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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135035/analysis-and-measurement-of-serotonin
#1
REVIEW
András Seitz, Stelvio M Bandiera
Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, is an important signaling molecule in the central and peripheral nervous systems of humans. Acting through several receptor types, it helps regulate the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system and brain. Serotonin signaling has also been implicated in the etiology of several diseases, including depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. The present review focuses on the chemical analysis of serotonin in biological fluids and biomatrices and traces the development and application of early methods based on UV absorbance or fluorescence to more widely-used current methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134498/vasoplegic-shock-treated-with-methylene-blue-complicated-by-severe-serotonin-syndrome
#2
Betty S Chan, Therese Becker, Angela L Chiew, Ahmed M Abdalla, Tom A Robertson, Xin Liu, Michael S Roberts, Nicholas A Buckley
INTRODUCTION: Management of severe vasoplegic shock in overdose can be very challenging. We describe a case of severe refractory vasodilatory shock in poisoning where methylene blue (MB) was used with success. However, the patient subsequently developed severe Serotonin Syndrome (SS) as a result of an interaction between serotonergic drugs and MB. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old male developed severe vasoplegic shock 1.5 hours after overdosing on several different medications including quetiapine slow release, quetiapine immediate release, desvenlafaxine slow release, venlafaxine, amlodipine, ramipril, fluoxetine, promethazine and lithium...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132964/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-contemporary-diagnosis-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Robert L Reid, Claudio N Soares
Most ovulatory women experience premenstrual symptoms (premenstrual syndrome, molimina) which indicate impending menstruation and are of little clinical relevance because they do not affect quality of life. A few women, however, experience significant physical and/or psychological symptoms before menstruation that, if left untreated, would result in deterioration in functioning and relationships. The precise etiology remains elusive, although new theories are gaining support in pre-clinical and early clinical trials...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132094/antidepressants-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#4
Agnieszka Kułak-Bejda, Grzegorz Bejda, Napoleon Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multifactorial etiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), psychological factors play an important role. It is possible that antidepressant therapy may be more effective for patients with IBS. The aim of this study was a systematic review of the best available antidepressant therapies for IBS. METHODS: The databases Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for randomized controlled trials were searched for studies published before September 2016...
June 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128269/post-orgasmic-illness-syndrome-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Hoang Minh Tue Nguyen, Areeg Bala, Andrew T Gabrielson, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Post-orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) is a rare but debilitating cluster of postejaculatory symptoms affecting men. It is a chronic disorder manifesting as a constellation of flulike and allergic symptoms within seconds, minutes, or hours after ejaculation. POIS can be followed by mental sequelae such as diminished concentration and irritability. POIS negatively affects the life of patients by limiting sexual encounters, dampening romantic prospects, creating internal struggles to avoid eroticism, and affecting patients' schedules...
November 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099955/screening-for-adult-adhd-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-syndrome
#6
Roland van Rensburg, Helgard Pieter Meyer, Sonia Anne Hitchcock, Christian Edward Schuler
Objective: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common chronic pain disorder associated with altered activity of neurotransmitters involved in pain sensitivity such as dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline. FMS may significantly impact an individual's functioning due to the presence of chronic pain, fatigue, and cognitive impairment. Dyscognition may be more disabling than the chronic pain but is mostly under-recognized. This study aimed to assess the potential co-occurrence of FMS and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder also associated with impaired cognition and dopaminergic function...
