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Ultra violet radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550902/controlled-depolymerisation-assessed-by-analytical-ultracentrifugation-of-low-molecular-weight-chitosan-for-use-in-archaeological-conservation
#1
Jennifer M K Wakefield, Richard B Gillis, Gary G Adams, Caitlin M A McQueen, Stephen E Harding
The heterogeneity and molecular weight of a chitosan of low molecular weight (molar mass) and low degree of acetylation (0.1) for potential use as a consolidant for decayed archaeological wood were examined by sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge before and after depolymerisation. Sedimentation velocity before depolymerisation revealed a uniform distribution of sedimentation coefficient with little concentration dependence. SEDFIT-MSTAR analysis revealed a weight average molecular weight Mw of (14...
March 17, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536573/application-of-the-cometchip-platform-to-assess-dna-damage-in-field-collected-blood-samples-from-turtles
#2
Peter Sykora, Ylenia Chiari, Andrew Heaton, Nickolas Moreno, Scott Glaberman, Robert W Sobol
DNA damage has been linked to genomic instability and the progressive breakdown of cellular and organismal homeostasis, leading to the onset of disease and reduced longevity. Insults to DNA from endogenous sources include base deamination, base hydrolysis, base alkylation, and metabolism-induced oxidative damage that can lead to single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Alternatively, exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation or ultra-violet light, can also contribute to exogenously derived DNA damage...
March 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476775/whole-exome-sequencing-of-acquired-nevi-identifies-mechanisms-for-development-and-maintenance-of-benign-neoplasms
#3
Mitchell S Stark, Jean-Marie Tan, Lisa Tom, Kasturee Jagirdar, Duncan Lambie, Helmut Schaider, H Peter Soyer, Richard A Sturm
The melanoma transformation rate of each nevus is rare despite the detection of oncogenic BRAF or NRAS mutations in 100% of nevi. Acquired melanocytic nevi (AMN) do however mimic melanoma and ∼30% of all melanomas arise within pre-existing nevi. Using whole-exome sequencing of 30 matched nevi, adjacent normal skin, and saliva we sought to identify the underlying genetic mechanisms for nevus development. All nevi were clinically, dermoscopically, and histopathologically documented. In addition to identifying somatic mutations, we found mutational signatures relating to ultra-violet radiation (UVR) mirroring those found in cutaneous melanoma...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448922/a-randomised-control-crossover-trial-of-a-theory-based-intervention-to-improve-sun-safe-and-healthy-behaviours-in-construction-workers-study-protocol
#4
Amanda Nioi, Charlotte Wendelboe-Nelson, Sue Cowan, Hilary Cowie, Shahzad Rashid, Peter Ritchie, Mark Cherrie, Terry C Lansdown, John W Cherrie
BACKGROUND: Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production...
February 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427790/activation-of-nrf2-by-ginsenoside-rh3-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-uv
#5
Chun-Zhou Tang, Ke-Ran Li, Qing Yu, Qin Jiang, Jin Yao, Cong Cao
Excessive Ultra-violet (UV) radiation shall induce damages to resident retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells (RPEs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we tested the potential activity of Ginsenoside Rh3 ("Rh3") against the process. In cultured human RPEs and RGCs, pretreatment with Rh3 inhibited UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and following apoptotic/non-apoptotic cell death. Rh3 treatment in retinal cells induced nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation, which was evidenced by Nrf2 protein stabilization and its nuclear translocation, along with transcription of antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-dependent genes (HO1, NOQ1 and GCLC)...
February 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413693/uv-b-affects-the-immune-system-and-promotes-nuclear-abnormalities-in-pigmented-and-non-pigmented-bullfrog-tadpoles
#6
Lilian Franco-Belussi, Lara Zácari Fanali, Classius De Oliveira
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176034/selenium-preserves-keratinocyte-stemness-and-delays-senescence-by-maintaining-epidermal-adhesion
#7
Lara Jobeili, Patricia Rousselle, David Béal, Eric Blouin, Anne-Marie Roussel, Odile Damour, Walid Rachidi
Skin is constantly exposed to environmental factors such as pollutants, chemicals and ultra violet radiation (UV), which can induce premature skin aging and increase the risk of skin cancer. One strategy to reduce the effect of oxidative stress produced by environmental exposure is the application of antioxidant molecules. Among the endogenous antioxidants, selenoproteins play a key role in antioxidant defense and in maintaining a reduced cellular environment. Selenium, essential for the activity of selenoproteins, is a trace element that is not synthesized by organisms and must be supplied by diet or supplementation...
