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Generic drug pricing

Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Richard Croker, Alex J Walker, Seb Bacon, Helen J Curtis, Lisa French, Ben Goldacre
BACKGROUND: Minimising prescription costs while maintaining quality is a core element of delivering high-value healthcare. There are various strategies to achieve savings, but almost no research to date on determining the most effective approach. We describe a new method of identifying potential savings due to large national variations in drug cost, including variation in generic drug cost, and compare these with potential savings from an established method (generic prescribing). METHODS: We used English National Health Service (NHS) Digital prescribing data, from October 2015 to September 2016...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Joseph Rwagitinywa, Agnès Sommet, Aurore Palmaro, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
INTRODUCTION: Simulation studies showed that generic antiretroviral (ARV) drug utilization could lead to significant cost reduction of HIV treatment in developed world. This study aimed to quantify ARV utilization and costs in European countries between 2006 and 2015. We also assessed the impact of generic ARV drug utilization on cost reduction in real-life. METHODS: ARV drug utilization in 14 European countries (France, Italy, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) were analysed using defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/year...
January 11, 2018: Health Policy
Luis Enrique Tierrablanca, Jessica Ochalek, Deborah Ford, Ab Babiker, Diana Gibb, Karina Butler, Anna Turkova, Susan Griffin, Paul Revill
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the cost effectiveness of short-cycle therapy (SCT), where patients take antiretroviral (ARV) drugs 5 consecutive days a week and have 2 days off, as an alternative to continuous ARV therapy for young people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and taking efavirenz-based first-line ARV drugs. METHODS: We conduct a hierarchical cost-effectiveness analysis based on data on clinical outcomes and resource use from the BREATHER trial...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
J Braun, H M Lorenz, U Müller-Ladner, M Schneider, H Schulze-Koops, Ch Specker, A Strangfeld, U Wagner, T Dörner
The treatment of rheumatic diseases with bioloics has significantly improved the prognosis of patients. Currently, there are 13 preparations available in Germany for the treatment of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. These original preparations generally have-depending on the individual country-15 years of patent protection. As soon as the patent has expired, approved biosimilars can be brought into use. For the approval of a biosimilar, authorities such as the European Medical Agency or the American Food and Drug Administration require proof of the best possible comparability with respect to efficacy and safety in comparison to the original or reference product...
January 30, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Qian Jiang, Lu Yu, Robert Peter Gale
PURPOSE: To explore patients' and hematologists' concerns regarding tyrosine kinaseinhibitor (TKI)-therapy and identify variables associated these concerns. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire including 16 common issues related to TKI-therapy was distributed to adults with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving TKIs and hematologists treating CML patients and answered anonymously. RESULTS: Data from 1518 patient respondents receiving TKI-therapy ≥ 3 months were analyzed...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Tomoya Tachi, Kosuke Saito, Hiroki Esaki, Yuta Kanematsu, Aki Yoshida, Ikuto Sugita, Yoshihiro Noguchi, Teppei Makino, Michi Umeda, Masahiro Yasuda, Takashi Mizui, Chitoshi Goto, Hitomi Teramachi
Factors influencing generic drug use must be considered when new drug policies are established and initiatives are implemented to promote generic drug use. This study was conducted to elucidate medical and economic factors that influence generic drug use in the Japanese public health system by evaluating the degree of generic drug use via a multivariate analysis. We conducted a retrospective study of medications administered to inpatients at Gifu Municipal Hospital (Japan) from November 1 to 14, 2014. Details of inpatients (age, sex, and type of medical insurance) and the drugs administered (prescribing institution, dispensing pharmacy, price, and class) were assessed...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Michael A Carrier
Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition...
2017: Cornell Law Review
Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Pierre Mutuon, Isabelle Charreau, Cecile Tremblay, Daniela Rojas, Gilles Pialoux, Christian Chidiac, Catherine Capitant, Bruno Spire, Laurent Cotte, Julie Chas, Laurence Meyer, Jean Michel Molina
OBJECTIVES: We undertook the economic evaluation of the double-blind randomized ANRS-IPERGAY trial, which showed the efficacy of on-demand preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) in preventing HIV infection among high-risk MSM. DESIGN AND METHODS: The economic evaluation was prospective. Counseling, drugs (TDF-FTC at &OV0556;500.88 for 30 tablets), tests, visits, and hospital admissions were valued based on in-trial use...
