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Substance and trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786898/adults-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder-and-opioid-use-disorder-the-effectiveness-of-modified-prolonged-exposure
#1
Kelly R Peck, Julie A Schumacher, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are a growing problem in the United States. When OUDs co-occur with problematic drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative drug-related mental and physical health outcomes may be exacerbated. Thus, it is important to establish whether PTSD treatments with established efficacy for dually diagnosed individuals also demonstrate efficacy in individuals who engage in problematic drinking and concurrent opioid misuse. Adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD and alcohol dependence were recruited from a substance use treatment facility and were randomly assigned to receive either modified prolonged exposure (mPE) therapy for PTSD or a non-trauma-focused comparison treatment...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786514/psychotherapy-for-ptsd-an-evidence-based-guide-to-a-theranostic-approach-to-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Jessica R M Goodnight, Katie A Ragsdale, Sheila A M Rauch, Barbara O Rothbaum
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often a clinically complex disorder, frequently presenting with comorbid clinical conditions. Individuals with PTSD may also present with high-risk symptoms such as substance misuse and suicidal ideation. The clinical complexity of PTSD has precluded some clinicians from providing gold-standard trauma-focused treatment due to concern of iatrogenic effects. However, evidence to date suggests that trauma-focused treatments are safe and effective for PTSD even when higher-risk comorbidity presents...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778929/anxiety-sensitivity-in-the-association-between-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Anka A Vujanovic, Samantha G Farris, Brooke A Bartlett, Robert C Lyons, Moira Haller, Peter J Colvonen, Sonya B Norman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, "gold standard" treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. Thus, it is imperative to better understand cognitive-affective mechanisms, targetable via cognitive-behavioral intervention (i.e., malleable), that may be related to both disorders in order to improve the theory and treatment of PTSD/SUD. Anxiety sensitivity is a malleable cognitive-affective factor with relevance to both PTSD and SUD...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775870/adverse-and-adaptive-childhood-experiences-are-associated-with-parental-reflective-functioning-in-mothers-with-substance-use-disorder
#4
Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772397/grandmother-and-health-care-professional-breastfeeding-perspectives-provide-opportunities-for-health-promotion-in-an-american-indian-community
#5
Bailey Houghtaling, Carmen Byker Shanks, Selena Ahmed, Elizabeth Rink
RATIONALE: While breastfeeding is well recognized as beneficial, rates of breastfeeding among American Indian women are below average and contribute to health inequities. Culturally specific approaches to breastfeeding research are called for to inform appropriate interventions in American Indian communities. Specifically, a grandmother's role in breastfeeding promotion is of great import particularly in American Indian (AI) groups, although is an understudied topic to date. OBJECTIVE: This research seeks to fill a prominent literature gap by utilizing a grounded theory and community-based research approach to inform breastfeeding practices from the voices of grandmothers and health care professionals in a rural AI community in the United States...
