sign of correlation exhibits large spatial heterogeneity...
October 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
Marcos Francos, Xavier Úbeda, Paulo Pereira, Meritxell Alcañiz
Wildfires affect ecosystems depending on the fire regime. Long-term studies are needed to understand the ecological role played by fire, especially as regards its impact on soils. The aim of this study is to monitor the long-term effects (18years) of a wildfire on soil properties in two areas affected by low and high fire severity regimes. The properties studied were total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), C/N ratio, soil organic matter (SOM) and extractable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K)...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Masataka Karube, Naoyoshi Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Junichi Saito, Akira Matsunobu, Tamaki Okimoto, Tatsuya Ohno, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada
Carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well studied to date. This paper aimed to analyze a retrospective multicenter survey for detecting problems with the use of CIRT for Stage II and III NSCLC (7th UICC TNM Staging System). Inclusion was restricted to patients with Stage II and III NSCLC who received CIRT from November 2003 to December 2014. We gathered the data from three CIRT operating centers on July 2015. Patients with radiotherapy history, patients with cancers other than lung cancer, and those receiving palliative therapies were excluded...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Jeffrey D Martell, Leo B Porter-Zasada, Alexander C Forse, Rebecca L Siegelman, Miguel I Gonzalez, Julia Oktawiec, Tomce Runcevski, Jiawei Xu, Monika Srebro-Hooper, Phillip J Milner, Kristen A Colwell, Jochen Autschbach, Jeffrey A Reimer, Jeffrey R Long
Chiral metal-organic frameworks have attracted interest for enantioselective separations and catalysis because of their high crystallinity and pores with tunable shapes, sizes, and chemical environments. Chiral frameworks of the type M2(dobpdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; dobpdc4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) seem particularly promising for potential applications, owing to their excellent stability, high internal surface areas, and the strongly polarizing open metal coordination sites within the channels, but to date these materials have only been isolated in racemic form...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ezra L Clark, Christopher Hahn, Thomas F Jaramillo, Alexis T Bell
The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide using renewably generated electricity offers a potential means for producing fuels and chemicals in a sustainable manner. To date, copper has been found to be the most effective catalyst for electrochemically reducing carbon dioxide to products such as methane, ethene, and ethanol. Unfortunately, the current efficiency of the process is limited by competition with the relatively facile hydrogen evolution reaction. Since multi-carbon products are more valuable precursors to chemicals and fuels than methane, there is considerable interest in modifying copper to enhance the multi-carbon product selectivity...
October 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, E H Theophilus, A K Tiethof, Y Tokura, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ya He, Jacques Mathieu, Marcio L B da Silva, Mengyan Li, Pedro J J Alvarez
Two bacterial consortia were enriched from uncontaminated soil by virtue of their ability to grow on 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) as a sole carbon and energy source. Their specific dioxane degradation rates at 30°C, pH = 7 (i.e. 5.7 to 7.1 g-dioxane per g-protein per day) were comparable to those of two dioxane-metabolizing archetypes: Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransCB1190 and Mycobacterium dioxanotrophicusPH-06. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, Mycobacterium was the dominant genus. Acetylene inhibition tests suggest that dioxane degradation was mediated by monooxygenases...
October 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Sarah Inskip, G Michael Taylor, Sue Anderson, Graham Stewart
PURPOSE: A woman's skull, exhibiting features of lepromatous leprosy (LL), was recovered from a garden in Hoxne, Suffolk. The absence of post crania and lack of formal excavation meant that diagnosis and dating was uncertain. The aim of this research was to confirm the diagnosis using biomolecular means and second, to place it in context with other British leprosy cases using SNP genotyping and radiocarbon dating. METHODOLOGY: Bone from the skull was analysed by ancient DNA (aDNA) methods and subjected to radiocarbon dating...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Cong Li, Shuzhuo Li, Marcus W Feldman, Jie Li, Hua Zheng, Gretchen C Daily
China's largest-ever resettlement program is underway, aiming to restore ecosystems and lift ecosystem service providers out of the poverty trap and into sustainable livelihoods. We examine the impact of the relocation and settlement program (RSP) to date, reporting on an ecosystem services (ES) assessment and a 1400-household survey. The RSP generally achieves the goals of ES increase and livelihood restore. In biophysical terms, the RSP improves water quality, sediment retention, and carbon sequestration...
