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VRE in ICU patients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046248/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#1
Jung-Jr Ye, Shian-Sen Shie, Chun-Wen Cheng, Jeng-How Yang, Po-Yen Huang, Ting-Shu Wu, Ming-Hsun Lee, Ching-Tai Huang
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE-fm) bacteremia causes significant mortality in hospitalized patients. We sought to investigate clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and microbiological eradication associated with VRE-fm bacteremia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted and included 210 adult patients admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. RESULTS: The mean Pitt bacteremia score was 4...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961986/novel-multiresistance-cfr-plasmids-in-linezolid-resistant-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-vre-from-a-hospital-outbreak-co-location-of-cfr-and-optra-in-vre
#2
Alexandros Lazaris, David C Coleman, Angela M Kearns, Bruno Pichon, Peter M Kinnevey, Megan R Earls, Breida Boyle, Brian O'Connell, Gráinne I Brennan, Anna C Shore
Background: Linezolid is often the drug of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid resistance can be mutational (23S rRNA or L-protein) or, less commonly, acquired [predominantly cfr , conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A compounds (PhLOPS A ) or optrA , encoding oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance]. Objectives: To investigate the clonality and genetic basis of linezolid resistance in 13 linezolid-resistant (LZDR) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates recovered during a 2013/14 outbreak in an ICU in an Irish hospital and an LZDR vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolate from an LZDR-MRSE-positive patient...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774865/shifts-in-antimicrobial-consumption-and-infection-rates-before-and-during-a-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage
#3
S Travis King, Katie E Barber, Jason J Parham, Kayla R Stover
OBJECTIVES: Anti-infective shortages represent a growing threat to optimum management of infected patients and alter the institutional selective pressure against hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). The objective of this analysis was to assess the impact of a shortage of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) on overall antibacterial use and HAI rates at an academic institution. METHODS: Antimicrobial use and infection data were extracted from TheraDoc Clinical Surveillance Software (Premier, Inc...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702465/a-dynamic-transmission-model-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-infection-control-strategies
#4
Karim Khader, Alun Thomas, W Charles Huskins, Molly Leecaster, Yue Zhang, Tom Greene, Andrew Redd, Matthew H Samore
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge about control of antibiotic resistance depends on the rigorous evaluation of alternative intervention strategies. The STAR*ICU trial examined the effects of active surveillance and expanded barrier precautions on acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in intensive care units. We report a reanalyses of the STAR*ICU trial using a Bayesian transmission modeling framework. METHODS: The data included admission and discharge times and surveillance test times and results...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558010/effect-of-meteorological-factors-and-geographic-location-on-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-colonization-in-the-us
#5
Natalia Blanco, Eli Perencevich, Shan Shan Li, Daniel J Morgan, Lisa Pineles, J Kristie Johnson, Gwen Robinson, Deverick J Anderson, Jesse T Jacob, Lisa L Maragakis, Anthony D Harris
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of meteorological conditions and geographical location on bacterial colonization rates particularly of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of season, meteorological factors, and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization. METHODS: The prospective cohort included all adults admitted to 20 geographically-dispersed ICUs across the US from September 1, 2011 to October 4, 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431846/implementation-of-daily-chlorhexidine-bathing-to-reduce-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-a-critical-care-unit
#6
Jackson S Musuuza, Ajay K Sethi, Tonya J Roberts, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Colonized patients are a reservoir for transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Not many studies have examined the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing under routine care conditions. We present a descriptive analysis of the trends of MDRO colonization following implementation of daily CHG bathing under routine clinical conditions in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: From May 2010-January 2011, we screened patients admitted to a 24-bed ICU for and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli (FQRGNB)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384858/antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-among-intensive-care-units-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-india
#7
Kailash Moolchandani, Apurba Sankar Sastry, R Deepashree, Sujatha Sistla, B N Harish, Jharna Mandal
INTRODUCTION: Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) are the rising threat in the health care facilities across the globe. As most Intesive Care Unit (ICU) patients are frequently on broad spectrum antimicrobials, this induces selective antibiotic pressure which leads to development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) among the microorganisms of ICUs. AIM: To study the occurrence of different types of HAIs in patients admitted to various ICUs of JIPMER and the AMR pattern of the bacterial pathogens isolated from them...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915096/universal-contact-precautions-do-not-change-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-in-a-tertiary-burn-unit
