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Double edged sword

Y B Huang, L Yang, F J Song, K X Chen
Screening has been always considered as a double-edged sword. Cancer screening could save lives in some cases, however, in other cases, it might also turn people into overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of cancer that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. Therefore, overdiagnosis might lead to unnecessary treatments and lifetime surveillance, and then increase economic burden and psychological burden. In this review, we focus on how to correctly evaluate the overdiagnosis rate, and how to avoid or reduce the harms caused by overdiagnosis in the future according to the reasons associated with overdiagnosis...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Ching-Heng Chou, David E Attarian, Hans-Georg Wisniewski, Philip A Band, Virginia B Kraus
PURPOSE: To explore mechanisms underlying the association of TSG-6 with osteoarthritis (OA) progression. METHODS: TSG-6-mediated heavy chain (HC) transfer (TSG-6 activity) and its association with inflammatory mediators were quantified in knee OA (n=25) synovial fluids. Paired intact and damaged cartilages from the same individuals (20 tibial and 12 meniscal) were analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for gene and protein expression of TSG-6 and components of IαI (necessary for TSG-6 activity), and for TSG-6 activity +/- spiked in IαI...
November 9, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Paulo Luiz de Sá Junior, Diana Aparecida Dias Câmara, Allan Saj Porcacchia, Pâmela Maria Moreira Fonseca, Salomão Doria Jorge, Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi, Adilson Kleber Ferreira
Cancer comprises a group of heterogeneous diseases encompassing high rates of morbidity and mortality. Heterogeneity, which is a hallmark of cancer, is one of the main factors related to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents leading to poor prognosis. Heterogeneity is profoundly affected by increasing levels of ROS. Under low concentrations, ROS may function as signaling molecules favoring tumorigenesis and heterogeneity, while under high ROS concentrations, these species may work as cancer modulators due to their deleterious, genotoxic or even proapoptotic effect on cancer cells...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Maaike Waasdorp, JanWillem Duitman, Sandrine Florquin, Arnold C Spek
Diabetic nephropathy is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and the leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex, making the development of novel treatments that stop or reverse the progression of microalbuminuria into end stage renal disease a challenge. Protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has recently been shown to aggravate disease progression in diabetic nephropathy based upon which it was suggested that PAR-2 would be a potential target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Reza Tabrizchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Rohan Garje, Justin J Chau, Jina Chung, Karolyn Wanat, Yousef Zakharia
In the past decade, the resurgence of immunotherapy has changed the landscape of cancer therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed death-1 on lymphocytes, and programmed death ligand-1 on tumors cells are currently utilized in the management of several cancers. These agents are double-edged sword with the positive effect being robust antitumor response but on the other side they can throttle up the normal immunologic homeostasis in a negative way, leading to adverse autoimmune toxicities...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
Liz Lightstone, Andrea Doria, Hannah Wilson, Frank L Ward, Maddalena Larosa, Joanne M Bargman
The outcome of lupus nephritis (LN) has changed since the introduction of glucocorticoids (GCs), which dramatically reduced the mortality related to one of the most severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Since the 1950's, other immunosuppressants, including biologic drugs (i.e. rituximab) have aided in maintaining remission, preserving kidney function, but not preventing treatment-related toxicity. GCs still remain the cornerstone in the treatment of SLE, including LN, and they are widely used in clinical practice...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
Zahra Asadzadeh, Hamed Mohammadi, Elham Safarzadeh, Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Ahmad Mahdian-Shakib, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Gholamreza Azizi, Behzad Baradaran
Immune system acts as a host defensive mechanism protecting against attacking pathogens and transformed cells, including cancer cells. Th17 cells are a specific subset of T helper lymphocytes determined by high secretion of IL-17 and other inflammatory cytokines. Th17 cells increase tumor progression by activating angiogenesis and immunosuppressive activities. They can also mediate antitumor immune responses through recruiting immune cells into tumors, stimulating effector CD8+ T cells, or surprisingly by altering toward Th1 phenotype and producing IFN-γ, so Th17 cells are supposed as a double-edged sword in cancer...
October 31, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Javad Alizadeh, Shahla Shojaei, Adel Sepanjnia, Mohammad Hashemi, Eftekhar Eftekharpour, Saeid Ghavami
Autophagy is increasingly identified as a central player in many cellular activities from cell proliferation to cell division, migration, and differentiation. However, it is also considered as a double-edged sword in cancer biology which either promotes oncogenesis/invasion or sensitizes the tumor cells to chemotherapy induced apoptosis. Recent investigations have provided direct evidence for regulation of cellular phenotype via autophagy pathway. One of the most important types of phenotype conversion is Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT), resulting in alteration of epithelial cell properties to a more mesenchymal form...
November 4, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Aude Guénolé, Gaëlle Legube
Translocations are dramatic genomic rearrangements due to aberrant rejoining of distant DNA ends that can trigger cancer onset and progression. Translocations frequently occur in genes, yet the mechanisms underlying their formation remain poorly understood. One potential mechanism involves DNA Double Strand Break mobility and juxtaposition (i.e. clustering), an event that has been intensively debated over the past decade. Using Capture Hi-C, we recently found that DSBs do in fact cluster in human nuclei but only when induced in transcriptionally active genes...