November 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089619/mir-16-and-mir-103-impact-5-ht4-receptor-signalling-and-correlate-with-symptom-profile-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Carolin Wohlfarth, Stefanie Schmitteckert, Janina D Härtle, Lesley A Houghton, Harsh Dweep, Marina Fortea, Ghazaleh Assadi, Alexander Braun, Tanja Mederer, Sarina Pöhner, Philip P Becker, Christine Fischer, Martin Granzow, Hubert Mönnikes, Emeran A Mayer, Gregory Sayuk, Guy Boeckxstaens, Mira M Wouters, Magnus Simrén, Greger Lindberg, Bodil Ohlsson, Peter Thelin Schmidt, Aldona Dlugosz, Lars Agreus, Anna Andreasson, Mauro D'Amato, Barbara Burwinkel, Justo Lorenzo Bermejo, Ralph Röth, Felix Lasitschka, Maria Vicario, Marco Metzger, Javier Santos, Gudrun A Rappold, Cristina Martinez, Beate Niesler
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gut-brain disorder involving alterations in intestinal sensitivity and motility. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors are promising candidates in IBS pathophysiology since they regulate gut motor function and stool consistency, and targeted 5-HT4R selective drug intervention has been proven beneficial in subgroups of patients. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs201253747) c.*61 T > C within the 5-HT4 receptor gene HTR4 to be predominantly present in diarrhoea-IBS patients (IBS-D)...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074312/understanding-the-patient-experience-with-carcinoid-syndrome-exit-interviews-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study-of-telotristat-ethyl
#8
Lowell Anthony, Claire Ervin, Pablo Lapuerta, Matthew H Kulke, Pamela Kunz, Emily Bergsland, Dieter Hörsch, David C Metz, Janice Pasieka, Nick Pavlakis, Marianne Pavel, Martyn Caplin, Kjell Öberg, John Ramage, Emily Evans, Qi Melissa Yang, Shanna Jackson, Karie Arnold, Linda Law, Dana B DiBenedetti
PURPOSE: Telotristat ethyl, an oral tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, is intended to treat carcinoid syndrome by reducing serotonin production. Telotristat ethyl was evaluated in TELESTAR, a Phase III study for patients who had carcinoid syndrome with at least 4 bowel movements (BMs) per day and who were receiving somatostatin analogue therapy. This interview substudy was conducted to provide insight into the patient experience in TELESTAR and to help understand whether reductions in BM frequency (the primary end point) and other symptoms were clinically meaningful...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054049/individual-variability-in-clinical-effect-and-tolerability-of-opioid-analgesics-importance-of-drug-interactions-and-pharmacogenetics
#9
REVIEW
Vigdis Solhaug, Espen Molden
BACKGROUND: As pain is often a comorbid condition, many patients use opioid analgesics in combination with several other drugs. This implies a generally increased risk of drug interactions, which along with inherent pharmacogenetic variability and other factors may cause differences in therapeutic response of opioids. AIM: To provide an overview of interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of relevance for individual differences in effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics, which physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of in clinical practice...
October 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052453/review-of-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-common-primary-psychiatric-causes-of-cutaneous-disease
#10
J A Krooks, A G Weatherall, P J Holland
Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051994/telotristat-ethyl-proof-of-principle-and-the-first-oral-agent-in-the-management-of-well-differentiated-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-and-carcinoid-syndrome-diarrhea
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Masab, Muhammad Wasif Saif
INTRODUCTION: Metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are associated with carcinoid syndrome that is typically characterized by diarrhea, cutaneous flushing and bronchospasm. Treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSA) improves the symptom burden but a significant proportion of patients stop responding to SSA therapy eventually. Novel agents with the potential to effectively control the symptoms are urgently needed. METHODS: This article reviews an in-depth analysis of the phase I-III clinical trials determining the clinical rationale for the use of tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, telotristat ethyl in patients with well-differentiated metastatic NETs and uncontrolled carcinoid syndrome...
October 19, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046318/central-serotonin-and-the-control-of-arterial-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-infant-rats-influence-of-sleep-state-and-sex
#12
Jennifer L Magnusson, Kevin James Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is associated with serotonin (5-HT) neuron abnormalities. There is evidence of autonomic dysfunction during sleep in infants eventually succumbing to SIDS, as well as cardiovascular collapse prior to death. Neonatal rodents deficient in central 5-HT display hypotension and bradycardia. We hypothesized that central 5-HT reduces cardiac vagal tone and increases sympathetic vascular tone and, given the firing pattern of 5-HT neurons, that these effects are greater in quiet sleep (QS) than in active sleep (AS)...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044551/disordered-eating-and-obesity-associations-between-binge-eating-disorder-night-eating-syndrome-and-weight-related-comorbidities
#13
REVIEW
Courtney McCuen-Wurst, Madelyn Ruggieri, Kelly C Allison
Binge-eating disorder (BED) and night-eating syndrome (NES) are two forms of disordered eating associated with overweight and obesity. While these disorders also occur in nonobese persons, they seem to be associated with weight gain over time and higher risk of diabetes and other metabolic dysfunction. BED and NES are also associated with higher risk of psychopathology, including mood, anxiety, and sleep problems, than those of similar weight status without disordered eating. Treatments are available, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy, lisdexamfetamine, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for BED; and CBT, SSRIs, progressive muscle relaxation, and bright light therapy for NES...
