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Substance and trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314410/methods-to-reduce-false-reporting-of-substance-abstinence-in-clinical-research
#1
Sandra J Japuntich, Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Celina M Joos, Ann M Rasmusson, Suzanne L Pineles
OBJECTIVES: Substance use may influence study results in human subjects research. This study aims to report the concordance between self-report and biochemical assessments of substance use and test the effect of methods to reduce false reports of abstinence in trauma-exposed women participating in a research study. METHODS: In this pilot study, substance use was assessed during telephone prescreening and via self-report and biochemical verification (i.e., urine toxicology and alcohol breathalyzer tests) at an in-person evaluation...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307027/does-restricted-diffusion-in-the-splenium-indicate-an-acute-infarct
#2
Zeynep Ezgi Balcik, Songül Senadim, Aslı Keskek, Ayşe Ozudogru, Ayhan Koksal, Aysun Soysal, Dilek Atakli
OBJECTIVE: Although splenial lesions are rare, they are frequently associated with ischemic infarcts, antiepileptic drug toxicity or abrupt discontinuation, viral encephalitis, and metabolic disturbances. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging findings and aetiology in 16 patients with splenium lesions. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2017, patients with splenium lesions were examined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5-T unit with fluid attenuation inversion recovery sequences...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304027/socio-demographic-and-mental-health-profile-of-admitted-cases-of-self-inflicted-harm-in-the-us-population
#3
Chris Hanuscin, Golara Zahmatkesh, Anaheed Shirazi, Deyu Pan, Senait Teklehaimanot, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi
Self-inflicted harm (SIH) has a substantial lifetime prevalence, it is associated with tremendous costs, and its rate is increasing on a national scale. To examine the characteristics of those admitted for SIH in the US and to investigate the factors that potentially modify the methods used for SIH. This was a retrospective analysis of admitted cases of SIH including suicide attempts between 2007 and 2012 using the National Trauma Data Bank. We included a total of 204,633 cases admitted for SIH. Our participants were 75...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295023/gender-specific-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-reduced-functioning-in-a-post-9-11-veteran-sample
#4
Arielle A J Scoglio, Steven D Shirk, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza, Carolyn M Mazure, Crystal L Park, Sherry A McKee, Elizabeth A Porter, Shane W Kraus
U.S. combat veterans frequently encounter challenges after returning from deployment, and these challenges may lead to difficulties in psychological and social functioning. Currently, research is limited on gender-related differences within this population, despite female veterans comprising a growing portion of the U.S. military with roles and exposures similar to their male counterparts. Using secondary analysis, we examined 283 returning combat veterans (female = 29.4%) for differences in psychopathology and trauma history...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295020/disclosing-sex-trading-histories-to-providers-barriers-and-facilitators-to-navigation-of-social-services-among-women-impacted-by-commercial-sexual-exploitation
#5
Lara Gerassi, Tonya E Edmond, Vanessa Fabbre, Abby Howard, Andrea J Nichols
Sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) can lead to devastating health and mental health consequences for women, such as elevated rates of substance use, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and HIV. Consequently, engagement with services that address addiction, mental health, and housing, and provide general advocacy is critically important to women's increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to service access and engagement with social services among women involved in CSE...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294757/-keeping-it-real-the-relational-effects-of-trauma-among-african-american-women-and-their-substance-abuse-treatment-counselors
#6
Joan M Blakey, Kimberly B Grocher
African American women experience disproportionately high rates of trauma. Interpersonal forms of trauma often make it much more difficult for trauma survivors to initiate and maintain positive, healthy relationships with others. This study examined the kinds of relationships women with extensive histories of trauma and substance had with their substance abuse treatment counselors and the characteristics that they believe contributed to connected and disconnected client-counselor relationships. Using the case study method, 26 in-depth interviews were conducted with African American women...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294666/exploring-bullying-perpetration-and-victimization-among-adolescent-girls-in-the-child-welfare-system-bully-only-victim-only-bully-victim-and-noninvolved-roles
#7
Paul R Sterzing, Wendy F Auslander, G Allen Ratliff, Donald R Gerke, Tonya Edmond, Melissa Jonson-Reid
