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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647993/-impact-of-hiv-hbv-infection-and-hiv-hbv-co-infection-on-outcomes-of-pregnancy
#1
Y Yang, W T Cheng, Y B Zhou, Q W Jiang
Both HIV and HBV infection have become major health problems, of global concern, due to the high prevalence in the past few decades. Data from cumulated epidemiological surveys have shown the links between maternal HIV or HBV infection and adverse outcomes on pregnancy. Maternal HIV or HBV infection may also increase the mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of the two diseases. However, association between HIV-HBV co-infection and adverse pregnancy is still inconclusive. Does maternal HIV-HBV co-infection have an impact on mother-to-child transmission on either HIV or HBV? Study on effective precautionary measures to promote both maternal and child's health is deemed necessary...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647987/-distribution-of-hiv-1-subtypes-among-foreign-patients-in-guangzhou-between-2008-and-2010-and-in-2015
#2
Z G Han, H Wu, C Y Liang, K Gao, H X Mai, Y S Cai, H F Xu
Objective: To understand the characteristic of subtype distribution among foreigners who were living with HIV-1, in Guangzhou. Methods: HIV-1 RNAs were extracted from 114 serum specimens in foreigners diagnosed with HIV-1 infections between 2008 and 2010, and in 2015. Partial pol gene of HIV-1 genome from these RNA samples were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) with nucleotide sequenced. Subsequently, phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the pol sequences of samples and references...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647976/-status-of-marriage-and-hiv-transmission-between-couples-in-newly-reported-hiv-cases-before-diagnosis-was-made-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-2014
#3
J Li, J Han, J Xu, H L Tang, Y R Mao
Objective: To analyze the status of marriage and HIV transmission between couples in newly reported HIV cases before diagnoses were made, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Methods: Baseline and follow-up information related to newly reported cases in 2014 were collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System. Infected MSM who were older than 22 years of age were included in this study. HIV cases were divided into sero-concordant or sero-discordant group, according to the HIV status of the couple who were tested 180 days post-diagnosis...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647858/counter-intuitive-plasma-vitamin-d-and-zinc-status-in-hiv-1-infected-adults-with-persistent-low-level-viraemia-after-treatment-initiation-a-pilot-case-control-study
#4
H Melliez, A Duhamel, O Robineau, L Bocket, I Kim, E Sauser, F Loiseleur, N Viget, A Pasquet, E Senneville, D Seguy
Determinants of persistent low-level viraemia [PLLV, a viral load (VL) of between 50 and 500 copies/mL] have not been elucidated. In a case-control study, we evaluated the influence of micronutrients on PLLV in a population of 454 HIV-1 adults having initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2007 and December 2011. Plasma levels of retinol (vitamin A), 25-OH vitamin D2 + D3, vitamin E and zinc were measured at ART initiation in cases (PLLV after 6 months of ART) and in controls (VL <50 copies/mL after 6 months)...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647517/proteomics-to-study-macrophage-response-to-viral-infection
#5
Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647133/-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-in-dental-practice
#6
Jesús Eduardo Elizondo, Ana Cecilia Treviño, Deborah Violant, Ana María Rivas-Estilla, Mario Moisés Álvarez
OBJECTIVE: To explore the attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) towards the implementation of rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice, and to evaluate MSM's perceptions of stigma and discrimination related to sexual orientation by dental care professionals. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a self-administered, anonymous, structured analytical questionnaire answered by 185 MSM in Mexico. The survey included sociodemographic variables, MSM's perceptions towards public and private dental providers, and dental services, as well as their perception towards rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice...
June 21, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646844/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-hiv-infection-among-male-prisoners-in-tehran-iran
#7
SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Behnam Farhoudi, Minoo Mohraz, Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani, Mostafa Hosseini, Marzieh Farnia, Mohammad Shahbazi, Ramin Alasvand, Mehrzad Tashakoriyan
BACKGROUND: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted on 6900 male prisoners in Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. METHODS: In order to find HIV positive prisoners in the prison's quarantine and two housing units, we used HIV active case finding (ACF) strategy by rapid screening test. In ACF, healthcare staff and trained prisoners asked inmates to answer relevant questions about history of risky behaviors related to HIV as well as to be tested voluntarily by HIV rapid test...
