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Generic drug pricing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881273/the-effects-of-the-new-methodology-application-on-the-method-of-pricing-of-drugs-the-case-of-the-republic-of-macedonia
#1
Rubin Zareski, A Kapedanovska Nestorovska, A Grozdanova, B Dimitrova, L J Suturkova, Z Sterjev
BACKGROUND: The introduction of a new methodology for the pricing of drugs by the Agency of Medicines of the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2012 to 2015 resulted in a price reduction of 1386 drugs. OBJECTIVE: This pioneer study evaluated the effects of the price changes during this period of 4 years and the consequent effects on the sale quantities for the segmented Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical groups. METHODS: The drugs were grouped by the size of the reductions, by segmenting the drugs by generic names, and by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification, in which the quantities are grouped by generic names and the prices are calculated by average values for a period of 1 year...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881258/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-tocilizumab-in-comparison-with-infliximab-in-iranian-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-with-inadequate-response-to-tdmards-a-multistage-markov-model
#2
Amir Hashemi-Meshkini, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Elizabeth Glaser, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Seyed Alireza Hosseini
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the cost-effectiveness of two common treatment strategies in Iran, comparing infliximab plus methotrexate with tocilizumab plus methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with inadequate response to traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. METHODS: A multistage Markov decision model was applied to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of a tocilizumab-containing regimen versus an infliximab-containing regimen over a 5-year time period...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862588/comparative-analysis-of-the-cost-and-effectiveness-of-generic-and-brand-name-antibiotics-the-case-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection
#3
Yu-Shiuan Lin, I-Shiow Jan, Shou-Hsia Cheng
PURPOSE: Generic medications used for chronic diseases are beneficial in containing healthcare costs and improving drug accessibility. However, the effects of generic drugs in acute and severe illness remain controversial. This study aims to investigate treatment costs and outcomes of generic antibiotics prescribed for adults with a urinary tract infection in outpatient settings. METHODS: The data source was the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of Taiwan. We included outpatients aged 20 years and above with a urinary tract infection who required one oral antibiotic for which brand-name and generic products were simultaneously available...
November 8, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846638/variability-in-retail-pricing-of-generic-drugs-for-heart-failure
#4
Paul J Hauptman, Zackary D Goff, Andrija Vidic, John T Chibnall, Barry E Bleske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802935/competition-authority-will-investigate-price-hikes-of-generic-drugs
#5
Nigel Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781100/how-can-we-achieve-universal-access-to-low-cost-treatment-for-hiv
#6
EDITORIAL
Andrew M Hill, Anton L Pozniak
Mass production of low-cost antiretrovirals (ARVs) has already allowed over 17 million individuals to access treatment for HIV infection, mainly in low-income countries. It is possible to manufacture combination ARVs for $110 per person-year, using tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). New combinations of ARVs costing as little as $60 per person-year will be available in the near future. Pre-exposure prophylaxis using TDF in combination with either 3TC or emtricitabine (FTC) could also be provided for less than $90 per person-year...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777862/availability-and-cost-of-major-and-first-line-antiepileptic-drugs-a-comprehensive-evaluation-in-the-capital-of-madagascar
#7
Jeremy Jost, Adeline Raharivelo, Voa Ratsimbazafy, Mandy Nizard, Emilie Auditeau, Charles R Newton, Pierre-Marie Preux
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy is high in Madagascar (23.5/1000), as is the treatment gap (estimated at 92 %). The health system of the country is underfunded; some AEDs are used, and the national drug policy does not encourage price regulation or the administration of generic agents. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the availability and cost of solid oral AED formulations in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. Data were gathered from all officially registered pharmacies (according to the drug agency list, updated in 2015) by means of telephone interviews lasting no more than 10 min and conducted by a native Malagasy speaker...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776514/optimal-health-and-disease-management-using-spatial-uncertainty-a-geographic-characterization-of-emergent-artemisinin-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-distributions-in-southeast-asia
