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Substance and trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240800/patients-with-non-substance-related-disorders-report-a-similar-profile-of-childhood-trauma-experiences-compared-to-heroin-dependent-patients
#1
Philipp V Schwaninger, Sandra E Mueller, Rebecca Dittmann, Renanto Poespodihardjo, Marc Vogel, Gerhard A Wiesbeck, Marc Walter, Sylvie A Petitjean
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exposure to traumatic events is common among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). In patients with non-substance-related disorders, especially with gambling disorders (GD) and internet addiction (IA), traumatic childhood experiences have not been investigated extensively. The objective of this study was to compare trauma histories in patients with GD and IA to patients with heroin dependence. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys including the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and clinical data among 107 participants; 59 patients with non-substance-related disorders (GD [n = 39]; IA [n = 20]) were compared to 28 patients prescribed injectable heroin for opioid dependence in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) and to a healthy control group (HC) (n = 20)...
February 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221062/habituation-of-distress-and-craving-during-treatment-as-predictors-of-change-in-ptsd-symptoms-and-substance-use-severity
#2
Christal L Badour, Julianne C Flanagan, Daniel F Gros, Therese Killeen, Irene Pericot-Valverde, Kristina J Korte, Nicholas P Allan, Sudie E Back
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence supports the efficacy of trauma-focused exposure therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring substance use disorders. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms of change in treatment for patients with PTSD and co-occurring substance use disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether within- and between-session habituation of distress and substance craving during imaginal exposure relates to treatment outcomes among U...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219827/the-intervening-role-of-urgency-on-the-association-between-childhood-maltreatment-ptsd-and-substance-related-problems
#3
Rebecca Mirhashem, Holley C Allen, Zachary W Adams, Katherine van Stolk-Cooke, Alison Legrand, Matthew Price
A range of risk factors lead to opioid use and substance-related problems (SRP) including childhood maltreatment, elevated impulsivity, and psychopathology. These constructs are highly interrelated such that childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated impulsivity and trauma-related psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and impulsivity-particularly urgency-and PTSD are related. Prior work has examined the association between these constructs and substance-related problems independently and it is unclear how these multi-faceted constructs (i...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215878/neuroactive-steroids-and-ptsd-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Ann M Rasmusson, Christine E Marx, Suzanne L Pineles, Andrea Locci, Erica R Scioli-Salter, Yael I Nillni, Jennifer J Liang, Graziano Pinna
This review highlights early efforts to translate pre-clinical and clinical findings regarding the role of neuroactive steroids in stress adaptation and PTSD into new therapeutics for PTSD. Numerous studies have demonstrated PTSD-related alterations in resting levels or the reactivity of neuroactive steroids and their targets. These studies also have demonstrated substantial variability in the dysfunction of specific neuroactive steroid systems among PTSD subpopulations. These variabilities have been related to the developmental timing of trauma, severity and type of trauma, genetic background, sex, reproductive state, lifestyle influences such as substance use and exercise, and the presence of comorbid conditions such as depression and chronic pain...
February 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211592/a-methodology-for-assessing-deployment-trauma-and-its-consequences-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans-the-tracts-longitudinal-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Jennifer R Fonda, Catherine Brawn Fortier
Many US veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq have multiple physical and psychiatric problems. A major focus of research has been on determining the effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), but mTBI is rarely diagnosed in the absence of co-occurring conditions such as blast exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, etc. These potentially interactive psychological and physical conditions produce complex patterns of cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms that impede civilian reintegration and complicate efficient and effective treatment planning...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184955/-tranexamic-acid-in-the-german-emergency-medical-service-a%C3%A2-national-survey
#6
V Zickenrott, I Greb, A Henkelmann, F Balzer, S Casu, L Kaufner, C von Heymann, K Zacharowski, C F Weber
BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced coagulopathy, one of the leading causes of trauma-related death, is detected in about one of four trauma patients upon hospital admission. The current European Management of Major Bleeding and Coagulopathy Following Trauma guidelines, published in 2013, recommend that tranexamic acid (TXA) be administered as early as possible to inhibit hyperfibrinolysis (grade of recommendation (GoR 1A)). Furthermore, it is suggested that protocols for the management of patients with bleeding or showing signs of bleeding include the administration of the first dose of TXA at the site of injury or during transportation to hospital (GoR 2C)...
