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Hiv infection

Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ines Dourado, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Laio Magno, Maycon Lopes, Caio Cerqueira, Adriana Prates, Sandra Brignol, Sarah MacCarthy
Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Joshua D Billings, Dvora L Joseph Davey, Kelika A Konda, Claire C Bristow, Jeremy Chow, Jeffrey D Klausner, Carlos F Cáceres
The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Lima, Peru.We analyzed characteristics of 378 MSM and transgender women recruited from 2 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Lima, Peru. Descriptive analyses compared: (A) HIV-uninfected, (B) previously undiagnosed HIV-infected, and (C) previously diagnosed HIV-infected participants. Multivariable logistic regression models identified: (1) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among participants thought to be HIV-uninfected (B vs A); and (2) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among HIV-infected participants (B vs C)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rafael Sauter, Ruizhu Huang, Bruno Ledergerber, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Matthias Cavassini, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Hoffmann, Mathieu Rougemont, Huldrych F Günthard, Leonhard Held
Plasma HIV viral load is related to declining CD4 lymphocytes. The extent to which CD8 cells, in addition to RNA viral load, predict the depletion of CD4 cells is not well characterized so far. We examine if CD8 cell count is a prognostic factor for CD4 cell counts during an HIV infection.A longitudinal analysis is conducted using data from the Swiss HIV cohort study collected between January 2000 and October 2014. Linear mixed regression models were applied to observations from HIV-1-infected treatment naive patients (NAIVE) and cART-treated patients to predict the short-term evolution of CD4 cell counts...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sanjiv M Baxi, Rebecca Scherzer, Vasantha Jotwani, Michelle M Estrella, Alison G Abraham, Chirag R Parikh, Michael R Bennett, Mardge H Cohen, Marek J Nowicki, Deborah R Gustafson, Anjali Sharma, Mary A Young, Michael G Shlipak
BACKGROUND: Urine biomarkers have helped identify persons at risk for progressing to kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection. We explored factors associated with changes in three urine biomarkers over 10 years among women living with HIV. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 294 HIV-infected women from the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Predictors included HIV viral and immunological parameters, co-morbid conditions and health-related behaviors...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Ibrahim Ali Kabbash, Ehab A Abo Ali, Mostafa Mahmoud Elgendy, Mostafa Mohamed Abdrabo, Helal Mohamed Salem, Mohammed Ramadan Gouda, Yousef Saleh Elbasiony, Nader Elboshy, Mohammed Hamed
HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among health care professionals is one of the most important factors of this disease expansion. This study aimed to assess the stigmatized attitude among health care providers toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) at Tanta University Hospitals. The study is a cross-sectional survey. Data was gathered from randomly selected 310 health care workers at Tanta University Hospital using a structured questionnaire. Among studied participants, only 24.0 % had previous contact with HIV patients during work and 21...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Catherine R Lesko, Weiqun Tong, Richard D Moore, Bryan Lau
Compared to HIV-infected persons who do not inject drugs (non-IDU), persons who inject drugs (PWID) experience disparities in linking to medical care, initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieving viral suppression. There has been little attention to changes in these disparities over time. We estimated the proportion of PWID and non-IDU retained in care, on ART, and virally suppressed each year from 2001-2012 in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort (JHHCC). We defined active clinic patients as those who had ≥1 clinical visit, CD4 cell count, or viral load between July 1 of the prior year, and June 30 of the analysis year...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Marloes A M Janssen, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
The objectives of the current study were to examine cognitive decline in relation to psychological wellbeing, HIV disease and treatment characteristics and baseline variables over a one-year period of time in a group of HIV-infected patients on long term cART with undetectable viral load in comparison to a HIV-negative control group. Eighty-two of 95 patients and 43 of 55 controls who completed a baseline assessment for the Art-NeCo study underwent a follow-up neuropsychological assessment. A repeated-measure general linear model analysis was performed to compare the performance at follow-up in comparison to baseline between the patients and controls...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Emily L Tuthill, Jennifer A Pellowski, Sera L Young, Lisa M Butler
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) provides infants with optimal nutrition, and together with appropriate antiretroviral therapy has also been shown to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV from 45 to less than 1 %. However, rates of EBF are particularly low in South Africa, where rates of HIV are some of the highest in the world. Although perinatal depression has been identified as a potential barrier to EBF, little is known about its impact on EBF among HIV-infected women. A cohort study was conducted as part of a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the effect of an Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills-based intervention promoting EBF among South African women living with HIV in their third trimester (28-42 weeks) of pregnancy...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Qian Wang, Renato Polimanti, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Hongyu Zhao, Joel Gelernter
Schizophrenia (SZ) and HIV infection are serious disorders with a complex phenotypic relationship. Observational studies have described their comorbidity; their genetic correlation is not well studied. We performed extensive analysis in search of common genetic factors for SZ and HIV, and their relationship with risky sexual behavior (RSB). Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of HIV infection and schizophrenia were obtained and 2379 European Americans were genotyped and assessed for RSB score...
