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Ultra violet radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335278/recent-prospects-in-the-inline-monitoring-of-nanocomposites-and-nanocoatings-by-optical-technologies
#1
REVIEW
Elodie Bugnicourt, Timothy Kehoe, Marcos Latorre, Cristina Serrano, Séverine Philippe, Markus Schmid
Nanostructured materials have emerged as a key research field in order to confer materials with unique or enhanced properties. The performance of nanocomposites depends on a number of parameters, but the suitable dispersion of nanoparticles remains the key in order to obtain the full nanocomposites' potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier, thermal properties, etc. Likewise, the performance of nanocoatings to obtain, for example, tailored surface affinity with selected liquids (e.g...
August 19, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318234/light-absorbing-brown-carbon-aerosol-constituents-from-combustion-of-indonesian-peat-and-biomass
#2
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Michael Williams, Jing Chen, Masayuki Itoh, Jason Douglas Surratt, Mikinori Kuwata
Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultra-violet (UV) and visible light, and thus, impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in: i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC/DAD-(-)ESI-HR-QTOFMS) operated in the negative ion mode...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225086/uvrag-deficiency-exacerbates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#3
Lin An, Xiao-Wen Hu, Shasha Zhang, Xiaowen Hu, Zongpei Song, Amber Naz, Zhenguo Zi, Jian Wu, Can Li, Yunzeng Zou, Lin He, Hongxin Zhu
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067233/coherent-ultra-violet-to-near-infrared-generation-in-silica-ridge-waveguides
#4
Dong Yoon Oh, Ki Youl Yang, Connor Fredrick, Gabriel Ycas, Scott A Diddams, Kerry J Vahala
Short duration, intense pulses of light can experience dramatic spectral broadening when propagating through lengths of optical fibre. This continuum generation process is caused by a combination of nonlinear optical effects including the formation of dispersive waves. Optical analogues of Cherenkov radiation, these waves allow a pulse to radiate power into a distant spectral region. In this work, efficient and coherent dispersive wave generation of visible to ultraviolet light is demonstrated in silica waveguides on a silicon chip...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061435/mirna-141-attenuates-uv-induced-oxidative-stress-via-activating-keap1-nrf2-signaling-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-retinal-ganglion-cells
#5
Li-Bo Cheng, Ke-Ran Li, Nan Yi, Xiu-Miao Li, Feng Wang, Bo Xue, Ying-Shun Pan, Jin Yao, Qin Jiang, Zhi-Feng Wu
Activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling could protect cells from ultra violet (UV) radiation. We aim to provoke Nrf2 activation via downregulating its inhibitor Keap1 by microRNA-141 ("miR-141"). In both human retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPEs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), forced-expression of miR-141 downregulated Keap1, causing Nrf2 stabilization, accumulation and nuclear translocation, which led to transcription of multiple antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) genes (HO1, NOQ1 and GCLC)...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933497/a-review-and-investigation-of-the-effect-of-nanophotocatalytic-ozonation-process-for-phenolic-compound-removal-from-real-effluent-of-pulp-and-paper-industry
#6
Hamed Biglari, Mojtaba Afsharnia, Vali Alipour, Rasoul Khosravi, Kiomars Sharafi, Amir Hossein Mahvi
Phenol and its derivatives are the major environmental pollutants discharged from paper and pulp industries into water bodies. All these compounds and chlorinated phenolic compounds in particular are very toxic to fauna and flora, even at relatively low concentration. This study aimed to investigate the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the effluent of pulp and paper industries using a combination of ozonation and photocatalytic processes. Firstly, a certain volume from the effluent of paper and pulp industries containing certain phenol concentrations was obtained and fed into a prefabricated reactor at laboratory scale...
