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Jan de Vries, John M Archibald
Contents Summary 1428 I. The singularity of plant terrestrialization 1428 II. Adaptation vs exaptation - what shaped the land plant toolkit? 1430 III. Trait mosaicism in (higher-branching) streptophyte algae 1431 IV. CONCLUSIONS: a streptophyte algal perspective on land plant trait evolution 1432 Acknowledgements 1432 ORCID 1433 References 1433 SUMMARY: Photosynthetic eukaryotes thrive anywhere there is sunlight and water. But while such organisms are exceptionally diverse in form and function, only one phototrophic lineage succeeded in rising above its substrate: the land plants (embryophytes)...
March 2018: New Phytologist
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
BACKGROUND: Many lines of scientific research suggest that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) may be associated with alterations in the enteric ecosystem, including alterations of the enteric macrobiome (i.e. helminthes and fauna) and changes in predominant microbiome species, particularly a reduction in microbiome species diversity. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature and summarized the major findings. RESULTS: Alterations in the enteric ecosystem are believed to be due to a variety of factors including changes in the post-industrial society related to decreased exposure to symbiotic organisms, increased human migration, overuse of antibiotics and changes in dietary habits...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Marcel Dicke
Plants live in a diverse and dynamic phytobiome, consisting of a microbiome as well as a macrobiome. They respond to arthropod herbivory with the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) that are public information and can be used by any member of the phytobiome. Other members of the phytobiome, which do not directly participate in the interaction, may both modulate the induction of HIPV in the plant, as well as respond to the volatiles. The use of HIPV by individual phytobiome members may have beneficial as well as detrimental consequences for the plant...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Joel Gibson, Shadi Shokralla, Teresita M Porter, Ian King, Steven van Konynenburg, Daniel H Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs, Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Conventional assessments of ecosystem sample composition are based on morphology-based or DNA barcode identification of individuals. Both approaches are costly and time-consuming, especially when applied to the large number of specimens and taxa commonly included in ecological investigations. Next-generation sequencing approaches can overcome the bottleneck of individual specimen isolation and identification by simultaneously sequencing specimens of all taxa in a bulk mixture. Here we apply multiple parallel amplification primers, multiple DNA barcode markers, 454-pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing to the same sample to maximize recovery of the arthropod macrobiome and the bacterial and other microbial microbiome of a bulk arthropod sample...
June 3, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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