May 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771763/recognizing-diagnosing-and-preventing-child-maltreatment-an-update-for-pediatric-clinicians
#6
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771557/distress-tolerance-associations-with-trauma-and-substance-cue-reactivity-in-low-income-inner-city-adults-with-substance-use-disorders-and-posttraumatic-stress
#7
Anka A Vujanovic, Margaret C Wardle, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lia J Smith, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
Cue reactivity has great potential to advance our understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and PTSD/SUD comorbidity. The present investigation examined distress tolerance (DT) with regard to trauma and substance cue reactivity. Participants included 58 low-income, inner-city adults (49.1% women; Mage = 45.73, SD = 10.00) with substance dependence and at least 4 symptoms of PTSD. A script-driven cue reactivity paradigm was utilized. Four DT measures were administered, including the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Mirror-Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT), Breath-Holding Task (BH), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771556/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-among-firefighters-during-their-first-3-years-of-service
#8
Suzy B Gulliver, Rose Zimering, Jeff Knight, Sandra Morissette, Barbara Kamholz, Eric Meyer, Terence Keane, Michelle Pennington, Tessa Denman, Thomas Carpenter, Nathan Kimbrel
Firefighters constitute an understudied occupational group that are exposed to a great deal of occupational stress including potentially traumatic stress. As such, higher prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders have been observed within this population; however, very little is known about the trajectories of health-risk behaviors among firefighters in response to occupational stress over time. The present study enrolled 322 fire service recruits from 7 urban U.S...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768125/investigating-the-usefulness-of-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-adolescent-residential-care
#9
Valerie C Joiner, Frederick P Buttell
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the usefulness of the trauma intervention, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), for adolescents in residential treatment. METHOD: The study employed a secondary analysis of 132 adolescent trauma cases collected from youth while in a residential treatment facility in Mississippi. RESULTS: Analysis indicated that clients showed significant decreases in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity scores after receiving TF-CBT in residential care...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766143/when-should-screening-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-for-adult-behaviors-start
#10
Adrian A Maung, Robert D Becher, Kevin M Schuster, Kimberly A Davis
Background: Care of patients with trauma is not only limited to the sustained physical injuries but also requires addressing social issues, such as substance abuse and interpersonal violence, which are responsible for trauma-related recidivism. This study investigates whether there are age-related variations in these problematic social behaviors to analyze whether there is an age cut-off at which point adolescents should be screened for adult social behaviors. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with trauma aged 12-21 admitted to an urban Level 1 adult and pediatric trauma center between February 2013 and April 2016...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766133/trauma-transitional-care-coordination-protecting-the-most-vulnerable-trauma-patients-from-hospital-readmission
#11
Erin C Hall, Rebecca Tyrrell, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
Background: Unplanned hospital readmissions increase healthcare costs and patient morbidity. We hypothesized that a program designed to reduce trauma readmissions would be effective. Methods: A Trauma Transitional Care Coordination (TTCC) program was created to support patients at high risk for readmission. TTCC interventions included call to patient (or caregiver) within 72 hours of discharge to identify barriers to care, complete medication reconciliation, coordination of appointments, and individualized problem solving...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760552/patients-receiving-chiropractic-care-in-a-neurorehabilitation-hospital-a-descriptive-study
#12
Robert D Vining, Stacie A Salsbury, W Carl Cooley, Donna Gosselin, Lance Corber, Christine M Goertz
Objectives: Individuals rehabilitating from complex neurological injury require a multidisciplinary approach, which typically does not include chiropractic care. This study describes inpatients receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation including chiropractic care for brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other complex neurological conditions. Design: Chiropractic services were integrated into Crotched Mountain Specialty Hospital (CMSH) through this project...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757103/end-of-life-trends-and-patterns-among-children-in-the-us-foster-care-system-2005-2015
#13
Lisa C Lindley, Elspeth M Slayter
Drawing on national, longitudinal Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System data (2005-2015), demographic, health, foster care, and geographic characteristics of decedents (N = 3,653) aged 1-17 years were examined. On average, decedents were 6 years old, the highest proportion died as infants, and experienced significant trauma in their short lives either through maltreatment or exposure to parental substance use. A noted increase in Medicaid coverage among decedents over time suggests critical access to concurrent treatment and hospice care, but this is unavailable to children with private insurance...