June 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646713/substance-use-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-agreement-between-medical-records-and-the-assist-questionnaire
#8
Iona K Machado, Paula M Luz, Jordan E Lake, Rodolfo Castro, Luciane Velasque, Jesse L Clark, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Raquel B De Boni
BACKGROUND: Substance use assessment is a challenge in busy clinical settings that may adversely affect HIV-infected persons. This study aimed to evaluate agreement between the medical chart and a standardized substance use screening questionnaire. METHODS: Of adults (n=1050) in HIV care in Rio de Janeiro who completed the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), we randomly selected 200 participants for medical chart review...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646367/ifn%C3%AE-producing-cd4-t-lymphocytes-the-double-edged-swords-in-tuberculosis
#9
Pawan Kumar
IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T cells (IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of clinical and experimental findings has also implicated IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells in TB pathogenesis. High frequency of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells is the most invariable feature of the active disease...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646219/efficient-and-unbiased-metagenomic-recovery-of-rna-virus-genomes-from-human-plasma-samples
#10
Carmen F Manso, David F Bibby, Jean L Mbisa
RNA viruses cause significant human pathology and are responsible for the majority of emerging zoonoses. Mainstream diagnostic assays are challenged by their intrinsic diversity, leading to false negatives and incomplete characterisation. New sequencing techniques are expanding our ability to agnostically interrogate nucleic acids within diverse sample types, but in the clinical setting are limited by overwhelming host material and ultra-low target frequency. Through selective host RNA depletion and compensatory protocol adjustments for ultra-low RNA inputs, we are able to detect three major blood-borne RNA viruses - HIV, HCV and HEV...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645955/is-there-an-ethnic-variation-in-the-epidemiology-of-gonorrhoea-a-retrospective-population-based-study-from-northern-israel-over-15%C3%A2-years-between-2001-and-2015
#11
Khalaf Kridin, Rami Grifat, Mogher Khamaisi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the trends in the incidence of gonorrhoea through an extended period of time and to compare the epidemiology of gonorrhoea infection between 2 distinct ethnic groups (Jews and Arabs). DESIGN: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted on all consecutive patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea through the years 2001-2015. SETTING: National Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health, Haifa District, Israel...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645727/inhibition-of-non-canonical-hiv-1-tat-secretion-through-the-cellular-na-k-atpase-blocks-hiv-1-infection
#12
Silvia Agostini, Hashim Ali, Chiara Vardabasso, Antonio Fittipaldi, Ennio Tasciotti, Anna Cereseto, Antonella Bugatti, Marco Rusnati, Marina Lusic, Mauro Giacca
Besides its essential role in the activation of HIV-1 gene expression, the viral Tat protein has the unusual property of trafficking in and out of cells. In contrast to Tat internalization, the mechanism involved in extracellular Tat release has so far remained elusive. Here we show that Tat secretion occurs through a Golgi-independent pathway requiring binding of Tat with three short, non-consecutive intracytoplasmic loops at the C-terminus of the cellular Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pump alpha subunit. Ouabain, a pump inhibitor, blocked this interaction and prevented Tat secretion; virions produced in the presence of this drug were less infectious, consistent the capacity of virion-associated Tat to increase HIV-1 infectivity...
