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Substance and trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323765/misuse-of-opioids-in-orthopaedic-postoperative-patients
#1
Anup Gangavalli, Ajith Malige, George Terres, Saqib Rehman, Chinenye Nwachuku
OBJECTIVE: In light of the recent uptrend in the prescription of opioids, this study seeks to identify patterns of opioid misuse among orthopaedic postoperative patients and principal external sources in obtaining these medications. DESIGN: Ten-month survey-based study. SETTING: Two Level I trauma centers (urban and suburban). PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seven patients between the ages of 18 and 89 years who underwent surgical fixation of fractures involving the pelvis, long bones, or periarticular regions of the knee, ankle, elbow, and wrist...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323538/relationships-between-a-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-and-clinical-characteristics-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#2
Michaela Mergler, Martin Driessen, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Dirk Wedekind, Christel Lüdecke, Martin Ohlmeier, Claudia Chodzinski, Sybille Teunißen, Steffen Weirich, Detlef Schläfke, Walter Renner, Ingo Schäfer, Gertrud Koesters, Christian Dette, Olaf Reis, Elisabeth H Sylvester, Martin Hoppe, Markus Stuppe, Thomas Broese, Udo Schneider, Christina Pletke
The increasing support for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-D) has led to its inclusion in DSM-5. We examined relationships between PTSD-D and relevant variables in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The sample comprised N = 459 patients with SUD. The International Diagnostic Checklist and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale were used to diagnose PTSD. In addition, participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The course of SUD was assessed by means of the European Addiction Severity Index...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320355/severe-war-related-trauma-and-personality-pathology-a-case-control-study
#3
Jasna Munjiza, Dolores Britvic, Maja Radman, Mike J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. METHODS: A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#4
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318911/cannabis-use-polysubstance-use-and-psychosis-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-community-based-sample-of-u-s-youth
#5
Jason D Jones, Monica E Calkins, J Cobb Scott, Emily C Bach, Raquel E Gur
PURPOSE: To examine how cannabis use and polysubstance use among cannabis users relate to psychosis spectrum (PS) symptoms in a large community-based sample of U.S. youth. METHODS: Four thousand one hundred seventy-one youths (aged 14-21 years; mean = 16.90 years, SD = 1.85; 55% female) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort completed assessments of substance use, PS symptoms, and confounding variables (e.g., demographics, comorbid psychopathology, and trauma exposure)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302351/does-a-primary-health-clinic-for-formerly-incarcerated-women-increase-linkage-to-care
#6
Diane S Morse, John L Wilson, James M McMahon, Ann M Dozier, Anabel Quiroz, Catherine Cerulli
OBJECTIVE: This study examined a primary care-based program to address the health needs of women recently released from incarceration by facilitating access to primary medical, mental health, and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Peer community health workers recruited women released from incarceration within the past 9 months into the Women's Initiative Supporting Health Transitions Clinic (WISH-TC). Located within an urban academic medical center, WISH-TC uses cultural, gender, and trauma-specific strategies grounded in the self-determination theory of motivation...
March 13, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302084/effectiveness-of-emdr-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-and-comorbid-ptsd-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Ingo Schäfer, Laycen Chuey-Ferrer, Arne Hofmann, Peter Lieberman, Günter Mainusch, Annett Lotzin
BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD. However, it is unclear whether EMDR shows the same effectiveness in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid PTSD. In this trial, we examine the effectiveness of EMDR in reducing PTSD symptoms in patients with SUD and PTSD. METHODS/DESIGN: We conduct a single-blinded RCT among 158 patients with SUD and comorbid PTSD admitted to a German addiction rehabilitation center specialized for the treatment of patients with SUD and comorbid PTSD...
