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serotonin syndrome

Qin Xiang Ng, Alex Yu Sen Soh, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex and chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal condition that affects more than 10% of the population worldwide. There is a pressing need for new therapeutic strategies in the management of IBS. Increasing research has shed light on the modulatory functions of melatonin on pain, local inflammation and motility in the gastrointestinal tract. However, melatonin's effects are limited by its extensive first-pass metabolism and short half-life...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Alma Rus, Francisco Molina, María Luisa Del Moral, María Jesús Ramírez-Expósito, José Manuel Martínez-Martos
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome characterized by widespread pain. Its etiology is unclear, and diagnosis is difficult. The aim of this study was to assess plasma levels of monoamine neurotransmitters (catecholamines, indolamines, and intermediate metabolites) in patients with FM and healthy controls to investigate possible alterations in the metabolism of these molecules in FM. We also examined potential relationships between monoamine neurotransmitters and clinical features of FM...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Nathan J Smischney, Emily M Pollard, Asha U Nookala, Oludare O Olatoye
BACKGROUND Serotonin syndrome is a life-threatening condition that can lead to neurologic complications and is associated with the use of serotonergic medications. As the use of antidepressant medications has increased, the incidence of perioperative serotonin syndrome has transitioned from a rare diagnosis to one that should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any patient displaying signs of neuroexcitation. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old man (ASA 2) with a history of vestibular migraines (treated with venlafaxine), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to our institution for photoselective vaporization of the prostate...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Stella Y Lee, Chrystelle M Sirieix, Eugene Nattie, Aihua Li
KEY POINTS: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is one of the leading causes of death during the first year of life and abnormalities linked to serotonin (5-HT) have been identified in many SIDS cases. Cigarette smoking and associated exogenous stressors, e.g. developmental nicotine exposure, may compound these serotonergic defects and any associated defects in cardiorespiratory function. Using neonatal rodent pups subjected to medullary 5-HT deficiency and perinatal nicotine exposure, we examined the impact of this interplay of factors on the neonates' ability to autoresuscitate at specific ages...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Cindy Yeoh, Luis Tollinche
We report a case of a 35 year old woman with colon cancer metastatic to liver and lung who presented for exploratory laparotomy and/placement of hepatic arterial infusion pump for chemotherapy. Surgical course was notable for aberrant hepatic artery anatomy requiring extended dissection time, vascular surgery consultation, and use of substantial methylene blue to aid in visualization. Of note, patient's history was also significant for anxiety and depression, for which she was being treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) duloxetine (Cymbalta)...
June 2018: Anesthesiology case reports
Vaughn L Culbertson, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Grayson C Bosen, Matthew L Caylor, Megan M Echevarria, Dong Xu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Serotonergic adverse drug events (ADEs) are caused by enhanced intra-synaptic concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). No systematic process currently exists for evaluating cumulative 5-HT and off-target toxicity of serotonergic drugs. The primary study aim was to create a Serotonergic Expanded Bioactivity Matrix (SEBM) employing a molecular bioinformatics, poly-pharmacologic approach for assessing the participation of individual 5-HT drugs in serotonin syndrome (SS) reports...
July 4, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Nobuhiro Nakai, Toru Takumi, Junichi Nakai, Masaaki Sato
In vivo optical imaging is a powerful tool for revealing brain structure and function at both the circuit and cellular levels. Here, we provide a systematic review of findings obtained from in vivo imaging studies of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders, including the monogenic disorders fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by genetic abnormalities of FMR1, MECP2 , and UBE3A , as well as disorders caused by copy number variations (15q11-13 duplication and 22q11...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Justin R Welden, Zhaiyi Zhang, Marilyn J Duncan, Marina Falaleeva, Timothy Wells, Stefan Stamm
The serotonin receptor 2C (5HT2C) is an important drug target to treat obesity and depression. Its pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing, encoding a short RNA1 isoform that is localized intracellularly and a full-length isoform (RNA2) that can reach the cell membrane. These splicing isoforms are deregulated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), due to the loss of a trans-acting regulatory RNA, SNORD115. Here we show that the 5HT2C mRNA is expressed in the posterior pituitary, suggesting that 5HT2C mRNA is generated in the hypothalamus and subsequently conveyed by axonal transport...
June 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jenna L McGreevy, Samuel T Piraino, Gagangeet Sandhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Ronit Almog, Shemy Carasso, Idit Lavi, Offer Amir
BACKGROUND: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are still used in 30% of anxiety/depression cases and have been related to increased cardiovascular risk. Newer serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs /SNRIs ) safety remains conflicting. Our aim was to assess the risk of a first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients treated by various types of antidepressants. METHODS: Study was a retrospective nested case-control of 40-80 years old northern-Israeli members of Clalit Health Services (CHS) during 1...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jaclyn Homola, Robin Hieber
Background: Various publications have noted increases in dopamine, specifically in the mesolimbic region of the brain, to have a direct correlation to psychotic-like symptoms. Venlafaxine, a first-line medication for depression, inhibits the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine. Additionally, venlafaxine weakly inhibits the reuptake of dopamine. Phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®), specifically the phentermine component, functions by blocking the dopamine and norepinephrine transporter, similar to amphetamine...
