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Ultra violet radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476695/ultraviolet-visible-and-fluorescence-spectroscopy-can-be-used-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-gamma-irradiation-detection-in-vivo
#1
Mohamed Anwar K-Abdelhalim, Sherif A-Abdelmottaleb Moussa
The spectroscopic properties can indicate important features about the nature and severity of the disease. However, no earlier studies have been used the spectroscopic properties as a diagnostic tool for radiation detection. This study was aimed to use ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for gamma irradiation detection in rats in vivo. Adult male rats were exposed to 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gray as single dose, using Cobalt-60 (Co-60) source with a dose rate of 0.883 centi Gray/sec (cGy/s)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450114/the-novel-cyclophilin-d-inhibitor-compound-19-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-uv-radiation
#2
Laiqing Xie, Long Cheng, Guoxu Xu, Ji Zhang, Xiaoyan Ji, E Song
Excessive Ultra violet (UV) radiation induces injuries to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells (RPEs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), causing retinal degeneration. Cyclophilin D (Cyp-D)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening mediates UV-induced cell death. In this study, we show that a novel Cyp-D inhibitor compound 19 efficiently protected RPEs and RGCs from UV radiation. Compound 19-mediated cytoprotection requires Cyp-D, as it failed to further protect RPEs/RGCs from UV when Cyp-D was silenced by targeted shRNAs...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425530/interfacial-interactions-between-cotpp-molecules-and-mgo-100-thin-films
#3
Matthias Franke, Daniel Wechsler, Quratulain Tariq, Michael Röckert, Liang Zhang, Pardeep Kumar Thakur, Nataliya Tsud, Sofiia Bercha, Kevin Prince, Tien-Lin Lee, Hans-Peter Steinrück, Ole Lytken
We have investigated the interactions between cobalt(ii)-tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) molecules and MgO(100) thin films on Ag(100) by means of Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray and Ultra-Violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS and SR-UPS). At room temperature, the CoTPP monolayer consists of two different species. A minority of molecules exhibits a strong electronic interaction with the substrate, whereas for the majority a similar spectroscopic signature as for multilayer molecules is observed. Based on the lateral inhomogeneity of the surface electronic structure, we tentatively suggest that the strongly interacting molecules adsorb with their metal center directly above oxygen ions...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417557/a-multitarget-approach-toward-the-development-of-a-new-series-of-8-substituted-purines-for-photoprotection-and-prevention-of-ultra-violet-uv-related-damages
#4
Ernestine Nicaise Djuidje, Valeria Dissette, Alessia Bino, Simonetta Benetti, Jan Balzarini, Sandra Liekens, Stefano Manfredini, Silvia Vertuani, Anna Baldisserotto
In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other skin diseases such as early photo-aging. Among solar radiation, ultraviolet (UV) is mainly responsible for inducing skin problems. In search of novel photoprotective purines, a new series of 8-substituted purines were synthesized from commercially available 6-hydroxy-4,5-diaminopyrimidine hemisulfate or 4,5-diaminopyrimidine. All the title compounds were investigated for their UV-filter, antioxidant, antifugal and antiproliferative activities...
April 18, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335278/recent-prospects-in-the-inline-monitoring-of-nanocomposites-and-nanocoatings-by-optical-technologies
#5
REVIEW
Elodie Bugnicourt, Timothy Kehoe, Marcos Latorre, Cristina Serrano, Séverine Philippe, Markus Schmid
Nanostructured materials have emerged as a key research field in order to confer materials with unique or enhanced properties. The performance of nanocomposites depends on a number of parameters, but the suitable dispersion of nanoparticles remains the key in order to obtain the full nanocomposites' potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier, thermal properties, etc. Likewise, the performance of nanocoatings to obtain, for example, tailored surface affinity with selected liquids (e.g...
