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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327329/microrna-mediated-r-gene-regulation-molecular-scabbards-for-double-edged-swords
#1
REVIEW
Yingtian Deng, Minglei Liu, Xiaofei Li, Feng Li
Plant resistance (R) proteins are immune receptors that recognize pathogen effectors and trigger rapid defense responses, namely effector-triggered immunity. R protein-mediated pathogen resistance is usually race specific. During plant-pathogen coevolution, plant genomes accumulated large numbers of R genes. Even though plant R genes provide important natural resources for breeding disease-resistant crops, their presence in the plant genome comes at a cost. Misregulation of R genes leads to developmental defects, such as stunted growth and reduced fertility...
January 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327039/efficacy-and-toxic-effects-of-cancer-immunotherapy-combinations-a-double-edged-sword
#2
Chad Tang, Wen Jiang, Timothy A Yap
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325503/immunogenetics-of-prostate-cancer-a-still-unexplored-field-of-study
#3
Eva Dreussi, Fabrizio Ecca, Lucia Scarabel, Sara Gagno, Giuseppe Toffoli
The immune system is a double-edged sword with regard to the prostate cancer (PCa) battle. Immunogenetics, the study of the potential role of immune-related polymorphisms, is taking its first steps in the treatment of this malignancy. This review summarizes the most recent papers addressing the potential of immunogenetics in PCa, reporting immune-related polymorphisms associated with tumor aggressiveness, treatment toxicity and patients' prognosis. With some peculiarities, RNASEL, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β and MMP7 have arisen as the most significant biomarkers in PCa treatment and management, having a potential clinical role...
January 12, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323286/conditional-punishment-is-a-double-edged-sword-in-promoting-cooperation
#4
Feng Huang, Xiaojie Chen, Long Wang
Punishment is widely recognized as an effective approach for averting from exploitation by free-riders in human society. However, punishment is costly, and thus rational individuals are unwilling to take the punishing action, resulting in the second-order free-rider problem. Recent experimental study evidences that individuals prefer conditional punishment, and their punishing decision depends on other members' punishing decisions. In this work, we thus propose a theoretical model for conditional punishment and investigate how such conditional punishment influences cooperation in the public goods game...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321045/stem-cells-and-anti-aging-genes-double-edged-sword-do-the-same-job-of-life-extension
#5
REVIEW
Mujib Ullah, Zhongjie Sun
Aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With current knowledge of stem cells, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay aging and improve both health and lifespan. Stem cells, together with anti-aging genes such as Klotho, play a crucial role in delaying the aging process. Stem cells in combination with anti-aging genes make a complex and protective shield, which stand against the eroding effects of aging. Increased wear and tear of the stem cells, as well as Klotho deficiency, is expected to heavily increase cellular damage and accelerate the process of aging...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318591/immune-checkpoint-molecules-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-managing-the-double-edged-sword
#6
REVIEW
Willemijn Hobo, Tim J A Hutten, Nicolaas P M Schaap, Harry Dolstra
New immunotherapeutic interventions have revolutionized cancer treatment. The immune responsiveness of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was first demonstrated by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In addition, milder immunotherapeutic approaches are exploited. However, the long-term efficacy of these therapies is hampered by various immune resistance and editing mechanisms. In this regard, co-inhibitory signalling pathways have been shown to play a crucial role. Via up-regulation of inhibitory checkpoints, tumour-reactive T cell and Natural Killer cell responses can be strongly impeded...
January 9, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311700/phage-host-population-dynamics-promotes-prophage-acquisition-in-bacteria-with-innate-immunity
#7
Maroš Pleška, Moritz Lang, Dominik Refardt, Bruce R Levin, Călin C Guet
Temperate bacteriophages integrate in bacterial genomes as prophages and represent an important source of genetic variation for bacterial evolution, frequently transmitting fitness-augmenting genes such as toxins responsible for virulence of major pathogens. However, only a fraction of bacteriophage infections are lysogenic and lead to prophage acquisition, whereas the majority are lytic and kill the infected bacteria. Unless able to discriminate lytic from lysogenic infections, mechanisms of immunity to bacteriophages are expected to act as a double-edged sword and increase the odds of survival at the cost of depriving bacteria of potentially beneficial prophages...