#8
Adelyn L Ho, Reid Chambers, Claudia Malic, Anthony Papp
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms (ARO) in burn units is increasing worldwide and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Study aims are to describe the burden of AROs in burn patients admitted to a tertiary burn unit, to evaluate the impact of contact precautions implemented after an outbreak of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and to identify possible predictors of ARO acquisition. METHODS: Data of burn inpatients between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905623/-mortality-analysis-of-enterococcus-faecium-bloodstream-infection-in-central-taiwan
#9
Chen Chang-Hua, Lin Li-Chen, Chang Yu-Jun, Chang Chih-Yen
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), particularly those due to vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), are still a therapeutic challenge. AIM: To evaluate mortality from BSI due to E. faecium and VRE in central Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cases of significant E. faecium BSI in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. RESULTS: Of the 76 cases, 28 patients (36...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895354/nosocomial-infections-in-the-icu-pens-and-spectacles-as-fomites
#10
Haris Farooq Murad, Khowaja Mohammad Inam Pal
Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Non-medical objects known as fomites may have a role in their genesis. We investigated the significance of writing pens and spectacles as fomites. The study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July 2013 to September 2013. Cultures were taken from pens and/or spectacles of resident nurses, doctors and nursing assistants in intensive care unit (ICU). Organisms important in ICU nosocomial infections were targeted. Seven rounds of sampling over 3 weeks led to 55 pen and 5 spectacle samples...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790430/screening-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-and-associated-risk-factors-among-patients-admitted-to-an-adult-intensive-care-unit-of-a-large-teaching-hospital
#11
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Molly Mary Thabah
INTRODUCTION: Gut colonization with Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) increases the risk of acquiring infection during hospital stay. Patients admitted in the ICU's are the major reservoirs for VRE colonization due to higher antibiotic pressure. AIM: To determine the rate of VRE colonization among patients admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and to assess the various risk factors which are associated with VRE colonization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out over a period of 18 months from September 2013 to February 2015 in the Jawaharlal Institute of Post graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, South India...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234462/an-observational-study-of-the-universal-use-of-octenidine-to-decrease-nosocomial-bloodstream-infections-and-mdr-organisms
#12
Petra Gastmeier, Klaus-Peter Kämpf, Michael Behnke, Christine Geffers, Frank Schwab
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of universal decolonization with octenidine on the incidence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections (BSI) and MDR organisms (MDRO). METHODS: A system-wide change in practice was performed in the ICUs of a university hospital with three campuses (eight medical ICUs and nine surgical ICUs). All ICUs had a general admission screening strategy for MRSA with subsequent isolation in the 12 month baseline period, which was stopped...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185645/real-time-application-of-whole-genome-sequencing-for-outbreak-investigation-what-is-an-achievable-turnaround-time
#13
Patrick McGann, Jessica L Bunin, Erik Snesrud, Seema Singh, Rosslyn Maybank, Ana C Ong, Yoon I Kwak, Scott Seronello, Robert J Clifford, Mary Hinkle, Stephen Yamada, Jason Barnhill, Emil Lesho
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly employed in clinical settings, though few assessments of turnaround times (TAT) have been performed in real-time. In this study, WGS was used to investigate an unfolding outbreak of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) among 3 patients in the ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Including overnight culturing, a TAT of just 48.5 h for a comprehensive report was achievable using an Illumina Miseq benchtop sequencer. WGS revealed that isolates from patient 2 and 3 differed from that of patient 1 by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indicating nosocomial transmission...
July 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125574/patient-level-analysis-of-incident-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-colonization-and-antibiotic-days-of-therapy
#14
J A McKINNELL, D F Kunz, S A Moser, S Vangala, C-H Tseng, M Shapiro, L G Miller
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections are a public health threat associated with increased patient mortality and healthcare costs. Antibiotic usage, particularly cephalosporins, has been associated with VRE colonization and VRE bloodstream infections (VRE BSI). We examined the relationship between antimicrobial usage and incident VRE colonization at the individual patient level. Prospective, weekly surveillance was undertaken for incident VRE colonization defined by negative admission but positive surveillance swab in a medical intensive care unit over a 17-month period...