November 25, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147456/prevalence-of-sun-protection-at-outdoor-recreation-and-leisure-venues-at-resorts-in-north-america
#8
Barbara J Walkosz, Michael D Scott, David B Buller, Peter A Andersen, Larry Beck, Gary R Cutter
Background: Exposure to solar ultra violet radiation (UVR) is a primary risk factor for skin cancer. Vacationers often fail to protect themselves from harmful UVR. Purpose: The study assessed the sun protection practices of resort guests in various outdoor leisure and recreation venues during warm-weather seasons. Method: 41 North American resorts were enrolled in a quasi-experimental randomized controlled trial. Adult guests were observed (n=4091) and surveyed (n=3694) in a cross sectional sample...
2017: American Journal of Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092496/core-tungsten-radiation-diagnostic-calibration-by-small-shell-pellet-injection-in-the-diii-d-tokamak
#9
E M Hollmann, N Commaux, D Shiraki, N Alexander, I Bykov, A L Moser, D Thomas, B S Victor
Injection of small (outer diameter = 0.8 mm) plastic pellets carrying embedded smaller (10 μg) tungsten grains is used to check calibrations of core tungsten line radiation diagnostics in support of the 2016 tungsten ring campaign in the DIII-D tokamak. Observed total brightness (1 eV-10 keV) and soft x-ray (1 keV-10 keV) brightness are found to be reasonably well (<factor 2) predicted using existing calibration factors and rate calculations. Individual core (extreme ultra-violet/soft x-ray) tungsten line brightness appears to be somewhat less reliable (factor 2-4) for the prediction of core tungsten concentration...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051608/transcription-factors-and-stress-response-gene-alterations-in-human-keratinocytes-following-solar-simulated-ultra-violet-radiation
#10
Thomas L Des Marais, Thomas Kluz, Dazhong Xu, Xiaoru Zhang, Lisa Gesumaria, Mary S Matsui, Max Costa, Hong Sun
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the major effector for skin aging and carcinogenesis. However, genes and pathways altered by solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR), a mixture of UVA and UVB, are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in gene expression as well as associated pathways and upstream transcription factors in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. Human HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to either a single dose or 5 repetitive doses of ssUVR. Comprehensive analyses of gene expression profiles as well as functional annotation were performed at 24 hours post irradiation...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972622/untangling-the-methane-chemistry-in-interstellar-and-solar-system-ices-toward-ionizing-radiation-a-combined-infrared-and-reflectron-time-of-flight-analysis
#11
Matthew J Abplanalp, Brant M Jones, Ralf I Kaiser
Pure methane (CH4/CD4) ices were exposed to three ionizing radiation sources at 5.5 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to compare the complex hydrocarbon spectrum produced across several interstellar environments. These irradiation sources consisted of energetic electrons to simulate secondary electrons formed in the track of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), Lyman α (10.2 eV; 121.6 nm) photons simulated the internal VUV field in a dense cloud, and broadband (112.7-169.8 nm; 11.0-7.3 eV) photons which mimic the interstellar ultra-violet field...
October 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913680/uv-c-as-an-efficient-means-to-combat-biofilm-formation-in-show-caves-evidence-from-the-la-glaci%C3%A3-re-cave-france-and-laboratory-experiments
#12
Stéphane Pfendler, Olympe Einhorn, Battle Karimi, Faisl Bousta, Didier Cailhol, Laurence Alaoui-Sosse, Badr Alaoui-Sosse, Lotfi Aleya
Ultra-violet C (UV-C) treatment is commonly used in sterilization processes in industry, laboratories, and hospitals, showing its efficacy against microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. In this study, we have eradicated for the first time all proliferating biofilms present in a show cave (the La Glacière Cave, Chaux-lès-Passavant, France). Colorimetric measurements of irradiated biofilms were then monitored for 21 months. To understand the importance of exposition of algae to light just after UV radiation, similar tests were carried out in laboratory conditions...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883655/label-free-characterization-of-ultra-violet-radiation-induced-changes-in-skin-fibroblasts-with-raman-spectroscopy-and-quantitative-phase-microscopy
#13
S P Singh, Sungsam Kang, Jeon Woong Kang, Peter T C So, Ramanchandra Rao Dasari, Zahid Yaqoob, Ishan Barman
