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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428507/-opioid-therapy-and-management-of-side-effects-associated-with-opioids
#1
Toshihiko Nakatani
Opioids are very useful medications to reduce suffering of cancer patients such as refractory pain and dyspnea. We physicians have to use opioids to have good management of pain and suffering associated with cancer including management of side effects caused by opioids. Opioids couple opioid receptors and affect several pharmacological effects. Other than analgesic effect, opioids have some side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression. In this chapter, I take important side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression...
April 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422824/pancreatic-carcinoids-serotonin-producing-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-report-of-5-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Eleftherios Chatzellis, Dimitra Rontogianni, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Georgios Boutzios, Anna Angelousi, Gregory Kaltsas
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) are relatively rare tumors representing 1% to 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. These tumors can secrete a variety of biologically active substances giving rise to distinct clinical symptoms or can be clinically nonfunctioning. Apart from insulinomas and gastrinomas, which constitute the majority of functioning pNENs, some tumors may secrete serotonin presenting with the features of the carcinoid syndrome. These so-called pancreatic carcinoids are considered relatively rare tumors and are associated with increased urinary levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421287/-age-89-years-depression-fall-with-pelvic-fracture-severe-confusion-serotonin-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-importance-of-cyp450-and-economic-considerations
#3
REVIEW
W Weinrebe, A Moutaouakil, K Risz, M Martin, K Jeckelmann, S Goetz
A case study of an 89-year-old patient is reported, who was admitted to hospital because of immobility due to pain. After the cause of the pain could initially be clarified and treated, the further clinical course in this very old woman showed an alarming symptom complex of agitation, confusion and cognitive deterioration, which took on grave forms. The work-up of this case showed a typical constellation of pain and depression in old age; however, the pharmaceutical treatment in this case is not atypical and could lead to a severe serotonin syndrome...
April 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419872/stimulation-of-the-brain-serotonin-receptor-7-rescues-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-female-mice-from-two-models-of-rett-syndrome
#4
Daniela Valenti, Lidia de Bari, Daniele Vigli, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, Giovanni Laviola, Rosa Anna Vacca, Bianca De Filippis
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that neurobehavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family, crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes, can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective agonist...
April 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416295/depressive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-and-dopamine-and-serotonin-gene-polymorphisms
#5
Vjekoslav Peitl, Mario Štefanović, Dalibor Karlović
Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores...
April 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412910/aripiprazole-a-drug-that-displays-partial-agonism-and-functional-selectivity
#6
Erin W Tuplin, Matthew R Holahan
The treatment of schizophrenia is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms (positive, negative, cognitive) associated with the disease. Typical antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors are effective in treating positive symptoms, but extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) are a common occurrence. Atypical antipsychotics targeting 5-TH2A and D2 receptors are more effective at treating cognitive and negative symptoms compared to typical antipsychotics, but these drugs also result in side-effects such as metabolic syndromes...
April 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405636/when-transporters-fail-to-be-transported-how-to-rescue-folding-deficient-slc6-transporters
#7
Sonja Sucic, Ameya Kasture, H M Mazhar Asjad, Carina Kern, Ali El-Kasaby, Michael Freissmuth
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) belongs to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family. Point mutations in hDAT (SLC6A3) have been linked to a syndrome of dopamine transporter deficiency or infantile dystonia/parkinsonism. The mutations impair DAT folding, causing retention of variant DATs in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently impair transport activity. The folding trajectory of DAT itself is not understood, though many insights have been gained from studies of folding-deficient mutants of the closely related serotonin transporter (SERT); i...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404742/autonomic-nervous-system-activation-mediates-the-increase-in-whole-body-glucose-uptake-in-response-to-electroacupuncture
#8
Anna Benrick, Milana Kokosar, Min Hu, Martin Larsson, Manuel Maliqueo, Rodrigo Rodrigues Marcondes, Marzia Soligo, Virginia Protto, Elisabet Jerlhag, Antonina Sazonova, Carl Johan Behre, Kurt Højlund, Peter Thorén, Elisabet Stener-Victorin
A single bout of low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) causing muscle contractions increases whole-body glucose uptake in insulin-resistant rats. We explored the underlying mechanism of this finding and whether it can be translated into clinical settings. Changes in glucose infusion rate (GIR) were measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp during and after 45 min of low-frequency EA in 21 overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 controls matched for age, weight, and body mass index (experiment 1) and in rats receiving autonomic receptor blockers (experiment 2)...