#8
Eric P M Grist, Jennifer A Flegg, Georgina Humphreys, Ignacio Suay Mas, Tim J C Anderson, Elizabeth A Ashley, Nicholas P J Day, Mehul Dhorda, Arjen M Dondorp, M Abul Faiz, Peter W Gething, Tran T Hien, Tin M Hlaing, Mallika Imwong, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Richard J Maude, Mayfong Mayxay, Marina McDew-White, Didier Menard, Shalini Nair, Francois Nosten, Paul N Newton, Ric N Price, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Shannon Takala-Harrison, Frank Smithuis, Nhien T Nguyen, Kyaw M Tun, Nicholas J White, Benoit Witkowski, Charles J Woodrow, Rick M Fairhurst, Carol Hopkins Sibley, Philippe J Guerin
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites are now present across much of mainland Southeast Asia, where ongoing surveys are measuring and mapping their spatial distribution. These efforts require substantial resources. Here we propose a generic 'smart surveillance' methodology to identify optimal candidate sites for future sampling and thus map the distribution of artemisinin resistance most efficiently. METHODS: The approach uses the 'uncertainty' map generated iteratively by a geostatistical model to determine optimal locations for subsequent sampling...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771612/oncology-drug-costs-the-imaginary-crisis
#9
R Turck
Complaints about cancer drug costs are manifold. While there is excess in some cases and a significant financial burden for patients it appears that the outrage is not always well informed. In recent years innovative cancer drugs have improved patient' survival while better maintaining quality of life. Cancer drug costs represent less than 1% of overall healthcare costs, yet it is estimated that 83% of increased cancer survival can be attributed to new treatments. The challenge is to provide those cancer drugs that best address a patient's needs in the most cost-effective manner...
October 22, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762144/impacts-of-regulated-competition-on-pricing-in-chinese-pharmaceutical-market-under-basic-medical-insurance
#10
Mingyue Zhao, Jing Wu
OBJECTIVE: Examine the effects of regulated competition on the drug pricing in China. METHODS: Based on product-level data, a regression method was employed for pricing by using data from Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) database. The market competition measures distinguished generic competition within the same molecule from therapeutic competition within the same therapeutic class. RESULTS: The increases in pricing are inversely related to the number of generic competitions...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757002/therapeutic-interchange-of-clevidipine-for-sodium-nitroprusside-in-cardiac-surgery
#11
Joseph E Cruz, Zachariah Thomas, David Lee, David M Moskowitz, Jeff Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Generic price inflation has resulted in rising acquisition costs for sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an agent historically described as the drug of choice for the treatment of perioperative hypertension in cardiac surgery. PURPOSE: To describe the implementation and cost avoidance achieved by utilizing clevidipine as an alternative to SNP in cardiac surgery patients at a 520-bed community teaching hospital that performs more than 300 cardiac surgeries each year...
October 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748447/targeted-suppression-of-autoreactive-cd8-t-cell-activation-using-blocking-anti-cd8-antibodies
#12
Mathew Clement, James A Pearson, Stephanie Gras, Hugo A van den Berg, Anya Lissina, Sian Llewellyn-Lacey, Mark D Willis, Tamsin Dockree, James E McLaren, Julia Ekeruche-Makinde, Emma Gostick, Neil P Robertson, Jamie Rossjohn, Scott R Burrows, David A Price, F Susan Wong, Mark Peakman, Ania Skowera, Linda Wooldridge
CD8(+) T-cells play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. However, drugs that target the entire CD8(+) T-cell population are not desirable because the associated lack of specificity can lead to unwanted consequences, most notably an enhanced susceptibility to infection. Here, we show that autoreactive CD8(+) T-cells are highly dependent on CD8 for ligand-induced activation via the T-cell receptor (TCR). In contrast, pathogen-specific CD8(+) T-cells are relatively CD8-independent...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735912/-budget-impact-analysis-of-antiplatelet-therapy-with-ticagrelor-and-clopidogrel-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#13
S K Zyryanov, D Yu Belousov, E V Afanas'eva, E V Dumchenko
AIM: Clinical and economic examinations were made to study whether it is appropriate to use antiplatelet therapy (APT) with ticagrelor in combination with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) versus a combination of clopidogrel and ASA in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) following coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A budget impact analysis was used. Data on the efficiency and safety of APT were taken from a relevant analysis in the subgroups of the randomized controlled trial PLATO...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717949/the-impact-of-the-legal-regime-of-intellectual-property-protection-in-the-pharmaceutical-market