Childhood abuse is a common experience for youth in the child welfare system, increasing their risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Little research exists that has examined the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization for child welfare-involved adolescent girls. The study addressed the following aims: (a) to generate frequency estimates of physical, nonphysical, and relational forms of bullying perpetration and victimization; (b) to identify the frequency of bully-only, victim-only, bully-victim, and noninvolved roles; and (c) to identify risk and protective factors that correlate with these bullying role types...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294660/gender-differences-in-complex-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-their-relationship-to-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-outcomes-in-incarcerated-adults
#8
Paulette Giarratano, Julian D Ford, Thomas H Nochajski
Complex trauma (CT; for example, childhood abuse) has been associated with significant behavioral health problems (i.e., mental health and substance use disorders) and symptoms that are consistent with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). CT is prevalent in adult forensic populations, and particularly important for women as they tend to report more adverse consequences of exposure to traumatic stressors and are entering the criminal justice system at a heightened rate compared with men. However, no studies have empirically tested the relationship among CT, C-PTSD, and behavioral health problems with gender among incarcerated adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289871/sheltering-risks-implementation-of-harm-reduction-in-homeless-shelters-during-an-overdose-emergency
#9
Bruce Wallace, Katrina Barber, Bernadette Bernie Pauly
BACKGROUND: The current opioid overdose crisis in North America is heightening awareness of the need for and the challenges of implementing harm reduction, notably within complex and diverse settings such as homeless shelters. In this paper, we explore the implementation of harm reduction in homeless shelters during an emerging overdose emergency. METHODS: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand micro-environment level factors within emergency shelters responding to homelessness and substance use, and the macro-level influences that produce and sustain structural vulnerabilities...
December 28, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289852/trauma-exposure-and-heavy-drinking-and-drug-use-among-college-students-identifying-the-roles-of-negative-and-positive-affect-lability-in-a-daily-diary-study
#10
Nicole H Weiss, Krysten W Bold, Ateka A Contractor, Tami P Sullivan, Stephen Armeli, Howard Tennen
Trauma exposure is linked to heavy drinking and drug use among college students. Extant research reveals positive associations between negative affect lability and both trauma exposure and alcohol use. This study aimed to extend past research by using daily diary methods to test whether (a) individuals with (versus without) trauma exposure experience greater negative and positive affect lability, (b) negative and positive affect lability are associated with heavy drinking and drug use, and (c) negative and positive affect lability mediate the relations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use...
December 13, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287668/development-of-a-novel-integrated-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-co-occurring-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Anka A Vujanovic, Lia J Smith, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, 'gold standard' treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. The present pilot randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a novel, integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment approach for PTSD/SUD, entitled Treatment of Integrated Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use (TIPSS), as compared to standard cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for SUD...
December 26, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#12
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
December 29, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283612/moving-effective-treatment-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-to-primary-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-active-duty-military
#13
Jeffrey A Cigrang, Sheila A Rauch, Jim Mintz, Antoinette R Brundige, Jennifer A Mitchell, Elizabeth Najera, Brett T Litz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, John D Roache, Elizabeth A Hembree, Jeffrey L Goodie, Scott M Sonnek, Alan L Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Many military service members with PTSD do not receive evidence-based specialty behavioral health treatment because of perceived barriers and stigma. Behavioral health providers in primary care can deliver brief, effective treatments expanding access and reducing barriers and stigma. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to determine if a brief cognitive-behavior therapy delivered in primary care using the Primary Care Behavioral Health model would be effective at reducing PTSD and co-occurring symptoms...
December 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282872/psychotic-spectrum-symptoms-cumulative-adversity-exposure-and-substance-use-among-high-risk-girls
#14
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Shahrokh Golshan, Audrey N Beck
AIM: Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors...