October 16, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040196/carcinoid-syndrome-complicating-a-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-a-case-report
#14
James N Gerson, Ronald M Witteles, Daniel T Chang, Ramin E Beygui, Andrei H Iagaru, Pamela L Kunz
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. These tumors can produce a wide variety of hormones that can lead to syndromes of hormone excess, such as carcinoid syndrome. We present the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and emesis. He was found to have metastatic pancreatic NET and was treated with systemic chemotherapy. He subsequently developed dyspnea on exertion and was found to have severe right-sided heart disease secondary to elevated levels of serum serotonin...
November 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035515/isoform-specific-substrate-inhibition-mechanism-of-human-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#15
Kasper D Tidemand, Günther H Peters, Pernille Harris, Eva Stensgaard, Hans E M Christensen
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome. TPH exists in two isoforms: TPH1 and TPH2. TPH1 catalyzes the initial step in the synthesis of serotonin in the peripheral tissues, while TPH2 catalyzes this step in the brain. In this study, the steady-state kinetic mechanism for the catalytic domain of human TPH1 has been determined. Varying substrate tryptophan (Trp) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) results in a hybrid Ping Pong-ordered mechanism in which the reaction can either occur through a Ping Pong or a sequential mechanism depending on the concentration of tryptophan...
October 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032922/serotonin-transporter-density-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-pathological-gambling-a-pet-study-with-11-c-madam
#16
Joonas Majuri, Juho Joutsa, Jarkko Johansson, Valerie Voon, Riitta Parkkola, Hannu Alho, Eveliina Arponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED), appear to be associated with specific changes in brain dopamine and opioid function, but the role of other neurotransmitter systems is less clear. Given the crucial role of serotonin in a number of psychiatric disorders, we aimed to compare brain serotonergic function among individuals with BED, PG and healthy controls. Seven BED patients, 13 PG patients and 16 healthy controls were scanned with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) using the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [(11)C]MADAM...
October 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983239/the-serotonin-receptor-subtype-5b-specifically-interacts-with-serotonin-receptor-subtype-1a
#17
Sabine Niebert, Gijsbert J van Belle, Steffen Vogelgesang, Till Manzke, Marcus Niebert
Previously, we described the dysregulation of serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 5b (5-ht5b) in a mouse model of Rett syndrome (RTT). 5-ht5b has not been extensively studied, so we set out to characterize it in more detail. Unlike common cell surface receptors, 5-ht5b displays no membrane expression, while receptor clusters are located in endosomes. This unusual subcellular localization is at least in part controlled by glycosylation of the N-terminus, with 5-ht5b possessing fewer glycosylation sites than related receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976215/mania-following-antidepressant-discontinuation-in-depression-two-case-reports
#18
Cecilia Sze Nga Kwok, Leslie Eng Choon Lim
OBJECTIVE: Antidepressant-induced mania and an antidepressant discontinuation syndrome are well documented, whereas mania occurring after antidepressant cessation has been infrequently reported. METHOD: We describe antidepressant discontinuation-related mania in two Chinese patients, as well as a review of the literature on this phenomenon in unipolar depression. RESULTS: A 72-year-old man and a 65-year-old woman had late-onset depression with vascular risk factors, but no personal or family history of mood disorders...
September 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975823/serotonin-syndrome-complicating-treatment-of-ifosfamide-neurotoxicity-with-methylene-blue
#19
Matthew Snyder, Suhas Gangadhara, Andrew S Brohl, Steven Ludlow, Sowmya Nanjappa
Methylene blue is a widely used treatment for ifosfamide neurotoxicity. We present a case of severe encephalopathy complicating ifosfamide-based therapy for recurrent retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma. After treatment with methylene blue, the patient experienced clinical decompensation and was diagnosed with serotonin syndrome based on a constellation of clinical findings. Withdrawal of methylene blue and other serotonergic medications led to clinical stabilization and ultimately neurological recovery. Our case highlights the challenge of diagnosing serotonin syndrome in the face of preexisting ifosfamide neurotoxicity, as there is significant clinical overlap between these 2 syndromes...
October 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973719/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-pathways-of-cerebral-neurotransmission-of-anovulatory-mice
#20
M A Azevedo, I D C G Silva
Polycystic ovary syndrome is the classic example of loss of functional cyclicity and anomalous feedback. In this case, the excessive extra-glandular production and conversion of androgens to estrogens are the pathophysiological basis of the chronic anovulation. The literature describes an experimental model of the polymicrocystic ovary in obese diabetic mice with insulin resistance. The fact that these animals exhibit obesity, insulin resistance, and infertility demonstrates their skill as an experimental model for polycystic ovary...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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