March 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294462/disruption-of-white-matter-structural-integrity-and-connectivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-tbss-and-tractography-study
#8
Elizabeth A Olson, Jiaolong Cui, Rena Fukunaga, Lisa D Nickerson, Scott L Rauch, Isabelle M Rosso
BACKGROUND: Most studies of brain white matter (WM) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused on combat trauma, and often were confounded by neurological and substance dependence comorbidity. This study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography to characterize WM microstructure in a mixed-sex community sample of PTSD patients exposed to diverse and multiple traumas, and in trauma-exposed normal comparison (TENC) subjects. METHODS: TBSS compared diffusion measures between 20 adults with DSM-IV PTSD and 17 TENC, using a whole-brain voxel-wise approach...
March 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293767/gambling-in-a-national-u-s-veteran-population-prevalence-socio-demographics-and-psychiatric-comorbidities
#9
Elina A Stefanovics, Marc N Potenza, Robert H Pietrzak
This study aimed to examine associations between gambling level and clinically relevant measures, including psychiatric disorders and suicidality, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans. Data on 3157 U.S. veterans were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Chi square tests and analyses of variance were used to assess associations between gambling level, and demographic, military, and personality characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions using stepwise selection were used to identify independent correlates of recreational gambling and at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290935/screening-for-anger-and-sleep-difficulties
#10
Nicole M Steele, Gerard J Fogarty
INTRODUCTION: Mental health screens are designed to detect individuals at risk of psychological disorders. In the military setting of this study, these disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use. This study extends the literature on deployment-related mental health screening by including measures of sleep difficulties and anger as predictors of postdeployment PTSD and alcohol abuse. Evidence that measures of anger and sleep difficulties contribute incremental validity to the prediction of postdeployment mental health problems, including substance abuse, would be helpful in designing interventions to assist the rehabilitation of returning personnel...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281919/retraumatization-mediates-the-effect-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-on-clinical-training-related-secondary-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#11
Lisa D Butler, Eugene Maguin, Janice Carello
Previous research (AuthorCitation1) has found that exposure to trauma-related material in graduate clinical coursework and field training can put students at risk for reactivations of feelings/memories from negative past experiences (retraumatization) and for secondary traumatic stress (STS) symptoms. The present report sought to examine the role, if any, of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in these outcomes. Using the AuthorCitaiton2 sample, we examined: (1) rates of ACEs in 195 graduate social work students, (2) whether the total number of ACEs was associated with training-related retraumatization (TRT) and/or STS symptoms, and (3) if TRT mediated the relationship between ACEs and STS symptoms...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279571/sex-dependent-mental-illnesses-and-mitochondria
#12
REVIEW
Akiko Shimamoto, Virginie Rappeneau
The prevalence of some mental illnesses, including major depression, anxiety-, trauma-, and stress-related disorders, some substance use disorders, and later onset of schizophrenia, is higher in women than men. While the higher prevalence in women could simply be explained by socioeconomic determinants, such as income, social status, or cultural background, extensive studies show sex differences in biological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological factors contribute to females' vulnerability to these mental illnesses...
March 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274137/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-pathological-gambling-potential-evidence-of-anti-reward-processes
#13
Cheryl L Green, Ramzi W Nahhas, Arielle A Scoglio, Igor Elman
Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272189/cannabis-use-has-negligible-effects-following-severe-traumatic-injury
#14
Kareem R AbdelFattah, Courtney R Edwards, Michael W Cripps, Christian T Minshall, Herb A Phelan, Joseph P Minei, Alexander L Eastman
Nearly half of all states have legalized medical marijuana or recreational-use marijuana. As more states move toward legalization, the effects on injured patients must be evaluated. This study sought to determine effects of cannabis positivity at the time of severe injury on hospital outcomes compared with individuals negative for illicit substances and those who were users of other illicit substances. A Level I trauma center performed a retrospective chart review covering subjects over a 2-year period with toxicology performed and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of more than 16...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270127/-life-at-the-river-is-a-living-hell-a-qualitative-study-of-trauma-mental-health-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behavior-among-female-fish-traders-from-the-kafue-flatlands-in-zambia
#15
Lynn T Murphy Michalopoulos, Stefani N Baca-Atlas, Simona J Simona, Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Alexander Ncube, Melanie B Chery
BACKGROUND: In Western settings, the relationship between trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and HIV risk behavior, is well established. Although female fish traders in Zambia are affected by HIV at rates estimated to be 4-14 times higher than the national prevalence, no studies have examined the co-occurring issues of trauma, substance use and HIV risk behavior among this vulnerable population. The current study examined: 1) trauma history, trauma symptoms and HIV risk behaviors and 2) the relationship between these co-occurring issues among female fish traders from the Kafue Flatlands in Zambia...