October 17, 2016: Human Genetics
Claudia Colomba, Marcello Trizzino, Claudia Gioè, Danilo Di Bona, Alessandra Mularoni, Antonio Cascio
Here we describe the case of a HIV-infected patient with polycystic kidney disease and end stage renal diseases not transplantable due to the persistence of a CD4 count <200 notwithstanding a good virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and suggest that such limitation to kidney transplantation in such as cases might be bypassed.
2016: IDCases
P Mencarini, R Bellagamba, A Oliva, P Ghirga, M L Giancola, A Corpolongo, T Ascoli Bartoli, P De Nardo, A Baiocchini, F Del Nonno, P Narciso, E Nicastri
The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a patient living with HIV infection is an uncommon event and a challenge for clinicians. Clinical manifestations are variable and fluctuating depending to adherence to ARV therapy and to the level of CD4 count. We analyze here one chronic case in which sarcoidosis appeared clinically two years after pulmonary tuberculosis. The course of the disease was influenced and prolonged by frequent interruptions of antiretroviral therapy. Moreover the diagnosis and the decision to treat have been delayed by the need of exclusion of other pathologies, principally tuberculosis reactivation/reinfection, other mycobacterial diseases, hematologic malignancies...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Matthew L Paff, Scott L Nuismer, Andrew D Ellington, Ian J Molineux, Ryan H May, James J Bull
BACKGROUND: We propose, model, and implement a novel system of population-level intervention against a virus. One context is a treatment against a chronic infection such as HIV. The underlying principle is a form of virus 'wars' in which a benign, transmissible agent is engineered to protect against infection by and spread of a lethal virus. In our specific case, the protective agent consists of two entities, a benign virus and a gene therapy vector mobilized by the benign virus. RESULTS: Numerical analysis of a mathematical model identified parameter ranges in which adequate, population-wide protection is achieved...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
Martin Hoenigl, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Masato Nakazawa, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Scott Letendre, Davey Smith, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The extent of gut microbial translocation, which plays roles in HIV disease progression and non-AIDS comorbidities, appears to vary with the composition of the gut microbiome, particularly the presence of Lactobacillales, which reduce mucosal injury. While low proportions of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome are a very promising indicator of microbial translocation, measurement is expensive and complicated and not feasible for clinical routine. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) is a component of most fungal cell walls and might be a surrogate marker for Lactobacillales proportion in the gut and a useful indicator of HIV-associated gut injury...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Martha Ali Abdulai, Frank Baiden, George Adjei, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Over 2 billion people are infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and about 240 million are chronic carriers of the virus. Chronic HBV infection is an important cause of liver cancer. The infectivity of HBV is hundred times higher than the HIV virus yet it receives comparatively little attention in public health. The study assessed knowledge and awareness of HBV among pregnant women in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in two facilities between September 2010 and November 2010...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Colin M Venner, Immaculate Nankya, Fred Kyeyune, Korey Demers, Cynthia Kwok, Pai-Lien Chen, Sandra Rwambuya, Marshall Munjoma, Tsungai Chipato, Josaphat Byamugisha, Barbara Van Der Pol, Peter Mugyenyi, Robert A Salata, Charles S Morrison, Eric J Arts
INTRODUCTION: Long-term natural history cohorts of HIV-1 in the absence of treatment provide the best measure of virulence by different viral subtypes. METHODS: Newly HIV infected Ugandan and Zimbabwean women (N=303) were recruited and monitored for clinical, social, behavioral, immunological and viral parameters for 3 to 9.5years. RESULTS: Ugandan and Zimbabwean women infected with HIV-1 subtype C had 2.5-fold slower rates of CD4 T-cell declines and higher frequencies of long-term non-progression than those infected with subtype A or D (GEE model, P<0...
October 12, 2016: EBioMedicine
Boopathy Ramakrishnan, Karthik Viswanathan, Kannan Tharakaraman, Vlado Dančík, Rahul Raman, Gregory J Babcock, Zachary Shriver, Ram Sasisekharan
Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) for viral infections, such as HIV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza, are increasingly entering clinical development. For influenza, most neutralizing antibodies target influenza virus hemagglutinin. These bNAbs represent an emerging, promising modality for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza due to their multiple mechanisms of antiviral action and generally safe profile. Preclinical work in other viral diseases, such as dengue, has demonstrated the potential for antibody-based therapies to enhance viral uptake, leading to enhanced viremia and worsening of disease...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
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