August 19, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318234/light-absorbing-brown-carbon-aerosol-constituents-from-combustion-of-indonesian-peat-and-biomass
#6
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Michael Williams, Jing Chen, Masayuki Itoh, Jason D Surratt, Mikinori Kuwata
Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultraviolet (UV) and visible light and thus impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in (i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and (ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography instrument interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer operated in the negative ion mode...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225086/uvrag-deficiency-exacerbates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#7
Lin An, Xiao-Wen Hu, Shasha Zhang, Xiaowen Hu, Zongpei Song, Amber Naz, Zhenguo Zi, Jian Wu, Can Li, Yunzeng Zou, Lin He, Hongxin Zhu
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067233/coherent-ultra-violet-to-near-infrared-generation-in-silica-ridge-waveguides
#8
Dong Yoon Oh, Ki Youl Yang, Connor Fredrick, Gabriel Ycas, Scott A Diddams, Kerry J Vahala
Short duration, intense pulses of light can experience dramatic spectral broadening when propagating through lengths of optical fibre. This continuum generation process is caused by a combination of nonlinear optical effects including the formation of dispersive waves. Optical analogues of Cherenkov radiation, these waves allow a pulse to radiate power into a distant spectral region. In this work, efficient and coherent dispersive wave generation of visible to ultraviolet light is demonstrated in silica waveguides on a silicon chip...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061435/mirna-141-attenuates-uv-induced-oxidative-stress-via-activating-keap1-nrf2-signaling-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-retinal-ganglion-cells
#9
Li-Bo Cheng, Ke-Ran Li, Nan Yi, Xiu-Miao Li, Feng Wang, Bo Xue, Ying-Shun Pan, Jin Yao, Qin Jiang, Zhi-Feng Wu
Activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling could protect cells from ultra violet (UV) radiation. We aim to provoke Nrf2 activation via downregulating its inhibitor Keap1 by microRNA-141 ("miR-141"). In both human retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPEs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), forced-expression of miR-141 downregulated Keap1, causing Nrf2 stabilization, accumulation and nuclear translocation, which led to transcription of multiple antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) genes (HO1, NOQ1 and GCLC)...
February 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933497/a-review-and-investigation-of-the-effect-of-nanophotocatalytic-ozonation-process-for-phenolic-compound-removal-from-real-effluent-of-pulp-and-paper-industry
#10
Hamed Biglari, Mojtaba Afsharnia, Vali Alipour, Rasoul Khosravi, Kiomars Sharafi, Amir Hossein Mahvi
Phenol and its derivatives are the major environmental pollutants discharged from paper and pulp industries into water bodies. All these compounds and chlorinated phenolic compounds in particular are very toxic to fauna and flora, even at relatively low concentration. This study aimed to investigate the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the effluent of pulp and paper industries using a combination of ozonation and photocatalytic processes. Firstly, a certain volume from the effluent of paper and pulp industries containing certain phenol concentrations was obtained and fed into a prefabricated reactor at laboratory scale...
February 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875881/communication-position-does-matter-the-photofragmentation-of-the-nitroimidazole-isomers
#11
P Bolognesi, A R Casavola, A Cartoni, R Richter, P Markus, S Borocci, J Chiarinelli, S Tošić, H Sa'adeh, M Masič, B P Marinković, K C Prince, L Avaldi
A combined experimental and theoretical approach has been used to disentangle the fundamental mechanisms of the fragmentation of the three isomers of nitroimidazole induced by vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) radiation, namely, 4-, 5-, and 2-nitroimidazole. The results of mass spectrometry as well as photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy display striking differences in the radiation-induced decomposition of the different nitroimidazole radical cations. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a model is proposed which fully explains such differences, and reveals the subtle fragmentation mechanisms leading to the release of neutral species like NO, CO, and HCN...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818724/surface-degradation-and-nanoparticle-release-of-a-commercial-nanosilica-polyurethane-coating-under-uv-exposure
#12
Deborah S Jacobs, Sin-Ru Huang, Yu-Lun Cheng, Savelas A Rabb, Justin M Gorham, Peter J Krommenhoek, Lee L Yu, Tinh Nguyen, Lipiin Sung
Many coatings properties such as mechanical, electrical, and ultra violet (UV) resistance are greatly enhanced by the addition of nanoparticles, which can potentially increase the use of nanocoatings for many outdoor applications. However, because polymers used in all coatings are susceptible to degradation by weathering, nanoparticles in a coating may be brought to the surface and released into the environment during the life cycle of a nanocoating. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the process and mechanism of surface degradation and potential particle release from a commercial nanosilica/polyurethane coating under accelerated UV exposure...
