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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#1
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155832/implementing-universal-hiv-treatment-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-and-rural-south-african-setting-field-experiences-and-recommendations-of-health-care-providers
#2
Melanie Plazy, Delphine Perriat, Dumile Gumede, Sylvie Boyer, Deenan Pillay, François Dabis, Janet Seeley, Joanna Orne-Gliemann
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the field experiences and recommendations of clinic-based health care providers (HCP) regarding the implementation of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: In Hlabisa sub-district, the local HIV programme of the Department of Health (DoH) is decentralized in 18 clinics, where ART was offered at a CD4 count ≤500 cells/μL from January 2015 to September 2016. Within the ANRS 12249 TasP trial, implemented in part of the sub-district, universal ART (no eligibility criteria) was offered in 11 mobile clinics between March 2012 and June 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155831/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-leishmania-infection-in-trang-province-southern-thailand
#3
Jipada Manomat, Saovanee Leelayoova, Lertwut Bualert, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Suradej Siripattanapipong, Mathirut Mungthin, Tawee Naaglor, Phunlerd Piyaraj
BACKGROUND: Autochthonous cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis and Leishmania siamensis have been considered emerging infectious diseases in Thailand. The disease burden is significantly underestimated, especially the prevalence of Leishmania infection among HIV-positive patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection among patients with HIV/AIDS living in Trang province, southern Thailand, between 2015 and 2016...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155819/determinants-of-site-of-tuberculosis-disease-an-analysis-of-european-surveillance-data-from-2003-to-2014
#4
Giovanni Sotgiu, Dennis Falzon, Vahur Hollo, Csaba Ködmön, Nicolas Lefebvre, Andrei Dadu, Marieke van der Werf
BACKGROUND: We explored host-related factors associated with the site of tuberculosis (TB) disease using variables routinely collected by the 31 EU/EEA countries for national surveillance. METHODS: Logistic regression models were fitted to case-based surveillance data reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for TB cases notified from 2003 to 2014. Missing data on HIV infection and on susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin for many patients precluded the inclusion of these variables in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155735/quantification-of-monocyte-transmigration-and-foam-cell-formation-from-individuals-with-chronic-inflammatory-conditions
#5
Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Anna Maisa, Theodoros Kelesidis, Anthony Jaworowski
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of CAD, is initiated by the transmigration of innate immune monocytes to inflammatory sites of deposited lipid called fatty streaks, which are present in arterial walls of medium to large arteries. The key pathogenic feature of lesions at this early stage of atherosclerosis is the maturation of monocytes which migrate into arteries to form foam cells or lipid-laden macrophages. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that risk of atherosclerosis is increased by chronic inflammatory conditions accompanying diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and HIV, as well as general ageing, and that this risk is predicted by monocyte activation...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155732/fabrication-and-characterization-of-griffithsin-modified-fiber-scaffolds-for-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections
#6
Hung R Vuong, Kevin M Tyo, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Electrospun fibers (EFs) have been widely used in a variety of therapeutic applications; however, they have only recently been applied as a technology to prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Moreover, many EF technologies focus on encapsulating the active agent, relative to utilizing the surface to impart biofunctionality. Here we describe a method to fabricate and surface-modify poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) electrospun fibers, with the potent antiviral lectin Griffithsin (GRFT)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155164/a-new-promising-candidate-to-overcome-drug-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#7
Elisabeth Zinser, Adalbert Krawczyk, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Ulrich Aufderhorst, Lena Stich, Mirko Zaja, Stefan Strobl, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane Silke Heilingloh
Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation...
