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Ultra violet radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051608/transcription-factors-and-stress-response-gene-alterations-in-human-keratinocytes-following-solar-simulated-ultra-violet-radiation
#1
Thomas L Des Marais, Thomas Kluz, Dazhong Xu, Xiaoru Zhang, Lisa Gesumaria, Mary S Matsui, Max Costa, Hong Sun
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the major effector for skin aging and carcinogenesis. However, genes and pathways altered by solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR), a mixture of UVA and UVB, are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in gene expression as well as associated pathways and upstream transcription factors in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. Human HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to either a single dose or 5 repetitive doses of ssUVR. Comprehensive analyses of gene expression profiles as well as functional annotation were performed at 24 hours post irradiation...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972622/untangling-the-methane-chemistry-in-interstellar-and-solar-system-ices-toward-ionizing-radiation-a-combined-infrared-and-reflectron-time-of-flight-analysis
#2
Matthew J Abplanalp, Brant M Jones, Ralf I Kaiser
Pure methane (CH4/CD4) ices were exposed to three ionizing radiation sources at 5.5 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to compare the complex hydrocarbon spectrum produced across several interstellar environments. These irradiation sources consisted of energetic electrons to simulate secondary electrons formed in the track of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), Lyman α (10.2 eV; 121.6 nm) photons simulated the internal VUV field in a dense cloud, and broadband (112.7-169.8 nm; 11.0-7.3 eV) photons which mimic the interstellar ultra-violet field...
October 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913680/uv-c-as-an-efficient-means-to-combat-biofilm-formation-in-show-caves-evidence-from-the-la-glaci%C3%A3-re-cave-france-and-laboratory-experiments
#3
Stéphane Pfendler, Olympe Einhorn, Battle Karimi, Faisl Bousta, Didier Cailhol, Laurence Alaoui-Sosse, Badr Alaoui-Sosse, Lotfi Aleya
Ultra-violet C (UV-C) treatment is commonly used in sterilization processes in industry, laboratories, and hospitals, showing its efficacy against microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. In this study, we have eradicated for the first time all proliferating biofilms present in a show cave (the La Glacière Cave, Chaux-lès-Passavant, France). Colorimetric measurements of irradiated biofilms were then monitored for 21 months. To understand the importance of exposition of algae to light just after UV radiation, similar tests were carried out in laboratory conditions...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883655/label-free-characterization-of-ultra-violet-radiation-induced-changes-in-skin-fibroblasts-with-raman-spectroscopy-and-quantitative-phase-microscopy
#4
S P Singh, Sungsam Kang, Jeon Woong Kang, Peter T C So, Ramanchandra Rao Dasari, Zahid Yaqoob, Ishan Barman
Minimizing morbidities and mortalities associated with skin cancers requires sustained research with the goal of obtaining fresh insights into disease onset and progression under specific stimuli, particularly the influence of ultraviolet rays. In the present study, label-free profiling of skin fibroblasts exposed to time-bound ultra-violet radiation has been performed using quantitative phase imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Statistically significant differences in quantifiable biophysical parameters, such as matter density and cell dry mass, were observed with phase imaging...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861052/expose-r2-the-astrobiological-esa-mission-on-board-of-the-international-space-station
#5
Elke Rabbow, Petra Rettberg, Andre Parpart, Corinna Panitz, Wolfgang Schulte, Ferdinand Molter, Esther Jaramillo, René Demets, Peter Weiß, Rainer Willnecker
On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853746/stabilization-of-ultra-small-ag2-2-and-agm-n-nano-clusters-through-negatively-charged-tetrahedrons-in-oxyfluoride-glass-networks-to-largely-enhance-the-luminescence-quantum-yields
#6
Ronghua Ma, Junjie Zhao, Xiaotong Chen, Xvsheng Qiao, Xianping Fan, Jincheng Du, Xianghua Zhang
Herein, three different silver species were stably formed in SiO2-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O-ZnF2-CaF2 glasses and were identified by their characteristic luminescence bands: violet blue luminescence (Ag(+): 4d(9)5s(1) → 4d(10)), green white molecular fluorescence (molecule-like [Agm](n+), named ML-Ag) and orange molecular fluorescence ([Ag2](2+) pairs). Due to the relatively low aggregation degrees of [Agm](n+) and [Ag2](2+), non-radiative transitions were highly suppressed, and the PL quantum yields (QYs) of ML-Ag and [Ag2](2+) pairs reached 73...