September 2016: Journal of Coatings Technology and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783061/uv-indices-what-do-they-indicate
#13
REVIEW
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a "UV index". Following this example, in our review we use the term "index" or (plural) "indices" in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713170/gremlin-inhibits-uv-induced-skin-cell-damages-via-activating-vegfr2-nrf2-signaling
#14
Chao Ji, Jin-Wen Huang, Qiu-Yun Xu, Jing Zhang, Meng-Ting Lin, Ying Tu, Li He, Zhi-Gang Bi, Bo Cheng
Ultra Violet (UV) radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA oxidation and single strand breaks (SSBs), which will eventually lead to skin cell damages or even skin cancer. Here, we tested the potential activity of gremlin, a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) agonist, against UV-induced skin cell damages. We show that gremlin activated VEGFR2 and significantly inhibited UV-induced death and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR2 almost abolished gremlin-mediated cytoprotection against UV in the skin cells...
December 20, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521253/skin-aging-and-oxidative-stress-equol-s-anti-aging-effects-via-biochemical-and-molecular-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Edwin D Lephart
Oxygen in biology is essential for life. It comes at a cost during normal cellular function, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative metabolism. Human skin exposed to solar ultra-violet radiation (UVR) dramatically increases ROS production/oxidative stress. It is important to understand the characteristics of human skin and how chronological (intrinsic) aging and photo-aging (extrinsic aging) occur via the impact of ROS production by cascade signaling pathways. The goal is to oppose or neutralize ROS insults to maintain good dermal health...
November 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517753/sc79-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-from-uv-radiation-via-activating-akt-nrf2-signaling
#16
Yi-Qing Gong, Wei Huang, Ke-Ran Li, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Guo-Fan Cao, Cong Cao, Qin Jiang
Excessive Ultra-violet (UV) radiation causes oxidative damages and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Here we tested the potential activity of SC79, a novel small molecule activator of Akt, against the process. We showed that SC79 activated Akt in primary and established (ARPE-19 line) RPE cells. It protected RPE cells from UV damages possibly via inhibiting cell apoptosis. Akt inhibition, via an Akt specific inhibitor (MK-2206) or Akt1 shRNA silence, almost abolished SC79-induced RPE cytoprotection...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504344/changing-trends-of-skin-cancer-a-tertiary-care-hospital-study-in-malwa-region-of-punjab
#17
Sonal Tina Lal, Raja Paramjeet Singh Banipal, Deepak John Bhatti, Hanuman Prasad Yadav
INTRODUCTION: Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. AIM: To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1(st) December 2013 to 30(th) November 2014...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433654/manipulation-of-tio2-nanotubes-in-a-transparent-dielectrophoretic-device
#18
Ji-Yun Seon, Young Joon Yoon, Chang-Yeoul Kim, Hyo Tae Kim
A DEP device with a transparent oxide thin film electrode was fabricated by a photolithography process and sputtering deposition with indium tin oxide (ITO). In order to form a fine ITO electrode pattern, we manipulated the negative slope using a photoresist by controlling the intensity of the ultra-violet radiation and the exposure time. In this study, the motions of a 1 microm polystyrene sphere and TiO2 nanotube were observed as a function of the applied voltage and the frequency. The findings confirm that TiO2 nanotubes can be manipulated by a p-DEP force and that they can be effectively aligned under conditions of 10 V(p-p) at 750 Hz...
February 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232425/lifetime-prevalence-of-non-melanoma-and-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-australian-recreational-and-competitive-surfers
#19
Mike Climstein, James Furness, Wayne Hing, Joe Walsh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers...
July 2016: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215947/mitochondrial-damage-and-ageing-using-skin-as-a-model-organ
#20
REVIEW
Laura Hudson, Amy Bowman, Eyman Rashdan, Mark A Birch-Machin
Ageing describes the progressive functional decline of an organism over time, leading to an increase in susceptibility to age-related diseases and eventually to death, and it is a phenomenon observed across a wide range of organisms. Despite a vast repertoire of ageing studies performed over the past century, the exact causes of ageing remain unknown. For over 50 years it has been speculated that mitochondria play a key role in the ageing process, due mainly to correlative data showing an increase in mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age...
November 2016: Maturitas
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