November 3, 2017: Nucleus
Kourosh Gharun, Julia Senges, Maximilian Seidl, Anne Lösslein, Julia Kolter, Florens Lohrmann, Manfred Fliegauf, Magdeldin Elgizouli, Martina Vavra, Kristina Schachtrup, Anna L Illert, Martine Gilleron, Carsten J Kirschning, Antigoni Triantafyllopoulou, Philipp Henneke
Immunity to mycobacteria involves the formation of granulomas, characterized by a unique macrophage (MΦ) species, so-called multinucleated giant cells (MGC). It remains unresolved whether MGC are beneficial to the host, that is, by prevention of bacterial spread, or whether they promote mycobacterial persistence. Here, we show that the prototypical antimycobacterial molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by MGC in excessive amounts, is a double-edged sword. Next to its antibacterial capacity, NO propagates the transformation of MΦ into MGC, which are relatively permissive for mycobacterial persistence...
November 2, 2017: EMBO Reports
Xin Liao, Chao Huang, Dongyun Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Jingxia Li, Honglei Jin, Chuanshu Huang
It's well documented that over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes detrimental damages to cells. While a low level of ROS, such as H2O2, functions as signaling transducer and motivates cell proliferation in both cancer and non-transformed stem cells. As a double-edged sword, the direct evidence for demonstrating the function of H2O2 in the cause of tumor is barely characterized in intact cells. In our current study, we found that targeted expression of mitochondrial catalase (mCAT), but not catalase, could significantly reduce the accumulation of H2O2 in mouse epithelial JB6 Cl41 cells, consequently led to the cell malignant transformation and anchorage-independent cell growth...
October 31, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Fukun Guo, Yi Zheng
A recent study shows that the protumorigenic guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 functions as a tumor suppressor in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) through its ability to complex with the Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase and the intracellular domain of Notch1 (ICN1) and to promote ICN1 degradation. Vav1can act as a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis.
October 30, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
Zhibo Yang, Biyun Zeng, Yi Pan, Pan Huang, Chang Wang
Melanin is the pigment responsible for the color of human skin and hair. Melanin serves as a double-edge sword which can exert both protective and spot-causing effects on skin. Although melanin has an important role in protecting the skin against UV damage, an excessive or uneven melanin production can lead to the formation of freckles and age spots. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been reported to inhibit melanin synthesis; however, its role in melanin degradation remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the detailed function of ISL in melanin degradation in human epidermal keratinocytes...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ana Raquel Santiago, Liliana Bernardino, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, Joana Gonçalves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Xiao-Yan He, Fang-Yuan Gong, Yong Chen, Zhe Zhou, Zheng Gong, Xiao-Ming Gao
Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional Ca(2+)-binding glycoprotein mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a tumor-associated antigen that has been shown to play protective roles in angiogenesis suppression and anti-tumor immunity. We previously reported that soluble CRT (sCRT) was functionally similar to heat shock proteins or damage-associated molecular patterns in terms of ability to activate myeloid cells and elicit strong inflammatory cytokine production. In the present study, B16 melanoma cell lines expressing recombinant CRT fragment 39-272 (sCRT/39-272) in secreted form (B16-CRT), or recombinant enhanced green fluorescence protein (rEGFP) (B16-EGFP), were constructed for investigation on the roles of sCRT in tumor development...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Vassil Dimitrov, Manuella Bouttier, Giselle Boukhaled, Reyhaneh Salehi-Tabar, Radu Avramescu, Babak Memari, Benedeta Hasaj, Gergely L Lukacs, Connie Michele Krawczyk, John Howard White
PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1) and PD-L2 are cell surface glycoproteins that interact with programmed death 1 (PD-1) on T cells to attenuate inflammation. PD-1 signaling has attracted intense interest for its role in a pathophysiological context: suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Similarly, vitamin D signaling has been increasingly investigated for its non-classical actions in stimulation of innate immunity and suppression of inflammatory responses. Here, we show that hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is a direct transcriptional inducer of the human genes encoding PD-L1 and PD-L2 through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Matthew S Lebowitz, Paul S Appelbaum
BACKGROUND: Addictions are highly stigmatized and increasingly construed as biomedical diseases caused by genes, partly to reduce stigma by deflecting blame. However, genetic explanations may have negative effects, which have been understudied in the context of addiction. How the effects of genetic explanations might differ for substance addictions versus behavioral addictions is also unknown. AIMS: This study examined the impact of genetic explanations for addiction on measures of treatment expectancies, blame, and perceived agency and self-control, as well as whether these varied depending on whether the addiction was to a substance or a behavior...
December 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Jiangan Xie, Yongqun He
Vaccine is the one of the greatest inventions of modern medicine that has contributed most to the relief of human misery and the exciting increase in life expectancy. In 1796, an English country physician, Edward Jenner, discovered that inoculating mankind with cowpox can protect them from smallpox (Riedel S, Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 18(1):21, 2005). Based on the vaccination worldwide, we finally succeeded in the eradication of smallpox in 1977 (Henderson, Vaccine 29:D7-D9, 2011)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sarah P Short, Christopher S Williams
Selenium is a micronutrient essential to human health and has long been associated with cancer prevention. Functionally, these effects are thought to be mediated by a class of selenium-containing proteins known as selenoproteins. Indeed, many selenoproteins have antioxidant activity which can attenuate cancer development by minimizing oxidative insult and resultant DNA damage. However, oxidative stress is increasingly being recognized for its "double-edged sword" effect in tumorigenesis, whereby it can mediate both negative and positive effects on tumor growth depending on the cellular context...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
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