Minimizing morbidities and mortalities associated with skin cancers requires sustained research with the goal of obtaining fresh insights into disease onset and progression under specific stimuli, particularly the influence of ultraviolet rays. In the present study, label-free profiling of skin fibroblasts exposed to time-bound ultra-violet radiation has been performed using quantitative phase imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Statistically significant differences in quantifiable biophysical parameters, such as matter density and cell dry mass, were observed with phase imaging...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861052/expose-r2-the-astrobiological-esa-mission-on-board-of-the-international-space-station
#14
Elke Rabbow, Petra Rettberg, Andre Parpart, Corinna Panitz, Wolfgang Schulte, Ferdinand Molter, Esther Jaramillo, René Demets, Peter Weiß, Rainer Willnecker
On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853746/stabilization-of-ultra-small-ag-2-2-and-ag-m-n-nano-clusters-through-negatively-charged-tetrahedrons-in-oxyfluoride-glass-networks-to-largely-enhance-the-luminescence-quantum-yields
#15
Ronghua Ma, Junjie Zhao, Xiaotong Chen, Xvsheng Qiao, Xianping Fan, Jincheng Du, Xianghua Zhang
Herein, three different silver species were stably formed in SiO2 -Al2 O3 -B2 O3 -Na2 O-ZnF2 -CaF2 glasses and were identified by their characteristic luminescence bands: violet blue luminescence (Ag+ : 4d9 5s1 → 4d10 ), green white molecular fluorescence (molecule-like [Agm ]n+ , named ML-Ag) and orange molecular fluorescence ([Ag2 ]2+ pairs). Due to the relatively low aggregation degrees of [Agm ]n+ and [Ag2 ]2+ , non-radiative transitions were highly suppressed, and the PL quantum yields (QYs) of ML-Ag and [Ag2 ]2+ pairs reached 73...
August 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811302/effects-of-temperature-and-uvr-on-organic-matter-fluxes-and-the-metabolic-activity-of-acropora-muricata
#16
Lucile Courtial, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Stéphan Jacquet, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Stéphanie Reynaud, Cécile Rottier, Fanny Houlbrèque
Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR), the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772538/the-effects-of-uv-light-on-the-chemical-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-transparent-epoxy-diamine-system-in-the-presence-of-an-organic-uv-absorber
#17
Saeid Nikafshar, Omid Zabihi, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Abdolreza Mirmohseni, Mojtaba Taseidifar, Minoo Naebe
Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV) damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated...
February 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725334/bloch-surface-wave-coupled-emission-at-ultra-violet-wavelengths
#18
Ramachandram Badugu, Jieying Mao, Steve Blair, Douguo Zhang, Emiliano Descrovi, Angelo Angelini, Yiping Huo, Joseph R Lakowicz
The interaction of fluorophores with nearby metallic structures is now an active area of research. Dielectric photonic structures offer some advantages over plasmonic structures, namely small energy losses and less quenching. We describe a dielectric one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC), which supports Bloch surface waves (BSWs) from 280 to 440 nm. This BSW structure is a quartz slide coated with alternating layers of SiO2 and Si3N4. We show that this structure displays BSWs and that the near-UV fluorophore, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), on the top surface of the structure couples with the BSWs...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653670/beam-electrons-as-a-source-of-h%C3%AE-flare-ribbons
#19
Malcolm Druett, Eamon Scullion, Valentina Zharkova, Sarah Matthews, Sergei Zharkov, Luc Rouppe Van der Voort
The observations of solar flare onsets show rapid increase of hard and soft X-rays, ultra-violet emission with large Doppler blue shifts associated with plasma upflows, and Hα hydrogen emission with red shifts up to 1-4 Å. Modern radiative hydrodynamic models account well for blue-shifted emission, but struggle to reproduce closely the red-shifted Hα lines. Here we present a joint hydrodynamic and radiative model showing that during the first seconds of beam injection the effects caused by beam electrons can reproduce Hα line profiles with large red-shifts closely matching those observed in a C1...
June 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629073/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-green-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-using-viburnum-opulus-l-fruits-extract
#20
Bianca Moldovan, Luminita David, Adriana Vulcu, Liliana Olenic, Maria Perde-Schrepler, Eva Fischer-Fodor, Ioana Baldea, Simona Clichici, Gabriela Adriana Filip
A green, rapid and cost effective method for the bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using polyphenols present in European cranberry bush fruit extracts was developed. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), Fourier transform - infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD). The average size of the spherical AgNPs was found to be 25nm. The anti-inflammatory effect of the biomaterials was investigated, both in vitro (on HaCaT cell line, exposed to UVB radiation) and in vivo (on acute inflammation model in Wistar rats)...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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