May 14, 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754278/behavioral-and-noradrenergic-sensitizations-in-vulnerable-traumatized-rats-suggest-common-bases-with-substance-use-disorders
#14
Claire Le Dorze, Jean-Pol Tassin, Fréderic Chauveau, Pascale Gisquet-Verrier
The aim of the present study was to strengthen our hypothesis of a common physiological basis for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders. This paper investigates the possibility that rats exposed to a PTSD model exhibit noradrenergic and behavioral sensitization, as observed following repeated drugs of abuse injections. First, rats received a single prolonged stress (SPS), combining three consecutive stressors. They were then tested, 2 weeks after the trauma for PTSD-like symptoms to discriminate between vulnerable and resilient rats...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741115/the-role-of-biomaterials-in-implantation-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#15
Yu-Shuan Chen, Horng-Jyh Harn, Tzyy-Wen Chiou
Permanent deficits that occur in memory, sensation, and cognition can result from central nervous system (CNS) trauma that causes dysfunction and/or unregulated CNS regeneration. Some therapeutic approaches are preferentially applied to the human body. Therefore, cell transplantation, one of the therapeutic strategies, may be used to benefit people. However, poor cell viability and low efficacy are the limitations to cell transplantation strategies. Biomaterials have been widely used in several fields (e.g...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740365/the-use-of-virtual-reality-to-facilitate-mindfulness-skills-training-in-dialectical-behavioral-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-study
#16
Araceli Flores, Marsha M Linehan, S Rob Todd, Hunter G Hoffman
Introduction: Paralysis from a spinal cord injury (SCI) increases risk of psychological problems including suicide attempts, substance use disorder, negative emotions (e.g., anger), depression, anxiety, ASD/PTSD. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) has been shown to be effective for treating similar psychological symptoms in non-SCI patient populations. The current study explored for the first time, the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® Mindfulness skills training to help reduce psychological symptoms (negative emotions and anxiety, ASD/PTSD) of two patients with SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737613/commentary-harm-reduction-managed-alcohol-programs-and-doing-the-right-thing
#17
Stephen Gaetz
In this commentary to the special issue on managed alcohol programs, the necessity of working from a harm reduction orientation when supporting people who experience homelessness is explored. While not all people who experience homelessness have substance use disorders, many respond to experiences of trauma and exclusion through the use of substances, and in many cases this leads to problematic use. In a context where people who are homeless regularly experience the control and regulation of their lives through emergency services, harm reduction approaches provide a welcomed alternative through humane, respectful, effective and client centred approaches to addressing substance use disorders...
April 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734218/depressive-symptoms-and-problematic-alcohol-and-other-substance-use-in-1-476-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-at-three-research-sites-in-kenya
#18
Christine Korhonen, Makobu Kimani, Elizabeth Wahome, Fredrick Otieno, Duncan Okall, Robert C Bailey, Gary W Harper, Robert R Lorway, Monika Doshi, John Mathenge, Joshua Kimani, Eduard J Sanders, Susan M Graham
OBJECTIVE: Information on mental health and substance use challenges among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) is needed to focus resources on these issues and optimize services for HIV prevention and care. We determined factors associated with depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol and other substance use among GBMSM in Kenya. METHODS: Self-identified GBMSM in three HIV research studies in Kenya provided information on depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), alcohol use (AUDIT), and other substance use (DAST-6)...
May 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731691/analysis-of-selected-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-patients-with-multiple-injuries-in-the-early-period-after-trauma
#19
Katarzyna Gołąbek-Dropiewska, Justyna Pawłowska, Jacek Witkowski, Jerzy Lasek, Wojciech Marks, Mariusz Stasiak, Dawid Jaskólski, Aleksandra Kawecka, Piotr Łuczkiewicz, Bogusław Baczkowski
Introduction: Severe trauma causes damage to the protective barriers of the organism, and thus activates immunological reaction. Among substances secreted during this process pro-inflammatory cytokines are of high importance. The aim of the study: Severe trauma causing multiple injuries is more likely to lead to particularly intensive inflammatory reaction, which can sometimes lead to serious complications, even life-threatening. The aim of the study is to determine those parameters which may serve as predictors of infectious complications and to enable estimation of the patient's immunological status before the decision to introduce elective procedures...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730987/stigma-associated-with-medication-treatment-for-young-adults-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-case-series
#20
Scott E Hadland, Tae Woo Park, Sarah M Bagley
BACKGROUND: Opioid-related overdose deaths have risen sharply among young adults. Despite this increase, access to evidence-based medication for opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for youth remains low. Among older adults, barriers to OAT include the paucity of buprenorphine-waivered prescribers and low rates of prescribing among waivered physicians. We have increasingly found in our clinical practice significant stigma related to using OAT to treat addiction for young adults. In this series, we describe three cases of young adults who faced significant stigma related to their treatment...
May 7, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
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