January 2, 2018: AIDS
Bob Roehr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
J R Sneyd
Development targets in anaesthetic pharmacology have evolved from minimizing harm caused by unwanted effects through an era in which rapid onset and offset of drug effect were prioritised. Today's anaesthetists have access to a library of effective drugs whose characteristics offer controllable hypnosis, analgesia and paralysis with manageable off-target effects. The availability of these agents at generic prices inhibits commercial interest and this is reflected in the limited number of current anaesthetic drug development projects...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Elliott M Antman, Mark A Creager, Steven R Houser, John J Warner, Madeleine Konig
Net US spending on pharmaceuticals reached $309.5 billion in 2015, an 8.5% increase from the year before, and is expected to reach between $370 and $400 billion by 2020. These current and projected levels have raised serious concerns by policy makers, providers, payers, and patient groups that they are unsustainable and threaten the affordability of and accessibility to much-needed therapies for patients. Two trends related to drugs/biologics and generic drugs/biosimilars underlie this overall increase in spending...
November 9, 2017: Circulation
Eric L Crowell, Vivek A Koduri, R Scott Groat, David A Lee
PURPOSE: To provide information on the actual fill level and cost of currently available antibiotic drops used perioperatively. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory investigation. SETTING: Robert Cizik Eye Clinic, Houston, Texas USA. METHODS: The following 9 medications were tested: moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin (branded and generic), besifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, trimethoprim/polymyxin B, tobramycin, and gentamicin...
October 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Karina Jahnz-Różyk, Pawel Kawalec, Krzysztof Malinowski, Katarzyna Czok
We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
Diana Brixner, Nikos Maniadakis, Zoltán Kaló, Shanlian Hu, Jie Shen, Kalman Wijaya
Off-patent pharmaceuticals (OPPs) represent more than 60% of the pharmaceutical market in many emerging countries, where they are frequently evaluated primarily on cost rather than with health technology assessment. OPPs are assumed to be identical to the originators. Branded and unbranded generic versions can, however, vary from the originator in active pharmaceutical ingredients, dosage, consistency formulation, excipients, manufacturing processes, and distribution, for example. These variables can alter the efficacy and safety of the product, negatively impacting both the anticipated cost savings and the population's health...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
Isaac Aloysius, Anna Savage, Jey Zdravkov, Roxanna Korologou-Linden, Andrew Hill, Rachel Smith, Vicky Houghton-Price, Marta Boffito, Nneka Nwokolo
INTRODUCTION: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not available on the National Health Service (NHS) in England. People are buying generic versions of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) on the internet, which is legal under UK import laws. METHODS: HIV-negative individuals attending our clinic who reported purchasing generic PrEP online were provided with risk-reduction advice and were evaluated for HIV, hepatitis B and C, renal function and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)on their first visit...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
Andrew Hill, Giten Khwairakpam, James Wang, Sergey Golovin, Julia Dragunova, Rachel Smith, Vicky Houghton-Price, Roxanna Korologou-Linden, Sanjay Nath, Anna Savage, Greg Jefferys
BACKGROUND: High prices of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to restrictions on access to treatment in high- and middle-income countries. An increasing number of people in these countries are treating their HCV infection with generic drugs produced in India, China, Bangladesh or Egypt. This analysis assessed the efficacy of generic imported DAAs. METHODS: Patients sourced generic versions of sofosbuvir (SOF), ledipasvir (LDV) and daclatasvir (DCV) from suppliers in India, Bangladesh, China and Egypt via three buyers' clubs...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
George Dranitsaris, Ira Jacobs, Carol Kirchhoff, Robert Popovian, Lesley G Shane
Due to the continued increase in global spending on health care, payers have introduced a number of programs, policies, and agreements on pharmaceutical pricing in order to control costs. While incentives to increase generic drug use have achieved significant savings, other cost-containment measures are required. Tendering is a formal procedure to purchase medications using competitive bidding for a particular contract. Although useful for cost containment, tendering can lead to decreased competition in a given market...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Pierre Mutuon, Isabelle Charreau, Cecile Tremblay, Daniela Rojas, Gilles Pialoux, Christian Chidiac, Catherine Capitant, Bruno Spire, Laurent Cotte, Julie Chas, Laurence Meyer
OBJECTIVES: We undertook the economic evaluation of the double-blind randomized ANRS-IPERGAY trial which showed the efficacy of on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF-FTC) in preventing HIV infection among high risk men-who have-sex-with-men (MSM). DESIGN & METHODS: The economic evaluation was prospective. Counseling, drugs (TDF-FTC at &OV0556;500.88 for 30 tablets), tests, visits and hospital admissions were valued based on in-trial use...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
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