March 2018: The mental health clinician
Abdullah Aboukarr, Mirella Giudice
Background: Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors are used to treat the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease. Depression is commonly associated with Parkinson disease, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often used for its management. Tertiary sources warn that the combination of MAO-B inhibitors and SSRIs can result in increased serotonergic effects, leading to serotonin syndrome. Objective: To explore the mechanism, clinical significance, and management of this potential drug interaction through a review of the supporting evidence...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Emmanuel Roze, Anthony E Lang, Marie Vidailhet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present study will highlight recent advances in the field of myoclonus-dystonia with a focus on clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and treatment. We will also discuss genetics, classification issues, and diagnostic criteria. RECENT FINDINGS: Myoclonus-dystonia is a clinical syndrome corresponding to the phenotype linked to SGCE, the main causative gene. Childhood-onset myoclonus that predominates over dystonia with prominent upper body involvement, an absence of truncal dystonia, associated anxiety or compulsivity, and a positive family history are helpful diagnostic clues...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Simeng Gu, Liyuan Jing, Yang Li, Jason H Huang, Fushun Wang
Objective: Previously, we showed that neuromodulators are important factors involved in depression, here we aim to further investigate the interactions between neuromodulators and sex hormone involved in menopause related depression in rats. Methods: Menopausal depression was made with bilateral ovariectomies in female SD rats followed by chronic mild unpredictable stress treatment for 21 days. Thirty six rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham surgery group, sham/stress group, surgery group, surgery/stress group...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Julia Maruani, George Anderson, Bruno Etain, Michel Lejoyeux, Frank Bellivier, Pierre A Geoffroy
Bipolar disorders (BDs) are severe and common psychiatric disorders. BD pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and relapses are associated with numerous circadian rhythm abnormalities. In addition, infradian fluctuations of mood, social activity, weight and sleep patterns are very frequent in BD. Disease course with a seasonal pattern (SP) occurs in approximately 25% of depressive and 15% of manic episodes, which is coupled to a more severe disease symptomatology. The pathophysiological mechanisms of seasonal effects in BD await clarification, with likely important clinical consequences...
June 25, 2018: Chronobiology International
Katherine A Lyseng-Williamson
Telotristat ethyl (Xermelo® ), a first-in-class peripheral tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor, is approved to treat carcinoid syndrome diarrhoea in combination with somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy in adults inadequately controlled by SSA therapy alone. Some neuroendocrine tumours secrete serotonin (5-HT) into the blood, resulting in frequent bowel movements (BMs) and other symptoms. Telotristat ethyl inhibits TPH, thereby reducing the production of 5-HT and improving carcinoid syndrome diarrhoea. In the 12-week placebo-controlled phase of randomized trials in patients with carcinoid syndrome diarrhoea (most of whom were receiving SSA therapy), the addition of oral telotristat ethyl 250 three times daily provided significant reductions in the frequency of BMs and levels of urinary 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (u5-HIAA; a metabolite of 5-HT) relative to placebo...
June 2018: Drugs
Brian A Baldo
Drugs may cause serotonin toxicity by a number of different mechanisms including inhibition of serotonin uptake and metabolism, increased serotonin synthesis and release, activation of serotonin receptors, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 oxidases. Some drug interactions involving opioids can increase intrasynaptic levels of serotonin, and opioid analgesic drugs are now recognized as being involved in some cases of serotonin toxicity especially if administered in conjunction with other serotonergic medications including monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Julie M Guilmette, Vania Nosé
This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into 2 broad categories: well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET) and poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (panNEC), and incorporates a new subcategory of "well-differentiated high-grade NET (G3)" to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management...
June 14, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
May 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
Julian Maier, Felix P Mayer, Dino Luethi, Marion Holy, Kathrin Jäntsch, Harald Reither, Lena Hirtler, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti, Christian Pifl, Simon D Brandt, Harald H Sitte
(±)-cis-4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) that has been associated with 31 fatalities and other adverse events in Europe between June 2013 and February 2014. We used in vitro uptake inhibition and transporter release assays to determine the effects of 4,4'-DMAR on human high-affinity transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT). In addition, we assessed its binding affinities to monoamine receptors and transporters. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction of 4,4'-DMAR with the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells and synaptic vesicles prepared from human striatum...
June 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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