April 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399090/-a-comparative-study-of-immune-and-clinical-indicators-in-radicular-and-myofascial-back-pain
#10
A I Levashova, V S Morozova, S N Petrochenko, М А Myagkova, I A Moseikin
AIM: To compare immunochemical and clinical parameters in patients with chronic radicular and myofascial back pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study included 92 patients (55 men and 37 women) with radicular pain syndrome and 97 patients (33 men and 64 women) with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain status was assessed with the differential visual analogous scale (at rest, on movement, at night and during spontaneous pain). Tensor algometry was used to measure pain intolerance thresholds at day and night...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384332/association-between-fibromyalgia-syndrome-and-peptic-ulcer-disease-development
#11
Kevin A Wang, Jia-Chi Wang, Cheng-Li Lin, Chun-Hung Tseng
PURPOSE: The correlation of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is unclear. We therefore conducted a cohort study to investigate whether FMS is correlated with an increased risk of PUD. METHODS: In this study, we established an FMS cohort comprising 26068 patients aged more than 20 years who were diagnosed with FMS from 2000 to 2011. Furthermore, we established a control cohort by randomly choosing 104269 people without FMS who were matched to the FMS patients by gender, age, and index year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382568/telotristat-ethyl-first-global-approval
#12
Anthony Markham
Telotristat ethyl (Xermelo™) is a peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor that was developed by Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Many neuroendocrine tumours secrete serotonin (5-HT) into the blood stream, resulting in a number of symptoms, notably diarrhoea. Telotristat ethyl inhibits TPH, thereby reducing the production of 5-HT. In February 2017, telotristat ethyl was approved in the USA for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome diarrhoea in combination with somatostatin analog (SSA) therapy in adults inadequately controlled by SSA therapy...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381994/losing-without-fighting-simple-aversive-stimulation-induces-submissiveness-typical-for-social-defeat-via-the-action-of-nitric-oxide-but-only-when-preceded-by-an-aggression-priming-stimulus
#13
Jan Rillich, Paul A Stevenson
Losing a fight (social defeat) induces submissiveness and behavioral depression in many animals, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here we investigate how the social defeat syndrome can be established as a result of experiencing aversive stimuli and the roles of neuromodulators in the process. While biogenic amines and nitric oxide (NO) are associated with reduced aggression in mammals and insects, their specific actions during conflict are unknown. Although the social defeat syndrome normally results from complex interactions, we could induce it in male crickets simply by applying aversive stimuli (AS) in an aggressive context...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374503/tryptase-potentiates-enteric-nerve-activation-by-histamine-and-serotonin-relevance-for-the-effects-of-mucosal-biopsy-supernatants-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#14
D Ostertag, A Annahazi, D Krueger, K Michel, I E Demir, G O Ceyhan, F Zeller, M Schemann
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients activated neurons despite low concentrations of tryptase, histamine, and serotonin which individually would not cause spike discharge. We studied the potentiating responses between these mediators on excitability of enteric neurons. METHODS: Calcium-imaging was performed using the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4 AM in human submucous plexus preparations from 45 individuals...