February 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875881/communication-position-does-matter-the-photofragmentation-of-the-nitroimidazole-isomers
#7
P Bolognesi, A R Casavola, A Cartoni, R Richter, P Markus, S Borocci, J Chiarinelli, S Tošić, H Sa'adeh, M Masič, B P Marinković, K C Prince, L Avaldi
A combined experimental and theoretical approach has been used to disentangle the fundamental mechanisms of the fragmentation of the three isomers of nitroimidazole induced by vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) radiation, namely, 4-, 5-, and 2-nitroimidazole. The results of mass spectrometry as well as photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy display striking differences in the radiation-induced decomposition of the different nitroimidazole radical cations. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a model is proposed which fully explains such differences, and reveals the subtle fragmentation mechanisms leading to the release of neutral species like NO, CO, and HCN...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818724/surface-degradation-and-nanoparticle-release-of-a-commercial-nanosilica-polyurethane-coating-under-uv-exposure
#8
Deborah S Jacobs, Sin-Ru Huang, Yu-Lun Cheng, Savelas A Rabb, Justin M Gorham, Peter J Krommenhoek, Lee L Yu, Tinh Nguyen, Lipiin Sung
Many coatings properties such as mechanical, electrical, and ultra violet (UV) resistance are greatly enhanced by the addition of nanoparticles, which can potentially increase the use of nanocoatings for many outdoor applications. However, because polymers used in all coatings are susceptible to degradation by weathering, nanoparticles in a coating may be brought to the surface and released into the environment during the life cycle of a nanocoating. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the process and mechanism of surface degradation and potential particle release from a commercial nanosilica/polyurethane coating under accelerated UV exposure...
September 2016: Journal of Coatings Technology and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783061/uv-indices-what-do-they-indicate
#9
REVIEW
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a "UV index". Following this example, in our review we use the term "index" or (plural) "indices" in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713170/gremlin-inhibits-uv-induced-skin-cell-damages-via-activating-vegfr2-nrf2-signaling
#10
Chao Ji, Jin-Wen Huang, Qiu-Yun Xu, Jing Zhang, Meng-Ting Lin, Ying Tu, Li He, Zhi-Gang Bi, Bo Cheng
Ultra Violet (UV) radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA oxidation and single strand breaks (SSBs), which will eventually lead to skin cell damages or even skin cancer. Here, we tested the potential activity of gremlin, a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) agonist, against UV-induced skin cell damages. We show that gremlin activated VEGFR2 and significantly inhibited UV-induced death and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR2 almost abolished gremlin-mediated cytoprotection against UV in the skin cells...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521253/skin-aging-and-oxidative-stress-equol-s-anti-aging-effects-via-biochemical-and-molecular-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Edwin D Lephart
Oxygen in biology is essential for life. It comes at a cost during normal cellular function, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative metabolism. Human skin exposed to solar ultra-violet radiation (UVR) dramatically increases ROS production/oxidative stress. It is important to understand the characteristics of human skin and how chronological (intrinsic) aging and photo-aging (extrinsic aging) occur via the impact of ROS production by cascade signaling pathways. The goal is to oppose or neutralize ROS insults to maintain good dermal health...
November 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517753/sc79-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-from-uv-radiation-via-activating-akt-nrf2-signaling
#12
Yi-Qing Gong, Wei Huang, Ke-Ran Li, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Guo-Fan Cao, Cong Cao, Qin Jiang
Excessive Ultra-violet (UV) radiation causes oxidative damages and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Here we tested the potential activity of SC79, a novel small molecule activator of Akt, against the process. We showed that SC79 activated Akt in primary and established (ARPE-19 line) RPE cells. It protected RPE cells from UV damages possibly via inhibiting cell apoptosis. Akt inhibition, via an Akt specific inhibitor (MK-2206) or Akt1 shRNA silence, almost abolished SC79-induced RPE cytoprotection...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504344/changing-trends-of-skin-cancer-a-tertiary-care-hospital-study-in-malwa-region-of-punjab
#13
Sonal Tina Lal, Raja Paramjeet Singh Banipal, Deepak John Bhatti, Hanuman Prasad Yadav
INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. AIM: To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1(st) December 2013 to 30(th) November 2014...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433654/manipulation-of-tio2-nanotubes-in-a-transparent-dielectrophoretic-device
#14
Ji-Yun Seon, Young Joon Yoon, Chang-Yeoul Kim, Hyo Tae Kim
A DEP device with a transparent oxide thin film electrode was fabricated by a photolithography process and sputtering deposition with indium tin oxide (ITO). In order to form a fine ITO electrode pattern, we manipulated the negative slope using a photoresist by controlling the intensity of the ultra-violet radiation and the exposure time. In this study, the motions of a 1 microm polystyrene sphere and TiO2 nanotube were observed as a function of the applied voltage and the frequency. The findings confirm that TiO2 nanotubes can be manipulated by a p-DEP force and that they can be effectively aligned under conditions of 10 V(p-p) at 750 Hz...