February 9, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181264/promising-directions-for-treating-comorbid-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorder
#7
Sonya B Norman, Jessica L Hamblen
Although trauma focused (TF) psychotherapies are well established as the most effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; e.g., Institute of Medicine, 2007), questions remain about when a patient is "ready" for TF treatment. Providers can be hesitant to initiate TF treatment with patients with comorbidity (Cook et al., in press) and may offer patients non-TF options in place of, or in preparation for, TF psychotherapy (Hamblen et al., 2015). Unfortunately, there is no definitive way to determine readiness and providers may be unnecessarily delaying effective treatment...
February 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178207/impact-of-cannabis-use-on-treatment-outcomes-among-adults-receiving-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders
#8
Lesia M Ruglass, Alina Shevorykin, Vanja Radoncic, Kathryn M Z Smith, Philip H Smith, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Santiago Papini, Denise A Hien
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated a strong link between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD and substance use disorders (SUDs) in general and cannabis use disorders in particular. Yet, few studies have examined the impact of cannabis use on treatment outcomes for individuals with co-occurring PTSD and SUDs. METHODS: Participants were 136 individuals who received cognitive-behavioral therapies for co-occurring PTSD and SUD. Multivariate regressions were utilized to examine the associations between baseline cannabis use and end-of-treatment outcomes...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166775/clinical-ethics-issues-in-hiv-care-in-canada-an-institutional-ethnographic-study
#9
Chris Kaposy, Nicole R Greenspan, Zack Marshall, Jill Allison, Shelley Marshall, Cynthia Kitson
BACKGROUND: This is a study involving three HIV clinics in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Manitoba. We sought to identify ethical issues involving health care providers and clinic clients in these settings, and to gain an understanding of how different ethical issues are managed by these groups. METHODS: We used an institutional ethnographic method to investigate ethical issues in HIV clinics. Our researcher conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, compiled participant observation notes, and studied health records in order to document ethical issues in the clinics, and to understand how health care providers and clinic clients manage and resolve these issues...
February 6, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165268/using-the-research-domain-criteria-framework-to-track-domains-of-change-in-comorbid-ptsd-and-sud
#10
Laura Zambrano-Vazquez, Hannah C Levy, Emily L Belleau, Emily R Dworkin, Katianne M Howard Sharp, Samantha L Pittenger, Julie A Schumacher, Scott F Coffey
OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity in diagnosis raises critical challenges for psychological assessment and treatment. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project, launched by the National Institutes of Mental Health, proposes domains of functioning as a way to conceptualize the overlap between comorbid conditions and inform treatment selection. However, further research is needed to understand common comorbidities (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and substance use disorder [SUD]) from an RDoC framework and how existing evidence-based treatments would be expected to promote change in the RDoC domains of functioning...
February 6, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164593/modulation-of-the-redox-expression-and-inflammation-response-in-the-critically-ill-polytrauma-patient-with-thoracic-injury-statistical-correlations-between-antioxidant-therapy
#11
Ovidiu H Bedreag, Alexandru F Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Carmen A Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Sonia E Popovici, Raluca Dumache, Florin G Horhat, Corina Vernic, Laurentiu V Sima, Loredana Luca, Marius Papurica
BACKGROUND: One of the major causes of mortality in the world is represented by multiple traumas. Thoracic trauma is commonly associated with polytraumas. A series of physiopathological complications follow polytraumas, leading to a significant decrease in the survival rate. As a result of injuries, significant quantities of free radicals (FR) are produced, responsible for oxidative stress (OS). To minimize the effects of OS, we recommend the administration of antioxidant substances. In this study we want to highlight statistically significant correlations between antioxidant therapy and a series of clinical variables...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163804/parental-reflective-functioning-in-fathers-who-use-intimate-partner-violence-findings-from-a-norwegian-clinical-sample
#12
Henning Mohaupt, Fanny Duckert
Few studies have examined fathering in an intimate partner violence (IPV) context outside the US. The present study included 36 Norwegian men who were voluntarily participating in therapy after perpetrating acts of IPV. They were interviewed with the revised Parent Development Interview, which is designed to assess parental reflective functioning (parental RF), and screened for alcohol- and substance-use habits and trauma history. At the group level, participants exhibited poor parental RF, high relational trauma scores, and elevated alcohol intake...
October 1, 2016: Nordic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158933/interventions-for-treating-simple-bone-cysts-in-the-long-bones-of-children
#13
REVIEW
Jia-Guo Zhao, Jia Wang, Wan-Jie Huang, Peng Zhang, Ning Ding, Jian Shang
BACKGROUND: Simple bone cysts, also known as a unicameral bone cysts or solitary bone cysts, are the most common type of benign bone lesion in growing children. Cysts may lead to repeated pathological fracture (fracture that occurs in an area of bone weakened by a disease process). Occasionally, these fractures may result in symptomatic malunion. The main goals of treatment are to decrease the risk of pathological fracture, enhance cyst healing and resolve pain. Despite the numerous treatment methods that have been used for simple bone cysts in long bones of children, there is no consensus on the best procedure...