June 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#13
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645254/comparing-self-and-provider-collected-swabbing-for-hpv-dna-testing-in-female-to-male-transgender-adult-patients-a-mixed-methods-biobehavioral-study-protocol
#14
Sari L Reisner, Madeline B Deutsch, Sarah M Peitzmeier, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Timothy Cavanaugh, Dana J Pardee, Sarah McLean, Elliot J Marrow, Matthew J Mimiaga, Lori Panther, Marcy Gelman, Jamison Green, Jennifer Potter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, nearly all cases of which are caused by one of several high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), leads to significant morbidity and mortality in individuals with a cervix. Trans masculine (TM) individuals were born with female reproductive organs and identify as male, man, transgender man, or another diverse gender identity different from their female assigned sex at birth. Routine preventive sexual health screening of TM patients is recommended, including screening for cervical cancer and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, as many as one in three TM patients are not up-to-date per recommended U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645207/development-and-validation-of-an-electronic-medical-record-emr-based-computed-phenotype-of-hiv-1-infection
#15
Devon W Paul, Nigel B Neely, Meredith Clement, Isaretta Riley, Mashael Al-Hegelan, Matthew Phelan, Monica Kraft, David M Murdoch, Joseph Lucas, John Bartlett, Mehri McKellar, Loretta G Que
Background: Electronic medical record (EMR) computed algorithms allow investigators to screen thousands of patient records to identify specific disease cases. No computed algorithms have been developed to detect all cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection using administrative, laboratory, and clinical documentation data outside of the Veterans Health Administration. We developed novel EMR-based algorithms for HIV detection and validated them in a cohort of subjects in the Duke University Health System (DUHS)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645089/drug-resistance-mechanism-of-l10f-l10f-n88s-and-l90m-mutations-in-crf01_ae-hiv-1-protease-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-binding-free-energy-calculations
#16
C S Vasavi, Ramasamy Tamizhselvi, Punnagai Munusami
HIV-1 protease plays a crucial role in viral replication and maturation, which makes it one of the most attractive targets for anti-retroviral therapy. The majority of HIV infections in developing countries are due to non-B subtype. Subtype AE is spreading rapidly and infecting huge population worldwide. The mutations in the active site of subtype AE directly impair the interactions with the inhibitor. The non-active site mutations influence the binding of the inhibitor indirectly and their resistance mechanism is not well understood...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644978/immune-activation-in-prolonged-cart-suppressed-hiv-patients-is-comparable-to-that-of-healthy-controls
#17
Lennert van den Dries, Mark A A Claassen, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Eric van Gorp, Andre Boonstra
Sustained immune activation during chronic HIV infection is considered to augment co-morbidity and mortality. Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has shown to dampen immune activation especially during the first year cART, but the effects of long-term cART in patients without major comorbidities remains under-investigated. We performed a comprehensive analysis including cellular, intracellular and plasma biomarkers to study the effect of cART on immune parameters in 5 groups of 10 HIV patients...
June 20, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644368/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-not-associated-with-growth-or-the-incidence-of-common-morbidities-among-tanzanian-infants
#18
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Emily R Smith, Said Aboud, Rodrick Kisenge, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and determine the association of vitamin D status with child growth and incidence of common morbidities among Tanzanian infants. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 581 Tanzanian infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Infants were seen at monthly clinic visits for growth monitoring until 18 months of age...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644338/committee-opinion-no-706-sexual-health
#19
(no author information available yet)
Sexuality involves a broad range of expressions of intimacy and is fundamental to self-dentification, with strong cultural, biologic, and psychologic components. Obstetrician-gynecologists often are consulted by patients about sexual health and are in a unique position to open a dialogue on sexual health issues. Several obstacles to frank conversations with patients about sexual health exist, including a lack of adequate training and confidence in the topic, a perception that there are few treatment options, a lack of adequate clinical time to obtain a sexual history, patients' reluctance to initiate the conversation, and the underestimation of the prevalence of sexual dysfunction...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644331/committee-opinion-no-706-summary-sexual-health
#20
(no author information available yet)
Sexuality involves a broad range of expressions of intimacy and is fundamental to self-dentification, with strong cultural, biologic, and psychologic components. Obstetrician-gynecologists often are consulted by patients about sexual health and are in a unique position to open a dialogue on sexual health issues. Several obstacles to frank conversations with patients about sexual health exist, including a lack of adequate training and confidence in the topic, a perception that there are few treatment options, a lack of adequate clinical time to obtain a sexual history, patients' reluctance to initiate the conversation, and the underestimation of the prevalence of sexual dysfunction...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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