January 8, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305855/microglia-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-double-edged-sword
#8
REVIEW
Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Antonia Cianciulli, Giorgio Mori, Adriana Di Benedetto, Chiara Porro
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), based on their origin or size, can be classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs)/microparticles (MPs), and exosomes. EVs are one of the new emerging modes of communication between cells that are providing new insights into the pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs released from activated or apoptotic cells contain specific proteins (signaling molecules, receptors, integrins, cytokines), bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, small non coding RNAs, DNA) from their progenitor cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294945/assuming-personal-responsibility-for-sexual-victimization-harmful-but-potentially-adaptive-for-college-women
#9
Sapana D Donde, Sally K A Ragsdale
Survivors of sexual trauma often experience pervasive adverse cognitive attributions, such as assuming responsibility for victimization. In fact, these negative outcomes were recently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and have garnered substantial research attention devoted toward investigating the effectiveness of empirically supported trauma treatments in altering and reducing maladaptive belief systems...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283055/the-role-of-angiogenesis-in-coronary-artery-disease-a-double-edged-sword-intraplaque-angiogenesis-in-physiopathology-and-therapeutic-angiogenesis-for-treatment
#10
Wen Wu, Xiaobo Li, Guangfeng Zuo, Jiangqin Pu, Xinlei Wu, Shaoliang Chen
Angiogenesis is described as a sprouting and growth process of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. The relationship between angiogenesis and coronary artery disease (CAD) is double-sided. On one hand, angiogenesis within plaques is responsible for facilitating the growth and vulnerability of plaques by causing intraplaque hemorrhage and inflammatory cell influx, and overabundance of erythrocytes and inflammatory cells within a plaque probably causes plaque rupture, further leading to acute coronary syndrome...
December 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281624/the-smc5-6-complex-regulates-the-yeast-mph1-helicase-at-rna-dna-hybrid-mediated-dna-damage
#11
Juan Lafuente-Barquero, Sarah Luke-Glaser, Marco Graf, Sonia Silva, Belén Gómez-González, Arianna Lockhart, Michael Lisby, Andrés Aguilera, Brian Luke
RNA-DNA hybrids are naturally occurring obstacles that must be overcome by the DNA replication machinery. In the absence of RNase H enzymes, RNA-DNA hybrids accumulate, resulting in replication stress, DNA damage and compromised genomic integrity. We demonstrate that Mph1, the yeast homolog of Fanconi anemia protein M (FANCM), is required for cell viability in the absence of RNase H enzymes. The integrity of the Mph1 helicase domain is crucial to prevent the accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids and RNA-DNA hybrid-dependent DNA damage, as determined by Rad52 foci...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279456/exploring-attractiveness-of-the-basic-sciences-for-female-physicians
#12
Yuka Yamazaki, Shinji Fukushima, Yuki Kozono, Takanori Uka, Eiji Marui
In Japan, traditional gender roles of women, especially the role of motherhood, may cause early career resignations in female physicians and a shortage of female researchers. Besides this gender issue, a general physician shortage is affecting basic science fields. Our previous study suggested that female physicians could be good candidates for the basic sciences because such work offers good work-life balance. However, the attractiveness for female physicians of working in the basic sciences, including work-life balance, is not known...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277404/multiparametric-measurement-of-cerebral-physiology-using-calibrated-fmri
#13
Molly G Bright, Paula L Croal, Nicholas P Blockley, Daniel P Bulte
The ultimate goal of calibrated fMRI is the quantitative imaging of oxygen metabolism (CMRO2), and this has been the focus of numerous methods and approaches. However, one underappreciated aspect of this quest is that in the drive to measure CMRO2, many other physiological parameters of interest are often acquired along the way. This can significantly increase the value of the dataset, providing greater information that is clinically relevant, or detail that can disambiguate the cause of signal variations. This can also be somewhat of a double-edged sword: calibrated fMRI experiments combine multiple parameters into a physiological model that requires multiple steps, thereby providing more opportunity for error propagation and increasing the noise and error of the final derived values...
