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Double edged sword

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786640/vitamin-d-in-vascular-calcification-a-double-edged-sword
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey Wang, Jimmy J Zhou, Graham R Robertson, Vincent W Lee
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785244/more-than-just-an-immunosuppressant-the-emerging-role-of-fty720-as-a-novel-inducer-of-ros-and-apoptosis
#2
REVIEW
Teruaki Takasaki, Kanako Hagihara, Ryosuke Satoh, Reiko Sugiura
Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720) is a first-in-class of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator approved to treat multiple sclerosis by its phosphorylated form (FTY720-P). Recently, a novel role of FTY720 as a potential anticancer drug has emerged. One of the anticancer mechanisms of FTY720 involves the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent apoptosis, which is largely independent of its property as an S1P modulator. ROS have been considered as a double-edged sword in tumor initiation/progression...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774649/end-of-life-trajectory-of-coping-and-self-care-of-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-meta-synthesis-using-meta-ethnography
#3
Yasuko Igai
AIM: This study aimed to extract patient narratives regarding the end-of-life trajectory of their self-care and coping experiences as patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and to use meta-ethnography to discover common metaphors of their experience in order to inform the development of nursing interventions. METHODS: A comprehensive search of qualitative research using electronic databases, in English and Japanese, regarding patients with IPF, identified four articles...
May 17, 2018: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773057/nucleophagy-plays-a-major-role-in-human-diseases
#4
Nian Fu, XueFeng Yang, Linxi Chen
Nucleophagy is a selective autophagy, which selectively remove damaged or non-essential nuclear material from a cell by the autophagy pathway. Additionally, nucleophagy is crucial for promoting cell longevity and ensure body proper function. Increasing evidences have shown that nucleophagy may play a major role in such human diseases as degenerative disorders, tumorigenesis, malnutrition and metabolic disorders, parakeratosis and psoriasis. Studies indicated that nucleophagy can improve degenerative disorders by delaying premature cell senescence, prevent malnutrition and metabolic disorder via maintaining nuclear structure and releasing nutrients for energy production, and alleviate parakeratosis and psoriasis...
May 17, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771524/comprehensive-investigation-on-the-antioxidant-and-pro-oxidant-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-context-of-oxidative-stress
#5
Romina Castañeda-Arriaga, Adriana Pérez-Gonzalez, Miguel Reina, Juan Raul Alvarez-Idaboy, Annia Galano
Oxidative stress (OS) is a health-threatening process that is involved, at least partially, in the development of several diseases. Although antioxidants can be used as a chemical defense against OS, they might also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, depending on environmental conditions. In this work, such a dual behavior was investigated for phenolic compounds (PhCs), within the framework of the density functional theory, and based on kinetic data. Multiple reaction mechanisms were considered in both cases. The presence of redox metals, the pH, and the possibility that PhCs might be transformed into benzoquinones were identified as key aspects in the antioxidant versus pro-oxidant effects of these compounds...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760455/substrate-sequence-selectivity-of-apobec3a-implicates-intra-dna-interactions
#6
Tania V Silvas, Shurong Hou, Wazo Myint, Ellen Nalivaika, Mohan Somasundaran, Brian A Kelch, Hiroshi Matsuo, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A Schiffer
The APOBEC3 (A3) family of human cytidine deaminases is renowned for providing a first line of defense against many exogenous and endogenous retroviruses. However, the ability of these proteins to deaminate deoxycytidines in ssDNA makes A3s a double-edged sword. When overexpressed, A3s can mutate endogenous genomic DNA resulting in a variety of cancers. Although the sequence context for mutating DNA varies among A3s, the mechanism for substrate sequence specificity is not well understood. To characterize substrate specificity of A3A, a systematic approach was used to quantify the affinity for substrate as a function of sequence context, length, secondary structure, and solution pH...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755464/oncolytic-viral-therapy-and-the-immune-system-a-double-edged-sword-against-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Giulia Marelli, Anwen Howells, Nicholas R Lemoine, Yaohe Wang
Oncolytic viral therapy is a new promising strategy against cancer. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can replicate in cancer cells but not in normal cells, leading to lysis of the tumor mass. Beside this primary effect, OVs can also stimulate the immune system. Tumors are an immuno-suppressive environment in which the immune system is silenced in order to avoid the immune response against cancer cells. The delivery of OVs into the tumor wakes up the immune system so that it can facilitate a strong and durable response against the tumor itself...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751262/the-effect-of-580-nm-based-led-mixed-light-on-growth-adipose-deposition-skeletal-development-and-body-temperature-of-chickens