June 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26861417/a-multicenter-pragmatic-interrupted-time-series-analysis-of-chlorhexidine-gluconate-bathing-in-community-hospital-intensive-care-units
#15
Kristen V Dicks, Eric Lofgren, Sarah S Lewis, Rebekah W Moehring, Daniel J Sexton, Deverick J Anderson
OBJECTIVE To determine whether daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of intensive care unit (ICU) patients leads to a decrease in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), particularly infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). DESIGN Interrupted time series analysis. SETTING The study included 33 community hospitals participating in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network from January 2008 through December 2013. PARTICIPANTS All ICU patients at study hospitals during the study period...
July 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684369/impact-of-pulsed-xenon-ultraviolet-light-on-hospital-acquired-infection-rates-in-a-community-hospital
#16
Pedro G Vianna, Charles R Dale, Sarah Simmons, Mark Stibich, Carmelo M Licitra
BACKGROUND: The role of contaminated environments in the spread of hospital-associated infections has been well documented. This study reports the impact of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet no-touch disinfection system on infection rates in a community care facility. METHODS: This study was conducted in a community hospital in Southern Florida. Beginning November 2012, a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system was implemented as an adjunct to traditional cleaning methods on discharge of select rooms...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26435949/clinico-microbiological-investigation-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-by-enterococcus-faecalis-vana-genotype
#17
Kesavaram Padmavathy, Shabana Praveen, Radha Madhavan, Nagarajan Krithika, Alexander Kiruthiga
Prolonged hospitalization and exposure to third generation cephalosporins are reported to facilitate the acquisition and colonization of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Though VRE is not uncommon in India, urinary tract infection with a vanA genotype is a cause of serious concern as VRE co-exhibit resistance to aminoglycosides. In India, majority of the VRE isolates recovered from hospitalized patients include Enterococcus faecium. We report a case of catheter associated urinary tract infection by an endogenous, multidrug resistant E...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388592/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-colonization-and-infection-in-children-six-year-follow-up
#18
Aslınur Özkaya-Parlakay, Ali Bülent Cengiz, Mehmet Ceyhan, Arzu Bağdat, Çağrı Barın-Kurtoğlu, Venhar Gürbüz, Ahmet Emre Aycan, Ateş Kara
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major concern in medical practice. Asymptomatic VRE colonization of the gastrointestinal tract may lead to infection. In this study, which included patients who stayed in our hospital between 2006 and 2011, we looked at the cases of 342 patients with VRE colonization and 19 patients with VRE infection. Vancomycin and carbapenem exposure and intestinal disorders were significantly more common in patients with VRE infection than in those with VRE colonization (p=0...
November 2014: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26313275/-is-there-a-relationship-between-rectal-colonization-and-nosocomial-infection-of-patients-in-intensive-care-unit
#19
Zuhal Yeşilbağ, Arif Atahan Çağatay, Aslı Karadeniz, Seniha Başaran, Günseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Özcan, Halit Özsüt, Haluk Eraksoy
Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms are a major problem in intensive care units (ICUs) with high mortality and morbidity rates and the prior colonization is an important risk factor for these infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of rectal colonization of MDR microorganisms and the association between the microorganisms that caused colonization and infection in the patients with nosocomial infections in ICUs. Rectal swabs were obtained on the day of 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and weekly thereafter from 80 patients over 18 years of age hospitalized in ICU for more than 48 hours, and cultured for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem-resistant enteric and nonenteric bacilli...
July 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26190380/outbreak-of-vanb-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-colonization-in-a-neonatal-service
#20
David M Lister, Despina Kotsanas, Susan A Ballard, Benjamin P Howden, Elizabeth Carse, Kenneth Tan, Carmel Scott, Elizabeth E Gillespie, Andrew A Mahony, Richard Doherty, Tony M Korman, Paul D R Johnson, Rhonda L Stuart
OBJECTIVE: To describe successful termination of an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) colonization within a neonatal service. SETTING: Multisite neonatal intensive care unit and special care nurseries within a single health care service. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-four cases of VREfm-colonized neonatal inpatients-including 2 clinical isolates (eye swab and catheter-urine specimen) and 42 screening isolates. INTERVENTIONS: Active surveillance cultures, patient isolation, contact precautions, enhanced environment cleaning, and staff and parent education...
October 1, 2015: American Journal of Infection Control
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