#14
Vitaliy M Pashkov, Iryna A Golovanova, Andrii A Olefir
INTRODUCTION: the functioning of the healthcare industry in any country is impossible without providing enough medicines for patient care. This problem can best be resolved only when the majority of drugs, especially vital, will be made at national plants (industry). In this context, competition from generic drugs is the most optimal strategy to reduce drug's prices. AIM: the paper should examine how the legal regime of intellectual property affects the availability of medicines for people and identify ways of supporting breakthrough inventions and counter ≪unreal innovations≫...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682018/access-to-emergency-contraception-in-the-over-the-counter-era
#15
Kelly Cleland, Jamie Bass, Florida Doci, Angel M Foster
INTRODUCTION: After years of complex regulatory changes, levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) is now approved for unrestricted sale in the United States. Timely access to EC pills is critical because they are more likely to work the sooner they are taken. This study assesses whether LNG EC is sold in accordance with current Food and Drug Administration regulations. METHODS: We distributed an online questionnaire through an EC-focused listserv for reproductive health professionals, asking data collectors to visit local stores and document product names, price, over-the-counter shelf availability, and misinformation about age restrictions...
November 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639184/students-and-doctors-are-unaware-of-the-cost-of-drugs-they-frequently-prescribe
#16
Tim Schutte, Jelle Tichelaar, Prabath Nanayakkara, Milan Richir, Michiel van Agtmael
Given the increasing healthcare costs of an ageing population, there is growing interest in rational prescribing, which takes costs of medication into account. We aimed to gain insight into the attitude to and knowledge of medication costs of medical students and doctors in daily practice. This was a cross-sectional electronic survey among medical students (bachelor/master) and doctors (consultants/registrars). Attitude to costs was evaluated using a cost-consciousness scale. In open questions, the participants estimated the cost of commonly prescribed (generic/non-generic) drugs (including separate pharmacy dispensing costs)...
September 17, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605638/has-the-era-of-slow-growth-for-prescription-drug-spending-ended
#17
Murray Aitken, Ernst R Berndt, David Cutler, Michael Kleinrock, Luca Maini
In the period 2005-13 the US prescription drug market grew at an average annual pace of only 1.8 percent in real terms on an invoice price basis (that is, in constant dollars and before manufacturers' rebates and discounts). But the growth rate increased dramatically in 2014, when the market expanded by 11.5 percent-which raised questions about future trends. We determined the impact of manufacturers' rebates and discounts on prices and identified the underlying factors likely to influence prescription spending over the next decade...
September 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591130/do-national-drug-policies-influence-antiretroviral-drug-prices-evidence-from-the-southern-african-development-community
#18
Yao Liu, Omar Galárraga
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries' (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. METHODS: Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO)...
September 1, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574988/medicinal-product-regulation-portugal-s-framework
#19
Maria Teresa Herdeiro, Paulo D Bastos, António Teixeira-Rodrigues, Fátima Roque
PURPOSE: The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most tightly regulated sectors, and it is essential to know each country׳s legal framework to understand the regulation, approval, and marketing of medicinal products for human use. This article describes the main statutes and procedures governing medicinal products for human use in Portugal and the role of the country׳s National Medicines and Health Products Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P.; INFARMED)...
September 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552619/the-high-cost-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-united-states-origins-and-prospects-for-reform
#20
REVIEW
Aaron S Kesselheim, Jerry Avorn, Ameet Sarpatwari
IMPORTANCE: The increasing cost of prescription drugs in the United States has become a source of concern for patients, prescribers, payers, and policy makers. OBJECTIVES: To review the origins and effects of high drug prices in the US market and to consider policy options that could contain the cost of prescription drugs. EVIDENCE: We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature from January 2005 to July 2016 for articles addressing the sources of drug prices in the United States, the justifications and consequences of high prices, and possible solutions...
August 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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