#8
Yefeng Yang, Chenghuang Zhen, Bo Yang, Yonghua Yu, Jinming Pan
Though previous study indicated that the 580 nm-yellow-LED-light showed an stimulating effect on growth of chickens, the low luminous efficiency of the yellow LED light cannot reflect the advantage of energy saving. In present study, the cool white LED chips and yellow LED chips have been combined to fabricate the white × yellow mixed LED light, with an enhanced luminous efficiency. A total 300 newly hatched chickens were reared under various mixed LED light. The results indicated that the white × yellow mixed LED light had "double-edged sword" effects on bird's body weight, bone development, adipose deposition, and body temperature, depending on variations in ratios of yellow component...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747191/social-media-a-double-edged-sword
#9
Helena Condotta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745707/proactive-control-as-a-double-edged-sword-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Jeremy Hogeveen, Marie K Krug, Matthew V Elliott, Cameron S Carter, Marjorie Solomon
Proactive control refers to the active representation of contextual information to bias cognitive processing and facilitate goal-directed behavior. Despite research suggesting that proactive control may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the associations between proactive control and clinical symptoms of ASD remain underspecified. Here, we combined a children's version of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) with gold standard clinical assessments in children with ASD (N = 34) or typical development (TYP; N = 45)...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743611/nadph-oxidases-and-ros-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
REVIEW
Gabriella Aviello, Ulla G Knaus
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), initially categorized as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, have often been called a double-edged sword. ROS are considered indispensable when host defense and redox signaling is concerned and a threat in inflammatory or degenerative diseases. This generalization does not take in account the diversity of oxygen metabolites being generated, their physicochemical characteristics and their production by distinct enzymes in space and time. NOX/DUOX NADPH oxidases are the only enzymes solely dedicated to ROS production and the prime ROS producer for intracellular and intercellular communication due to their widespread expression and intricate regulation...
May 9, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704191/morning-stiffness-in-elderly-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-what-is-known-about-the-effect-of-biological-and-targeted-agents
#12
Chi Chiu Mok
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects all age groups, but the prevalence appears to increase with age. Elderly-onset RA (after the age of 60 years) has distinct clinical patterns. Treatment of RA in older individuals is confounded by the presence of medical comorbidities, concurrent medications, drug interactions, and the altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics related to aging and organ dysfunction. Patients with RA commonly experience morning stiffness, which is associated with reduced quality of life and work disability...
April 27, 2018: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702226/hidden-motions-and-motion-induced-invisibility-dynamics-based-spectral-editing-in-solid-state-nmr
#13
REVIEW
Irina Matlahov, Patrick C A van der Wel
Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy enables the structural characterization of a diverse array of biological assemblies that include amyloid fibrils, non-amyloid aggregates, membrane-associated proteins and viral capsids. Such biological samples feature functionally relevant molecular dynamics, which often affect different parts of the sample in different ways. Solid-state NMR experiments' sensitivity to dynamics represents a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it offers a chance to measure dynamics in great detail...
April 24, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691969/obesity-and-the-food-system-transformation-in-latin-america
#14
REVIEW
B M Popkin, T Reardon
The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region faces a major diet-related health problem accompanied by enormous economic and social costs. The shifts in diet are profound: major shifts in intake of less-healthful low-nutrient-density foods and sugary beverages, changes in away-from-home eating and snacking and rapid shifts towards very high levels of overweight and obesity among all ages along with, in some countries, high burdens of stunting. Diet changes have occurred in parallel to, and in two-way causality with, changes in the broad food system - the set of supply chains from farms, through midstream segments of processing, wholesale and logistics, to downstream segments of retail and food service (restaurants and fast food chains)...