February 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232425/lifetime-prevalence-of-non-melanoma-and-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-australian-recreational-and-competitive-surfers
#15
Mike Climstein, James Furness, Wayne Hing, Joe Walsh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers...
July 2016: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215947/mitochondrial-damage-and-ageing-using-skin-as-a-model-organ
#16
REVIEW
Laura Hudson, Amy Bowman, Eyman Rashdan, Mark A Birch-Machin
Ageing describes the progressive functional decline of an organism over time, leading to an increase in susceptibility to age-related diseases and eventually to death, and it is a phenomenon observed across a wide range of organisms. Despite a vast repertoire of ageing studies performed over the past century, the exact causes of ageing remain unknown. For over 50 years it has been speculated that mitochondria play a key role in the ageing process, due mainly to correlative data showing an increase in mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age...
November 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166545/skin-cancer-etiology-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir
Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.
May 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164422/wedelolactone-mitigates-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-early-tumor-promotion-events-in-murine-skin-plausible-role-of-nfkb-pathway
#18
Farrah Ali, Bilal Azhar Khan, Sarwat Sultana
UVB (Ultra-violet B) radiation is one of the major etiological factors in various dermal pathology viz. dermatitis, actinic folliculitis, solar urticaria, psoriasis and cancer among many others. UVB causes toxic manifestation in tissues by inciting inflammatory and tumor promoting events. We have designed this study to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promotion effect of Wedelolactone (WDL) a specific IKK inhibitor. Results indicate significant restoration of anti-oxidative enzymes due to WDL treatments...
September 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151674/3h-1-2-dithiole-3-thione-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-against-ultra-violet-radiation-via-activation-of-akt-mtorc1-dependent-nrf2-ho-1-signaling
#19
Ke-Ran Li, Su-Qing Yang, Yi-Qing Gong, Hong Yang, Xiu-Miao Li, Yu-Xia Zhao, Jin Yao, Qin Jiang, Cong Cao
Excessive UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell injuries. Nrf2 regulates transcriptional activation of many anti-oxidant genes. Here, we tested the potential role of 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) against UV or ROS damages in cultured RPE cells (both primary cells and ARPE-19 line). We showed that D3T significantly inhibited UV-/H2O2-induced RPE cell death and apoptosis. UV-stimulated ROS production was dramatically inhibited by D3T pretreatment. D3T induced Nrf2 phosphorylation in cultured RPE cells, causing Nrf2 disassociation with KEAP1 and its subsequent nuclear accumulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081309/removal-of-4-nitrophenol-from-water-using-ag-n-p-tridoped-tio2-by-photocatalytic-oxidation-technique
#20
Temesgen Achamo, O P Yadav
Photocatalytic oxidation using semiconductor nanoparticles is an efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective process for the removal of organic pollutants, such as dyes, pesticides, phenols, and their derivatives in water. In the present study, nanosize Ag-N-P-tridoped titanium(IV) oxide (TiO2) was prepared by using sol-gel-synthesized Ag-doped TiO2 and soybean (Glycine max) or chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds as nonmetallic bioprecursors. As-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and ultra violet (UV)-visible spectroscopic techniques...
2016: Analytical Chemistry Insights
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