February 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149195/non-unions-after-fixation-of-humeral-fractures-using-hackethal-s-bundle-nailing-technique
#14
Petr Obruba, Stefan Rammelt, Lubomir Kopp, Karel Edelmann, Jakub Avenarius
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify factors contributing to the development of non-union after fixation of diaphyseal humeral fractures using Hackethal's intramedullary nailing technique. METHODS: In the time period from 2001 to 2010 156 patients with diaphyseal humeral fractures were treated surgically using Hackethal's technique. Six of them (3.8%) developed non-union. This group included three women and two men aged 63-69 years and one woman aged 37 years...
September 2016: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147254/pre-treatment-predictors-of-dropout-from-prolonged-exposure-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorders
#15
Emily L Belleau, Eu Gene Chin, Sonya G Wanklyn, Laura Zambrano-Vazquez, Julie A Schumacher, Scott F Coffey
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are commonly co-occurring disorders associated with more adverse consequences than PTSD alone. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is one of the most efficacious treatments for PTSD. However, among individuals with PTSD-SUD, 35-62% of individuals drop out of trauma-focused exposure treatments. Thus, it is important to identify predictors of PTSD treatment dropout among substance abusers with PTSD in order to gain information about adapting treatment strategies to enhance retention and outcomes...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146616/acute-substance-use-as-a-warning-sign-for-suicide-attempts-a-case-crossover-examination-of-the-48-hours-prior-to-a-recent-suicide-attempt
#16
Courtney L Bagge, Guilherme Borges
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which specific categories of acute substance use are short-term risk factors, or warning signs, for suicide attempts is unknown. The aim of the current study was to quantify the near-term effects of sole use and co-use of substances on medically attended suicide attempts. METHODS: The current study used a case-crossover design, comparing substance use within the 24 hours prior to a suicide attempt (case day) to the control day, the matched 24 hours the day prior to the case day...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138200/a-review-of-psychopharmacological-interventions-post-disaster-to-prevent-psychiatric-sequelae
#17
REVIEW
Badari Birur, Suresh Bada Math, Rachel E Fargason
BACKGROUND: Disasters are mega-scale catastrophic events which cause trauma and mental health sequelae. A review of early pharmacological interventions for the prevention of psychiatric disorders following disasters is sorely needed. METHODS: A literature search of "Psychiatric Sequelae AND Disasters", "Disaster mental health/Disaster psychiatry", "Psychotropics AND Disasters", and "Drug therapy AND Disasters" yielded 213 articles, 38 of which were included in the review...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135694/the-mental-health-of-indigenous-peoples-in-canada-a-critical-review-of-research
#18
REVIEW
Sarah E Nelson, Kathi Wilson
Many scholars assert that Indigenous peoples across the globe suffer a disproportionate burden of mental illness. Research indicates that colonialism and its associated processes are important determinants of Indigenous peoples' health internationally. In Canada, despite an abundance of health research documenting inequalities in morbidity and mortality rates for Indigenous peoples, relatively little research has focused on mental health. This paper provides a critical scoping review of the literature related to Indigenous mental health in Canada...
March 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130040/-admission-to-intensive-care-for-a-trauma-related-to-alcohol-or-drugs-a-teachable-moment-for-the-beginning-of-a-change
#19
S Cordovilla-Guardia, R Vilar-López, P Lardelli-Claret, J F Navas, F Guerrero-López, E Fernández-Mondéjar
OBJECTIVES: To estimate how many of the trauma patients admitted to ICU would be candidates for a secondary prevention programme for trauma related to alcohol or drug use by brief motivational intervention and to define what factors prevent that intervention being performed. METHODS: All 16-70year old trauma patients (n=242) admitted to ICU in 32 non-consecutive months (November 2011 to March 2015) were included in the study, coinciding with the implementation of a screening and brief motivational intervention programme for trauma patients related to substance consumption...
January 24, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118514/concurrent-treatment-of-ptsd-and-alcohol-use-disorder-via-telehealth-in-a-female-iraq-veteran
#20
Maryanne Jaconis, Elizabeth J Santa Ana, Therese K Killeen, Christal L Badour, Sudie E Back
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A growing literature provides evidence for the use of integrated treatments (e.g., Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure; COPE); however, no known studies have applied COPE via telehealth. METHOD: COPE was delivered via telehealth to treat one black female veteran with combat trauma and alcohol use disorder. RESULTS: The patient demonstrated significant reductions in alcohol consumption and PTSD and depressive symptoms...
January 24, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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