August 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811302/effects-of-temperature-and-uvr-on-organic-matter-fluxes-and-the-metabolic-activity-of-acropora-muricata
#7
Lucile Courtial, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Stéphan Jacquet, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa, Stéphanie Reynaud, Cécile Rottier, Fanny Houlbrèque
Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR), the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772538/the-effects-of-uv-light-on-the-chemical-and-mechanical-properties-of-a-transparent-epoxy-diamine-system-in-the-presence-of-an-organic-uv-absorber
#8
Saeid Nikafshar, Omid Zabihi, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Abdolreza Mirmohseni, Mojtaba Taseidifar, Minoo Naebe
Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV) damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated...
February 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725334/bloch-surface-wave-coupled-emission-at-ultra-violet-wavelengths
#9
Ramachandram Badugu, Jieying Mao, Steve Blair, Douguo Zhang, Emiliano Descrovi, Angelo Angelini, Yiping Huo, Joseph R Lakowicz
The interaction of fluorophores with nearby metallic structures is now an active area of research. Dielectric photonic structures offer some advantages over plasmonic structures, namely small energy losses and less quenching. We describe a dielectric one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC), which supports Bloch surface waves (BSWs) from 280 to 440 nm. This BSW structure is a quartz slide coated with alternating layers of SiO2 and Si3N4. We show that this structure displays BSWs and that the near-UV fluorophore, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), on the top surface of the structure couples with the BSWs...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653670/beam-electrons-as-a-source-of-h%C3%AE-flare-ribbons
#10
Malcolm Druett, Eamon Scullion, Valentina Zharkova, Sarah Matthews, Sergei Zharkov, Luc Rouppe Van der Voort
The observations of solar flare onsets show rapid increase of hard and soft X-rays, ultra-violet emission with large Doppler blue shifts associated with plasma upflows, and Hα hydrogen emission with red shifts up to 1-4 Å. Modern radiative hydrodynamic models account well for blue-shifted emission, but struggle to reproduce closely the red-shifted Hα lines. Here we present a joint hydrodynamic and radiative model showing that during the first seconds of beam injection the effects caused by beam electrons can reproduce Hα line profiles with large red-shifts closely matching those observed in a C1...
June 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629073/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-green-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-using-viburnum-opulus-l-fruits-extract
#11
Bianca Moldovan, Luminita David, Adriana Vulcu, Liliana Olenic, Maria Perde-Schrepler, Eva Fischer-Fodor, Ioana Baldea, Simona Clichici, Gabriela Adriana Filip
A green, rapid and cost effective method for the bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using polyphenols present in European cranberry bush fruit extracts was developed. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), Fourier transform - infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD). The average size of the spherical AgNPs was found to be 25nm. The anti-inflammatory effect of the biomaterials was investigated, both in vitro (on HaCaT cell line, exposed to UVB radiation) and in vivo (on acute inflammation model in Wistar rats)...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476695/ultraviolet-visible-and-fluorescence-spectroscopy-can-be-used-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-gamma-irradiation-detection-in-vivo
#12
Mohamed Anwar K-Abdelhalim, Sherif A-Abdelmottaleb Moussa
The spectroscopic properties can indicate important features about the nature and severity of the disease. However, no earlier studies have been used the spectroscopic properties as a diagnostic tool for radiation detection. This study was aimed to use ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for gamma irradiation detection in rats in vivo. Adult male rats were exposed to 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gray as single dose, using Cobalt-60 (Co-60) source with a dose rate of 0.883 centi Gray/sec (cGy/s)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450114/the-novel-cyclophilin-d-inhibitor-compound-19-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-uv-radiation
#13
Laiqing Xie, Long Cheng, Guoxu Xu, Ji Zhang, Xiaoyan Ji, E Song
Excessive Ultra violet (UV) radiation induces injuries to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells (RPEs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), causing retinal degeneration. Cyclophilin D (Cyp-D)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening mediates UV-induced cell death. In this study, we show that a novel Cyp-D inhibitor compound 19 efficiently protected RPEs and RGCs from UV radiation. Compound 19-mediated cytoprotection requires Cyp-D, as it failed to further protect RPEs/RGCs from UV when Cyp-D was silenced by targeted shRNAs...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425530/interfacial-interactions-between-cotpp-molecules-and-mgo-100-thin-films
#14
