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Hiv infection

Rada M Savic, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Nan Zhang, Moses Were, Abel Kakuru, Mary K Muhindo, Norah Mwebaza, Erika Wallender, Tamara D Clark, Bishop Opira, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Francesca T Aweeka
Background: Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. Methods: HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Khoa T D Thai, Hannelore Götz, Bibi C G C Slingerland, Janienne Klaasse, Martin Schutten, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel
BACKGROUND: Correct identification of blood borne viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial in detection and follow up of infection in patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL (LIAISON XL) for screening of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In addition, we investigated the variability of the signal-to-cuttoff ratio (S/CO) of the LIAISON XL HIV Ag/Ab assay and it's predictive value in subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Cliff C Kerr, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Tomasz G Smolinski, George L Chadderdon, David P Wilson
When standard optimization methods fail to find a satisfactory solution for a parameter fitting problem, a tempting recourse is to adjust parameters manually. While tedious, this approach can be surprisingly powerful in terms of achieving optimal or near-optimal solutions. This paper outlines an optimization algorithm, Adaptive Stochastic Descent (ASD), that has been designed to replicate the essential aspects of manual parameter fitting in an automated way. Specifically, ASD uses simple principles to form probabilistic assumptions about (a) which parameters have the greatest effect on the objective function, and (b) optimal step sizes for each parameter...
2018: PloS One
Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Stefanie Kroeze, Pascale Ondoa, Cissy M Kityo, Margaret Siwale, Sulaimon Akanmu, Maureen Wellington, Marleen de Jager, Prudence Ive, Kishor Mandaliya, Wendy Stevens, T Sonia Boender, Marieke E de Pundert, Kim C E Sigaloff, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W Wit, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Raph L Hamers
OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence, determinants and clinical consequences of suboptimal immune recovery in HIV-1 infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa with sustained viral suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Multi-country prospective cohort. METHODS: Suboptimal immune recovery was defined as proportions of participants who failed to attain clinically relevant CD4 cell count thresholds (>200, >350 and >500 cells/μL) despite sustained viral suppression on continuous first-line ART...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Maartje Dijkstra, Rik H W Van Lunsen, Katherine W Kooij, Udi Davidovich, Rosan A Van Zoest, Ferdinand W M N Wit, Maria Prins, Peter Reiss, Maarten F Schim Van Der Loeff
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) more often experience sexual dysfunctions than the general population. We assessed associations between HIV-1 status and decreased sexual functioning among MSM. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 399 HIV-1-infected MSM mostly on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 366 HIV-1-uninfected MSM aged ≥45 years participating in the AGEhIV Cohort Study. The study questionnaire included questions on erectile function, sexual satisfaction, and sexual desire...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Felicia C Chow, Michael R Wilson, Kunling Wu, Ronald J Ellis, Ronald J Bosch, Benjamin P Linas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and associated risk factors in a cohort of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH). DESIGN: Observational cohort study METHODS:: We determined incidence rates of first-ever stroke/TIA in PLWH after ART initiation from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group ALLRT cohort and its parent trials. Poisson regression models evaluated baseline and time-varying covariates as risk factors for stroke/TIA...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Siti Azdiah Abdul Aziz, Megan Mcstea, Nor Syuhada Ahmad Bashah, Meng Li Chong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Iskandar Azwa, Maw Pin Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman
OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes. DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Laura Tarancon-Diez, Rebeca S De Pablo-Bernal, José Luis Jiménez, Ana I Álvarez-Ríos, Miguel Genebat, Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, María-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the main causes of morbimortality in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CVDs occurrence in HIV-infected patients. Additionally, the functional consequences of carrying these SNPs were analyzed. METHODS: The association of TLR4 SNPs, Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile with CVDs occurrence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Kiran T Thakur, Alexandra Boubour, Deanna Saylor, Mitashee Das, David R Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
: Neurological conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence shows that the CNS may serve as a reservoir for viral replication, which has major implications for HIV eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of neurological conditions associated with HIV infection, significant scientific gaps remain...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Elena García-Payá, Marta Fernández, Sergio Padilla, José A García, Catalina Robledano, Victoria Ortiz DE LA Tabla, Félix Gutiérrez, Mar Masiá