April 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367296/famotidine-induced-reversal-of-meperidine-related-serotonin-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Soohyun Joe, Eunju Kim, Junyi Park, Dongwon Lee, Jongchul Son, Hyun Kim
Serotonin syndrome is an unexpected fatal adverse event related to serotonergic medication. This case report is the first report describing the possible treatment effect of famotidine on serotonin syndrome. Furthermore, this is the first case report of serotonin syndrome induced by meperidine alone in a patient with no previous history suggesting a susceptibility to serotonin syndrome. A 70-year-old male with no recent history of serotonergic drug use presented with severe serotonin syndrome following ureteroscopy, possibly due to postoperative meperidine administration...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364695/the-influence-of-a-single-and-chronic-administration-of-venlafaxine-on-tramadol-pharmacokinetics-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
Danuta Szkutnik-Fiedler, Tomasz Grabowski, Monika Balcerkiewicz, Michał Michalak, Irina Pilipczuk, Łukasz Wyrowski, Hanna Urjasz, Edmund Grześkowiak
BACKGROUND: The combined use of tramadol with selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors e.g. venlafaxine may be associated with serotonin syndrome. No previous studies exist examining the influence of a weak CYP2D6 inhibitor venlafaxine on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single and chronic administration of venlafaxine on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol using a rabbit model. METHODS: Adult New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes (n=21) were used...
February 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351018/profiles-of-amino-acids-and-biogenic-amines-in-the-plasma-of-cri-du-chat-patients
#17
Danielle Zildeana Sousa Furtado, Fernando Brunale Vilela de Moura Leite, Cleber Nunes Barreto, Bernadete Faria, Leticia Dias Lima Jedlicka, Elisângela de Jesus Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres da Silva, Etelvino Jose Henriques Bechara, Nilson Antonio Assunção
Cri-du-chat syndrome (CDCS) is a rare innate disease attributed to chromosome 5p deletion characterized by a cat-like cry, craniofacial malformation, and altered behavior of affected children. Metabolomic analysis and a chemometric approach allow description of the metabolic profile of CDCS as compared to normal subjects. In the present work, UHPLC/MS was employed to analyze blood samples withdrawn from CDCS carriers (n=18) and normal parental subjects (n=18), all aged 0-34 years, aiming to set up a representative CDCS profile constructed from 33 targeted amino acids and biogenic amines...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350718/serotonin-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-after-vilazodone-ingestion
#18
Benjamin Laliberte, Omayma A Kishk
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a serious toxicity that manifests with symptoms such as tremor, hyperthermia, agitation, and altered mental status that may lead to seizures, coma, or death. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may precipitate SS, particularly in combination with other drugs that possess serotonergic activity. We present a case of SS in a 14-month-old after an ingestion of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor vilazodone.
March 27, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342749/characterizing-the-differential-roles-of-striatal-5-ht1a-auto-and-hetero-receptors-in-the-reduction-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#19
Samantha M Meadows, Nicole E Chambers, Melissa M Conti, Sharon C Bossert, Crystal Tasber, Eitan Sheena, Mark Varney, Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Christopher Bishop
l-DOPA remains the benchmark treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms, but chronic use leads to l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The serotonin (5-HT) system has been established as a key modulator of LID and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) stimulation has been shown to convey anti-dyskinetic effects. However, 5-HT1AR agonists often compromise clinical efficacy or display intrinsic side effects and their site(s) of actions remain debatable. Recently, highly selective G-protein biased 5-HT1AR agonists, F13714 and F15599, were shown to potently target 5-HT1A auto- or hetero-receptors, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337123/analysis-of-the-serotonergic-system-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-reveals-unusual-upregulation-of-serotonin-receptor-5b
#20
Steffen Vogelgesang, Sabine Niebert, Ute Renner, Wiebke Möbius, Swen Hülsmann, Till Manzke, Marcus Niebert
Mutations in the transcription factor methyl-CpG-binding-protein 2 (MeCP2) cause a delayed-onset neurodevelopmental disorder known as Rett syndrome (RTT). Although alteration in serotonin levels have been reported in RTT patients, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood. Therefore, we chose to investigate the serotonergic system in hippocampus and brainstem of male Mecp2(-/y) knock-out mice in the B6.129P2(C)-Mecp2(tm1.1Bird) mouse model of RTT. The serotonergic system in mouse is comprised of 16 genes, whose mRNA expression profile was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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