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154830/understanding-mechanisms-to-promote-successful-aging-in-persons-living-with-hiv
#8
REVIEW
Gerome V Escota, Jane A O'Halloran, William G Powderly, Rachel M Presti
The mortality rate associated with HIV infection plummeted after the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy pioneered two decades ago.As a result, HIV-infected people now have a life expectancy comparable to that of HIV-uninfected individuals. Despite this, increased rates of osteoporosis, chronic liver disease, and in particular cardiovascular disease have been reported among people living with HIV infection. With the aging HIV-infected population, the burden of these co-morbid illnesses may continue to accrue over time...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154044/modulating-host-immune-responses-to-fight-invasive-fungal-infections
#9
REVIEW
James E Scriven, Mark W Tenforde, Stuart M Levitz, Joseph N Jarvis
Modulation of host immunity in invasive fungal infection is an appealing but as yet mostly elusive treatment strategy. Animal studies in invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis have demonstrated beneficial effects of colony stimulating factors, interferon-gamma and monoclonal antibodies. More recent studies transfusing leukocytes pre-loaded with lipophilic anti-fungal drugs, or modulated T-cells, along with novel vaccination strategies show great promise. The translation of immune therapies into clinical studies has been limited to date but this is changing and the results of new Candida vaccine trials are eagerly awaited...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153851/apobec-enzymes-as-targets-for-virus-and-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Margaret E Olson, Reuben S Harris, Daniel A Harki
Human DNA cytosine-to-uracil deaminases catalyze mutations in both pathogen and cellular genomes. APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H restrict human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in cells deficient in the viral infectivity factor (Vif), and have the potential to catalyze sublethal levels of mutation in viral genomes in Vif-proficient cells. At least two APOBEC3 enzymes, and in particular APOBEC3B, are sources of somatic mutagenesis in cancer cells that drive tumor evolution and may manifest clinically as recurrence, metastasis, and/or therapy resistance...
November 14, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153630/increasing-hiv-testing-in-inpatient-psychiatry
#11
Martha Shumway, Christina Mangurian, Noah Carraher, Amanda Momenzadeh, Mark Leary, Emily K Lee, James W Dilley
BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at elevated risk of HIV infection, but do not receive HIV tests regularly. Inpatient psychiatric admissions provide opportunities for HIV testing. OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively examined the impact of three sequential interventions designed to increase HIV testing on an acute inpatient psychiatry service: (1) advocacy by an administrative champion, (2) an on-site HIV counselor, and (3) a clinician championing HIV testing...
October 23, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153541/screening-for-cervical-cancer-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-women-in-cameroon-using-simultaneous-co-testing-with-carehpv-dna-testing-and-visual-inspection-enhanced-by-digital-cervicography-findings-of-initial-screening-and-one-year-follow-up
#12
Preetam Cholli, Leslie Bradford, Simon Manga, Kathleen Nulah, Edith Kiyang, Florence Manjuh, Geneva DeGregorio, Rebecca K Ogembo, Enow Orock, Yuxin Liu, Richard G Wamai, Lisa Kennedy Sheldon, Philimon N Gona, Zacharie Sando, Thomas Welty, Edith Welty, Javier Gordon Ogembo
OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO)'s cervical cancer screening guidelines for limited-resource settings recommend sequential screening followed by same-day treatment under a "screen-and-treat" approach. We aimed to (1) assess feasibility and clinical outcomes of screening HIV-positive and HIV-negative Cameroonian women by pairing visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA/VILI-DC) with careHPV, a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) nucleic acid test designed for low-resource settings; and (2) determine persistence of HR-HPV infection after one-year follow-up to inform optimal screening, treatment, and follow-up algorithms...