March 7, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263624/the-association-between-daily-ptsd-symptom-severity-and-alcohol-related-outcomes-in-recent-traumatic-injury-victims
#16
Bryce Hruska, Maria L Pacella, Richard L George, Douglas L Delahanty
The self-medication hypothesis proposes that individuals experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms may use alcohol (or other substances) to self-medicate distress, while the mutual maintenance hypothesis proposes that alcohol use also exacerbates or maintains distress. Existing research largely supports the self-medication hypothesis. However, findings are often based upon retrospective reporting of problems and assessment of symptoms anchored to a trauma occurring in the remote past. To improve on these retrospective designs, the current study examined the relationship between daily PTSD symptom severity and alcohol-related outcomes during the early phase of recovery following a traumatic physical injury...
March 6, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258762/patient-outcomes-at-urban-and-suburban-level-i-versus-level-ii-trauma-centers
#17
Amy H Kaji, Nichole Bosson, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Aaron J Dawes, Brant Putnam, Tchaka Shepherd, Roger J Lewis
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Regionalized systems of trauma care and level verification are promulgated by the American College of Surgeons. Whether patient outcomes differ between the 2 highest verifications, Levels I and II, is unknown. In contrast to Level II centers, Level I centers are required to care for a minimum number of severely injured patients, have immediate availability of subspecialty services and equipment, and demonstrate research, substance abuse screening, and injury prevention...
February 23, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252512/echoes-of-the-past-recognizing-co-occurring-alcohol-use-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-american-veteran-population
#18
Susanne A Fogger, Joshua J Hart
PURPOSE: The aim of this editorial is to explore and highlight the importance of identifying both the alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. REVIEW: Determining if the patient has military experience can assist in both an accurate and complete assessment. Being aware of the patient's military service time can help better understand some of the presenting physical and mental complaints that may incorrectly be attributed to substances...
January 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240800/patients-with-non-substance-related-disorders-report-a-similar-profile-of-childhood-trauma-experiences-compared-to-heroin-dependent-patients
#19
Philipp V Schwaninger, Sandra E Mueller, Rebecca Dittmann, Renanto Poespodihardjo, Marc Vogel, Gerhard A Wiesbeck, Marc Walter, Sylvie A Petitjean
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exposure to traumatic events is common among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). In patients with non-substance-related disorders, especially with gambling disorders (GD) and internet addiction (IA), traumatic childhood experiences have not been investigated extensively. The objective of this study was to compare trauma histories in patients with GD and IA to patients with heroin dependence. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys including the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and clinical data among 107 participants; 59 patients with non-substance-related disorders (GD [n = 39]; IA [n = 20]) were compared to 28 patients prescribed injectable heroin for opioid dependence in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) and to a healthy control group (HC) (n = 20)...
February 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221062/habituation-of-distress-and-craving-during-treatment-as-predictors-of-change-in-ptsd-symptoms-and-substance-use-severity
#20
Christal L Badour, Julianne C Flanagan, Daniel F Gros, Therese Killeen, Irene Pericot-Valverde, Kristina J Korte, Nicholas P Allan, Sudie E Back
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence supports the efficacy of trauma-focused exposure therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring substance use disorders. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms of change in treatment for patients with PTSD and co-occurring substance use disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether within- and between-session habituation of distress and substance craving during imaginal exposure relates to treatment outcomes among U...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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