October 5, 2017: Ambio
Jan Tigges, Tobia Lakes
BACKGROUND: Urban forests reduce greenhouse gas emissions by storing and sequestering considerable amounts of carbon. However, few studies have considered the local scale of urban forests to effectively evaluate their potential long-term carbon offset. The lack of precise, consistent and up-to-date forest details is challenging for long-term prognoses. Therefore, this review aims to identify uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset assessment and discuss the extent to which such uncertainties can be reduced by recent progress in high resolution remote sensing...
October 4, 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
Grzegorz Osipowicz, Henryk Witas, Aleksandra Lisowska-Gaczorek, Laurie Reitsema, Krzysztof Szostek, Tomasz Płoszaj, Justyna Kuriga, Daniel Makowiecki, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Beata Cienkosz-Stepańczak
This article describes evidence for contact and exchange among Mesolithic communities in Poland and Scandinavia, based on the interdisciplinary analysis of an ornamented bâton percé from Gołębiewo site 47 (Central Poland). Typological and chronological-cultural analyses show the artefact to be most likely produced in the North European Plain, during the Boreal period. Carbon-14 dating confirms the antiquity of the artefact. Ancient DNA analysis shows the artefact to be of Rangifer tarandus antler. Following this species designation, a dispersion analysis of Early-Holocene reindeer remains in Europe was conducted, showing this species to exist only in northern Scandinavia and north-western Russia in this period...
2017: PloS One
Nirav Patel, Aidan Fagan-Murphy, Derek Covill, Bhavik Anil Patel
The activity of the colon is regulated by chemical signaling, of which serotonin (5-HT) is a key transmitter. Monitoring of mucosal 5-HT overflow has been achieved to date using microelectrodes on a small segment of colonic tissue; however, little is known if such measurements are reflective with regards to 5-HT signaling from the entire colon. This study focused on developing an electrochemical array device that could be utilized to conduct multisite measurements of 5-HT overflow from the entire colon. A 3D printed mold was fabricated that could house 6 multiwall carbon nanotube composite electrodes and provide a fixed distance between the electrodes and the tissue along the entire length of the colon...
October 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Federica Bertini, Mathias Glatz, Nikolaus Gorgas, Berthold Stöger, Maurizio Peruzzini, Luis F Veiros, Karl Kirchner, Luca Gonsalvi
The catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide is of great interest for its potential as a hydrogen storage method and to use carbon dioxide as C-1 feedstock. In an effort to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts with efficient and cheap earth-abundant counterparts, we report the first example of Mn(i)-catalysed hydrogenation of CO2 to HCOOH. The hydride Mn(i) catalyst [Mn(PNP(NH)-iPr)(H)(CO)2] showed higher stability and activity than its Fe(ii) analogue. TONs up to 10 000 and quantitative yields were obtained after 24 h using DBU as the base at 80 °C and 80 bar total pressure...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Chien-Cheng Huang, Chung-Han Ho, Yi-Chen Chen, Hung-Jung Lin, Chien-Chin Hsu, Jhi-Joung Wang, Shih-Bin Su, How-Ran Guo
Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) causes hypoxic injury and inflammatory and immunological reactions in the brain and local organs including the pancreas. Therefore, it is plausible that COP may increase the risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM), but studies on this possible association are limited. We conducted a nationwide study in Taiwan to fill the data gap. We used the Nationwide Poisoning Database and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 to identify all COP patients diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 (the study cohort) and then construct a comparison cohort of patients without COP through matching at 1:3 by the index date and age...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Amanda B Seamon, Erik H Hofmeister, Stephen J Divers
OBJECTIVE To determine the outcome in birds undergoing inhalation anesthesia and identify patient or procedure variables associated with an increased likelihood of anesthesia-related death. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 352 birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia. PROCEDURES Medical records of birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single veterinary referral hospital were reviewed. Data collected included date of visit, age, species, sex, type (pet, free ranging, or wild kept in captivity), body weight, body condition score, diagnosis, procedure, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premedication used for anesthesia, drug for anesthetic induction, type of maintenance anesthesia, route and type of fluid administration, volumes of crystalloid and colloid fluids administered, intraoperative events, estimated blood loss, duration of anesthesia, surgery duration, recovery time, recovery notes, whether birds survived to hospital discharge, time of death, total cost of hospitalization, cost of anesthesia, and nadir and peak values for heart rate, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, concentration of inhaled anesthetic, and body temperature...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Lisa A Levin
Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
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