November 15, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153265/hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-as-prevention-in-an-extended-network-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-usa-a-modelling-study
#13
Alexei Zelenev, Jianghong Li, Alyona Mazhnaya, Sanjay Basu, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Chronic infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are highly prevalent in the USA and concentrated in people who inject drugs. Treatment as prevention with highly effective new direct-acting antivirals is a prospective HCV elimination strategy. We used network-based modelling to analyse the effect of this strategy in HCV-infected people who inject drugs in a US city. METHODS: Five graph models were fit using data from 1574 people who inject drugs in Hartford, CT, USA...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152727/human-papillomavirus-associated-cutaneous-disease-burden-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-positive-patients-the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Lindsay C Bacik, Catherine Chung
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is related to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, oropharyngeal carcinoma, and anogenital malignancies. Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have impaired cell-mediated immunity, placing them at risk for more prolonged infection with a greater likelihood of disease expression. This presents important implications for screening and treatment of HPV in the HIV patient population. The use of prophylactic vaccines directed against HPV has been a promising clinical development, though the immunogenicity of these vaccines in the immunocompromised host and in patients with previously established HPV infections has not been well established...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152273/orbital-pseudotumor-as-a-result-of-chronic-sinusitis-in-an-hiv-positive-patient
#15
Mitchell R Gore
Orbital inflammatory pseudotumor is an infrequent lesion that may mimic malignancy and may be associated with autoimmune disease. Orbital pseudotumor is in the differential in any patient with an orbital mass, especially in the setting of chronic infection or immunosuppression. This HIV-positive patient presented with chronic sinusitis and orbital pseudotumor.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152266/vaccine-associated-measles-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#16
Shawn B Sood, Krishna Suthar, Kimberly Martin, Keith Mather
We present a rare case of vaccine-associated measles infection in an immunocompetent, HIV-negative patient in the United States. This case depicts the impressive rash our patient manifested and highlights the importance of reviewing public health interventions to determine epidemiological links in geographical areas with low incidence of measles.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151338/genotype-distribution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-theaegean-region-and-associated-demographic-factors
#17
Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Fethiye Ferda Yılmaz, İsabel Raika Durusoy Onmuş, Tuğba Bozdemir, Hüseyin Taşlı, Mine Hoşgör Limoncu
Background/aim: The Aegean Region is the second-ranking region in Turkey according to the Human Development Index and population density and it hosts 1/8 of Turkey's population. İzmir is the largest city of the region, receiving internal migration both from inside and outside the region. The tuberculosis incidence in İzmir is lower than overall in Turkey: 17.7/100,000 in 2011. Our aims were to determine genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates; to explore possible associations between genotypes with case-demographic data, clinical presentation, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; and to determine variations in genotype distribution of strains isolated in Ege University Hospital, İzmir...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151198/high-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behavior-among-young-argentine-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
Iván C Balán, Timothy Frasca, María A Pando, Rubén O Marone, Victoria Barreda, Curtis Dolezal, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, María M Ávila
In the United States young men who have sex with men have higher rates of substance use, higher HIV incidence, and less frequent HIV testing than their heterosexual counterparts and older MSM. Less is known about comparable populations in Latin America. As part of an epidemiological study, MSM were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina and answered a computerized behavioral survey. From the total of 500 MSM enrolled, a sub-sample of 233 aged 18-25 was analyzed...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150603/bacterially-derived-synthetic-mimetics-of-mammalian-oligomannose-prime-antibody-responses-that-neutralize-hiv-infectivity
#19
Ralph Pantophlet, Nino Trattnig, Sasha Murrell, Naiomi Lu, Dennis Chau, Caitlin Rempel, Ian A Wilson, Paul Kosma
Oligomannose-type glycans are among the major targets on the gp120 component of the HIV envelope protein (Env) for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, attempts to elicit oligomannose-specific nAbs by immunizing with natural or synthetic oligomannose have so far not been successful, possibly due to B cell tolerance checkpoints. Here we design and synthesize oligomannose mimetics, based on the unique chemical structure of a recently identified bacterial lipooligosaccharide, to appear foreign to the immune system...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150412/clinical-benefits-of-using-inulin-clearance-and-cystatin-c-for-determining-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-treated-with-dolutegravir
#20
Satomi Yukawa, Dai Watanabe, Tomoko Uehira, Takuma Shirasaka
INTRODUCTION: Dolutegravir may inhibit creatinine transporters in renal tubules and elevate serum creatinine levels. We investigated the usefulness of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured using inulin clearance (Cin), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and estimated GFR based on both serum creatinine (eGFRcre) and serum cystatin C (eGFRcys). PATIENTS & METHODS: HIV-1-infected Japanese patients with suppressed viremia and whose antiretroviral drug was switched to dolutegravir from other drugs were included (n = 108, Study 1)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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