OBJECTIVE: The protective effect of ART has not yet been definitively established in men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to characterize the factors associated with persistent HIV-1 RNA rectal shedding. METHODS: Prospective study including virologically-suppressed MSM from an HIV cohort. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) was performed for screening of anal dysplasia, and rectal sampling for HIV-1 RNA quantification and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) investigation through multiplex PCR...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, Fabienne De Oliveira, Marie Leoz, Véronique Lemee, David L Robertson, Felix Feyertag, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Philippe Mauclere, François Simon, Jean-Christophe Plantier
OBJECTIVES: HIV/1 group P (HIV-1/P) is the last HIV/1 group discovered and to date, comprises only two strains. To obtain new insights into this divergent group, we screened for new infections by developing specific tools, and analysed phenotypic and genotypic properties of the prototypic strain RBF168. In addition, the follow-up of the unique patient monitored so far, has raised the knowledge of the natural history of this infection and its therapeutic management. DESIGN/METHODS: We developed an HIV-1/P specific sero-molecular strategy and screened over 29,498 specimen samples...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Allison A Lindgren, Adam R Filipowicz, Julian B Hattler, Soon Ok Kim, Hye Kyung Chung, Marcelo J Kuroda, Edward M Johnson, Woong-Ki Kim
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection of the brain and related cognitive impairment remain prevalent in HIV-1-infected subjects despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a newly identified host restriction factor that blocks the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses in myeloid cells. Cell-cycle-regulated phosphorylation at residue Thr592 and viral protein X (Vpx)-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 have been shown to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in vitro...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Alison G Abraham, Long Zhang, Keri Calkins, Adrienne Tin, Andrew Hoofnagle, Frank J Palella, Michelle M Estrella, Lisa P Jacobson, Mallory D Witt, Lawrence A Kingsley, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVE: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and durable viral suppression, many HIV-infected individuals still do not achieve CD4+ cell count (CD4) normalization. Vitamin D has immunoregulatory functions, including inducing the development of T cells, and higher levels may improve CD4 rebound. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who virally suppressed following HAART initiation and had pre- and post-HAART 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH]2D measurements and repeated measures of CD4...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, C Jean Choi, Melanie Wall
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project has disseminated HIV behavioral interventions (EBIs) across the United States since the 1990s. In 2011, the CDC launched the High-Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) project, providing EBIs plus high-impact services (HIV testing, primary care, and support services). Providers (nurses, social workers, educators) are unable to consistently make linkages; thus, numerous at-risk individuals are not benefitting from HIP...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Celia B Fisher, Adam L Fried, Kathryn Macapagal, Brian Mustanski
Adolescent males who have sex with males (AMSM) are at increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Healthcare providers are a critical source of HIV/STI prevention, yet little is known about AMSM patient-provider sexual health communications and services. To explore this issue, we surveyed a national sample of 198 AMSM 14-17 years. Four online psychometrically validated scales indicated over half the youth avoided communicating their sexual orientation and sexual health concerns to providers due to fear of heterosexist bias, concern their sexual health information would be disclosed to parents, and a general belief that sexual minority youth do not receive equitable treatment in health care settings...
March 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lyle W Murray, Iman Satti, Jodi Meyerowitz, Matthew Jones, Christian B Willberg, James E Ussher, Dominique Goedhals, Jacob Hurst, Rodney E Phillips, Helen McShane, Cloete van Vuuren, John Frater
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have a higher risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals, but the mechanisms underpinning this are unclear. We hypothesized that depletion of specific components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses contributed to this increased risk. Methods: Mtb-specific T-cell responses in 147 HIV-infected and 44 HIV-uninfected control subjects in a TB-endemic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Egarit Noulsri, Dinar Abudaya, Surada Lerdwana, Kovit Pattanapanyasat
Objective: To determine whether a corrected lymphocyte percentage could reduce bias in the absolute cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T lymphocyte counts obtained via dual-platform (DP) vs standard single-platform (SP) flow cytometry. Methods: The correction factor (CF) for the lymphocyte percentages was calculated at 6 laboratories. The absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in 300 blood specimens infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were determined using the DP and SP methods...
March 13, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Celia Jackson, Amanda Bradley-Stewart, Celia Aitken, Andrew McAuley, Norah Palmateer, Rory Gunson, David Goldberg, Catriona Milosevic, Andrew J Leigh Brown
Harm reduction has dramatically reduced HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). In Glasgow, Scotland, <10 infections/year have been diagnosed among PWID since the mid-90s. However, in 2015 a sharp rise in diagnoses was noted among PWID: many were subtype C with two identical drug resistant mutations and some displayed low avidity, suggesting the infections were linked and recent.We collected Scottish pol sequences and identified closely related sequences from public databases. Genetic linkage was ascertained among 228 Scottish, 1820 UK and 524 global sequences...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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