December 28, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282479/what-drives-the-relationship-between-combat-and-alcohol-problems-in-soldiers-the-roles-of-perception-and-marriage
#15
Bonnie M Vest, D Lynn Homish, Rachel A Hoopsick, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: While the relationship between combat exposure and alcohol problems is well-established, the role of perceptions of trauma is less understood. The goal of this study was to explore associations between National Guard (NG) and reserve soldiers' perceptions of combat experiences as traumatic and alcohol problems, and to examine marital satisfaction as a possible protective factor. METHODS: The Operation: SAFETY study recruited US Army Reserve and NG soldiers and their partners to complete a questionnaire covering many physical and mental health, military service, and substance use topics...
December 27, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281600/community-perspectives-on-substance-use-among-bhutanese-and-iraqi-refugees-resettled-in-the-united-states
#16
Mansha Q Mirza, Elizabeth A Harrison, Hui-Ching Chang, Corrina D Salo, Dina Birman
Premigration trauma and postmigration stressors put refugees at high risk for mental health concerns, including substance use. However, there is limited systematic research on substance use in refugee communities exists. We conducted exploratory qualitative research to examine Bhutanese and Iraqi refugee perspectives related to the use of recreational substances after resettlement in the United States. Data were collected through separate focus groups with 28 Bhutanese and 22 Iraqi adult men. Focus groups were facilitated by an experienced clinician with an in-person interpreter, audiorecorded, and transcribed...
January 2018: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275545/application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-the-meningeal-lymphatic-vessels-during-opening-of-blood-brain-barrier-mechanisms-of-brain-clearing
#17
Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Arkady Abdurashitov, Alexander Dubrovsky, Denis Bragin, Olga Bragina, Nataliya Shushunova, Galina Maslyakova, Nikita Navolokin, Alla Bucharskaya, Valery Tuchin, Juergen Kurths, Alexander Shirokov
The meningeal lymphatic vessels were discovered 2 years ago as the drainage system involved in the mechanisms underlying the clearance of waste products from the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a gatekeeper that strongly controls the movement of different molecules from the blood into the brain. We know the scenarios during the opening of the BBB, but there is extremely limited information on how the brain clears the substances that cross the BBB. Here, using the model of sound-induced opening of the BBB, we clearly show how the brain clears dextran after it crosses the BBB via the meningeal lymphatic vessels...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275138/does-a-history-of-psychoactive-substances-abuse-play-a-role-in-the-level-of-pain-of-the-patient-with-severe-trauma
#18
C López-López, A Arranz-Esteban, M V Martinez-Ureta, M C Sánchez-Rascón, C Morales-Sánchez, M Chico-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the influence of psychotropic substance use on the level of pain in patients with severe trauma. DESIGN: Longitudinal analytical study. SCOPE: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Trauma and Emergencies. PATIENTS: severe trauma, non-communicative and mechanical ventilation >48hours. Two groups of patients were created: users and non-users of psychotropic substances according to medical records. INTERVENTIONS: Measurement of pain level at baseline and during mobilization, using the Pain Indicator Behaviour Scale...
December 20, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258355/coping-strategies-of-former-prisoners-of-war-mediate-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms
#19
Gadi Zerach
OBJECTIVES: Certain coping strategies, characterized by emotional coping or disengagement/ avoidance, have been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS). However, the role of primary trauma victims' coping strategies in the intergenerational transmission of PTSS is still lacking. This prospective study assessed the mediating role of former prisoners of war's (ex-POWs) coping strategies in the associations between ex-POWs' PTSS and their adult offspring's secondary PTSS in relation to their fathers' captivity and psychiatric symptomatology...
December 19, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251380/the-relationship-between-dsm-5-ptsd-symptom-clusters-and-alcohol-misuse-among-military-veterans
#20
Jessica L Walton, Amanda M Raines, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Desirae N Vidaurri, Margo C Villarosa-Hurlocker, C L Franklin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prior research has revealed a strong relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse. However, previous attempts to understand nuanced associations between PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse within military veteran samples have produced mixed results. In an attempt to better understand the associations between PTSD and alcohol misuse, the current study examined the unique relationships between the newly classified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse in an outpatient sample of military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD and Substance Use Disorders...
December 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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