Matthias Franke, Daniel Wechsler, Quratulain Tariq, Michael Röckert, Liang Zhang, Pardeep Kumar Thakur, Nataliya Tsud, Sofiia Bercha, Kevin Prince, Tien-Lin Lee, Hans-Peter Steinrück, Ole Lytken
We have investigated the interactions between cobalt(ii)-tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) molecules and MgO(100) thin films on Ag(100) by means of Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray and Ultra-Violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS and SR-UPS). At room temperature, the CoTPP monolayer consists of two different species. A minority of molecules exhibits a strong electronic interaction with the substrate, whereas for the majority a similar spectroscopic signature as for multilayer molecules is observed. Based on the lateral inhomogeneity of the surface electronic structure, we tentatively suggest that the strongly interacting molecules adsorb with their metal center directly above oxygen ions...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417557/a-multitarget-approach-toward-the-development-of-8-substituted-purines-for-photoprotection-and-prevention-of-uv-related-damage
#15
Ernestine N Djuidje, Valeria Dissette, Alessia Bino, Simonetta Benetti, Jan Balzarini, Sandra Liekens, Stefano Manfredini, Silvia Vertuani, Anna Baldisserotto
Ultraviolet (UV) light is the most abundant and significant modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other skin diseases such as early photo-aging. Across the solar radiation spectrum, UV light is the main cause behind skin problems. In the search for novel photoprotective compounds, a new series of 8-substituted purines were synthesized from commercially available 6-hydroxy-4,5-diaminopyrimidine hemisulfate or 4,5-diaminopyrimidine. All title compounds were investigated for their UV filtering, antioxidant, antifungal, and antiproliferative activities...
May 22, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335278/recent-prospects-in-the-inline-monitoring-of-nanocomposites-and-nanocoatings-by-optical-technologies
#16
REVIEW
Elodie Bugnicourt, Timothy Kehoe, Marcos Latorre, Cristina Serrano, Séverine Philippe, Markus Schmid
Nanostructured materials have emerged as a key research field in order to confer materials with unique or enhanced properties. The performance of nanocomposites depends on a number of parameters, but the suitable dispersion of nanoparticles remains the key in order to obtain the full nanocomposites' potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier, thermal properties, etc. Likewise, the performance of nanocoatings to obtain, for example, tailored surface affinity with selected liquids (e.g...
August 19, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318234/light-absorbing-brown-carbon-aerosol-constituents-from-combustion-of-indonesian-peat-and-biomass
#17
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Michael Williams, Jing Chen, Masayuki Itoh, Jason D Surratt, Mikinori Kuwata
Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultraviolet (UV) and visible light and thus impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in (i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and (ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography instrument interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer operated in the negative ion mode...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225086/uvrag-deficiency-exacerbates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#18
Lin An, Xiao-Wen Hu, Shasha Zhang, Xiaowen Hu, Zongpei Song, Amber Naz, Zhenguo Zi, Jian Wu, Can Li, Yunzeng Zou, Lin He, Hongxin Zhu
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067233/coherent-ultra-violet-to-near-infrared-generation-in-silica-ridge-waveguides
#19
Dong Yoon Oh, Ki Youl Yang, Connor Fredrick, Gabriel Ycas, Scott A Diddams, Kerry J Vahala
Short duration, intense pulses of light can experience dramatic spectral broadening when propagating through lengths of optical fibre. This continuum generation process is caused by a combination of nonlinear optical effects including the formation of dispersive waves. Optical analogues of Cherenkov radiation, these waves allow a pulse to radiate power into a distant spectral region. In this work, efficient and coherent dispersive wave generation of visible to ultraviolet light is demonstrated in silica waveguides on a silicon chip...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061435/mirna-141-attenuates-uv-induced-oxidative-stress-via-activating-keap1-nrf2-signaling-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-retinal-ganglion-cells
#20
Li-Bo Cheng, Ke-Ran Li, Nan Yi, Xiu-Miao Li, Feng Wang, Bo Xue, Ying-Shun Pan, Jin Yao, Qin Jiang, Zhi-Feng Wu
Activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling could protect cells from ultra violet (UV) radiation. We aim to provoke Nrf2 activation via downregulating its inhibitor Keap1 by microRNA-141 ("miR-141"). In both human retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPEs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), forced-expression of miR-141 downregulated Keap1, causing Nrf2 stabilization, accumulation and nuclear translocation, which led to transcription of multiple antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) genes (HO1, NOQ1 and GCLC)...
February 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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