December 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277160/elderly-patients-and-gps-perspectives-of-patient-gp-communication-concerning-polypharmacy-a-qualitative-interview-study
#14
Andrea C Schöpf, Maike von Hirschhausen, Erik Farin, Andy Maun
Aim The aim of this study was to explore elderly patients' and general practitioners' (GPs') perceptions of communication about polypharmacy, medication safety and approaches for empowerment. BACKGROUND: To manage polypharmacy, GPs need to know patients' real medication consumption. However, previous research has shown that patients do not always volunteer all information about their medication regimen, for example, such as the intake of over-the-counter medication or the alteration or discontinuation of prescribed medication...
December 26, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276189/managing-the-obscene-m-d-medical-publishing-the-medical-profession-and-the-changing-definition-of-obscenity-in-mid-victorian-england
#15
Sarah Bull
This article examines links between mid-Victorian opposition to commerce in popular works on sexual health and the introduction of a legal test of obscenity, in the 1868 trial R. v. Hicklin, that opened the public distribution of any work that contained sexual information to prosecution. The article demonstrates how both campaigning medical journals' crusades against "obscene quackery" and judicial and anti-vice groups who aimed to protect public morals responded to unruly trade in medical print by linking popular medical works with public corruption...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275961/mtorc1-signaling-a-double-edged-sword-in-diabetic-%C3%AE-cells
#16
REVIEW
Amin Ardestani, Blaz Lupse, Yoshiaki Kido, Gil Leibowitz, Kathrin Maedler
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of metabolic and nutrient cues that integrates environmental inputs into downstream signaling pathways to control cellular metabolism, growth, and survival. While numerous in vitro and in vivo studies reported the positive functions of mTORC1 in the regulation of β cell survival and proliferation under physiological conditions, more recent work demonstrates the opposite in the long term; this is exemplified by the constitutive inappropriate hyper-activation of mTORC1 in diabetic islets or β cells under conditions of increased β cell stress and metabolic demands...
December 20, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261116/is-job-control-a-double-edged-sword-a-cross-lagged-panel-study-on-the-interplay-of-quantitative-workload-emotional-dissonance-and-job-control-on-emotional-exhaustion
#17
Anne-Kathrin Konze, Wladislaw Rivkin, Klaus-Helmut Schmidt
Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250319/patients-with-uninjured-lungs-may-also-benefit-from-lung-protective-ventilator-settings
#18
REVIEW
Roger Alencar, Vittorio D'Angelo, Rachel Carmona, Marcus J Schultz, Ary Serpa Neto
Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving strategy in critically ill patients and an indispensable tool in patients under general anesthesia for surgery, it also acts as a double-edged sword. Indeed, ventilation is increasingly recognized as a potentially dangerous intrusion that has the potential to harm lungs, in a condition known as 'ventilator-induced lung injury' (VILI). So-called 'lung-protective' ventilator settings aiming at prevention of VILI have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and, over the last few years, there has been increasing interest in possible benefit of lung-protective ventilation in patients under ventilation for reasons other than ARDS...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245285/perioperative-transfusion-in-pancreatoduodenectomy-the-double-edged-sword-of-pancreatic-surgeons
#19
Hyeong Min Park, Sang-Jae Park, Jae Ryong Shim, Eung Chang Lee, Seung Duk Lee, Sung-Sik Han, Seoung Hoon Kim
We designed the study to clarify the prognostic significance of perioperative (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for periampullary cancers.This study retrospectively analyzed 244 periampullary cancer patients (pancreatic cancer, 124 patients; bile duct cancer, 63 patients; and ampullary cancer, 57 patients) treated by PD from June 2001 to June 2010 at the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCC2017-0106).A total of 112 (46%) of 244 patients had received transfusion (preoperative, 5%; intraoperative, 17%; and postoperative, 37%)...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235254/mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-double-edged-sword-in-radiation-induced-lung-injury
#20
Yi Yao, Zhongliang Zheng, Qibin Song
Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for multiple thoracic malignancies. However, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), which is the term generally used to describe damage to the lungs caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, remains a critical issue affecting both tumor control and patient quality of life. Despite tremendous effort, there is no current consensus regarding the optimal treatment approach for RILI. Because of a number of functional advantages, including self-proliferation, multi-differentiation, injury foci chemotaxis, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been a focus of research for many years...
December 13, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
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