April 24, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686235/tritrophic-phenological-match-mismatch-in-space-and-time
#15
Malcolm D Burgess, Ken W Smith, Karl L Evans, Dave Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Claire J Branston, Kevin Briggs, John R Clark, Chris R du Feu, Kate Lewthwaite, Ruedi G Nager, Ben C Sheldon, Jeremy A Smith, Robin C Whytock, Stephen G Willis, Albert B Phillimore
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change may generate phenological mismatches that disrupt previously synchronous trophic interactions. Most work on mismatch has focused on temporal trends, whereas spatial variation in the degree of trophic synchrony has largely been neglected, even though the degree to which mismatch varies in space has implications for meso-scale population dynamics and evolution. Here we quantify latitudinal trends in phenological mismatch, using phenological data on an oak-caterpillar-bird system from across the UK...
April 23, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670296/paracrine-roles-of-cellular-senescence-in-promoting-tumourigenesis
#16
REVIEW
Jose Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, John Richard Apps, Helen Christina Fraser, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
Senescent cells activate genetic programmes that irreversibly inhibit cellular proliferation, but also endow these cells with distinctive metabolic and signalling phenotypes. Although senescence has historically been considered a protective mechanism against tumourigenesis, the activities of senescent cells are increasingly being associated with age-related diseases, including cancer. An important feature of senescent cells is the secretion of a vast array of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
April 19, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667357/revealing-the-double-edged-sword-role-of-graphene-on-boosted-charge-transfer-versus-active-site-control-in-tio-2-nanotube-arrays-rgo-mos-2-heterostructure
#17
Quan Quan, Shunji Xie, Bo Weng, Ye Wang, Yi-Jun Xu
Charge separation/transfer is generally believed to be the most key factor affecting the efficiency of photocatalysis, which however will be counteracted if not taking the active site engineering into account for a specific photoredox reaction. Here, a 3D heterostructure composite is designed consisting of MoS2 nanoplatelets decorated on reduced graphene oxide-wrapped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs@RGO/MoS2 ). Such a cascade configuration renders a directional migration of charge carriers and controlled immobilization of active sites, thereby showing much higher photoactivity for water splitting to H2 than binary TNTAs@RGO and TNTAs/MoS2 ...
April 18, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663356/effects-of-intraspecific-phenotypic-variation-on-species-coexistence
#18
Stephen Hausch, Steven M Vamosi, Jeremy W Fox
Intraspecific variation can promote or inhibit species coexistence, both by increasing species' competitive abilities, and by altering the relative strengths of intraspecific and interspecific competition. Effects of intraspecific variation on coexistence can occur via complementarity of different variants, and via a selection effect: initially-variable populations are more likely to contain highly competitive variants that might determine the ability of the population as a whole to both invade and resist invasion...
April 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657110/symbiotic-relationship-between-hydrothermal-carbonization-technology-and-anaerobic-digestion-for-food-waste-in-china
#19
REVIEW
Ying Zhou, Nils Engler, Michael Nelles
Food waste (FW) is traditionally disposed through landfills and incineration in China. Nowadays, there are some promising methods, such as anaerobic digestion (AD) or feeding and composting, which are being applied in pilot cities. However, the inherent characteristics of Chinese FW may be regarded as a double-edged sword in the practical applications of these disposal methods. To overcome these challenges, two modes of the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process were reviewed as innovative strategies in this article...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650252/the-interferon-stimulated-gene-trim22-a-double-edged-sword-in-hiv-1-infection
#20
REVIEW
Elisa Vicenzi, Guido Poli
Infection of target cells by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is hampered by constitutively expressed host cell proteins preventing or curtailing virus replication and therefore defined as "restriction factors". Among them, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family have emerged as important players endowed with both antiviral effects and modulatory capacity of the innate immune response. TRIM5α and TRIM19 (i.e. promyelocytic leukemia, PML) are among the best-characterized family members; however, in this review we will focus on the potential role of another family member, i...
February 10, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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