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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#1
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893816/mir-34-modulates-innate-immunity-and-ecdysone-signaling-in-drosophila
#2
Xiao-Peng Xiong, Krishna Kurthkoti, Kung-Yen Chang, Jian-Liang Li, Xingjie Ren, Jian-Quan Ni, Tariq M Rana, Rui Zhou
microRNAs are endogenous small regulatory RNAs that modulate myriad biological processes by repressing target gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Here we show that the conserved miRNA miR-34 regulates innate immunity and ecdysone signaling in Drosophila. miR-34 over-expression activates antibacterial innate immunity signaling both in cultured cells and in vivo, and flies over-expressing miR-34 display improved survival and pathogen clearance upon Gram-negative bacterial infection; whereas miR-34 knockout animals are defective in antibacterial defense...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890717/ecdysone-receptor-ecr-and-ultraspiracle-usp-genes-from-the-cyclopoid-copepod-paracyclopina-nana-identification-and-expression-in-response-to-water-accommodated-fractions-wafs
#3
Jayesh Puthumana, Min-Chul Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Hui-Su Kim, Dae-Sik Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
Ecdysteroid hormones are pivotal in the development, growth, and molting of arthropods, and the hormone pathway is triggered by binding ecdysteroid to a heterodimer of the two nuclear receptors; ecdysone receptors (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). We have characterized EcR and USP genes, and their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and studied mRNA transcription levels in post-embryonic stages and in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. The open reading frames (ORF) of EcR and USP were 1470 and 1287bp that encoded 490 and 429 amino acids with molecular weight of 121...
November 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883266/silencing-of-ecdysone-receptor-insect-intestinal-mucin-and-sericotropin-genes-by-bacterially-produced-double-stranded-rna-affects-larval-growth-and-development-in-plutella-xylostella-and-helicoverpa-armigera
#4
B Israni, M V Rajam
RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses...
November 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871792/dual-inhibition-of-bace1-and-a%C3%AE-aggregation-by-%C3%AE-ecdysone-application-of-a-phytoecdysteroid-scaffold-in-alzheimer-s-disease-therapeutics
#5
Sandipan Chakraborty, Soumalee Basu
Current medications for the complex neurological disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD), can neither stop disease progression nor revert back disease pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates the applicability of a phytoecdysteroid, β-ecdysone, as a multi-potent agent in AD therapeutics. β-ecdysone strongly binds to the active site cavity of BACE1 with calculated dissociation constant of 1.75±0.1μM. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that binding of β-ecdysone induces conformational transition of the protein from open to closed form thereby blocking substrate binding...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866813/rhodnius-prolixus-from-physiology-by-wigglesworth-to-recent-studies-of-immune-system-modulation-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-trypanosoma-rangeli
#6
REVIEW
P Azambuja, E S Garcia, P J Waniek, C S Vieira, M B Figueiredo, M S Gonzalez, C B Mello, D P Castro, N A Ratcliffe
This review is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir Vincent B. Wigglesworth (VW) in recognition of his many pioneering contributions to insect physiology which, even today, form the basis of modern-day research in this field. Insects not only make vital contributions to our everyday lives by their roles in pollination, balancing eco-systems and provision of honey and silk products, but they are also outstanding models for studying the pathogenicity of microorganisms and the functioning of innate immunity in humans...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855280/transcription-factor-e74a-affects-the-ecdysone-titer-by-regulating-the-expression-of-the-eo-gene-in-the-silkworm-bomby-mori
#7
Wei Sun, Cheng-Fang Wang, Ze Zhang
The formation of ecdysone pulse in insects is synergistically controlled by its biosynthesis and degradation. Previous studies have revealed the feedback regulation of the prothoracic gland (PG) activity to affect the hormone synthesis. However, the molecular regulatory mechanism of the ecdysone degradation is still unclear. In this study, we showed that ecdysone oxidase (EO) gene encoding a hormone metabolism enzyme was also induced by hormone itself in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori. Furthermore, luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ecdysone inducible transcription factor E74A could bind to the cis-regulatory elements of the EO gene...
November 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852762/transcriptomic-analysis-of-instinctive-and-learned-reward-related-behaviors-in-honey-bees
#8
Nicholas L Naeger, Gene E Robinson
We used transcriptomics to compare instinctive and learned, reward-based honey bee behaviors with similar spatio-temporal components: mating flights by males (drones) and time-trained foraging flights by females (workers), respectively. Genome-wide gene expression profiling via RNA sequencing was performed on the mushroom bodies, a region of the brain known for multi-modal sensory integration and responsive to various types of reward. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the onset of mating (623 genes) were enriched for the gene ontology (GO) categories of Transcription, Unfolded Protein Binding, Post-embryonic Development, and Neuron Differentiation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846223/combgap-promotes-ovarian-niche-development-and-chromatin-association-of-ecr-binding-regions-in-br-c
#9
Anna Hitrik, Malka Popliker, Dana Gancz, Zohar Mukamel, Aviezer Lifshitz, Omer Schwartzman, Amos Tanay, Lilach Gilboa
The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg) supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR)- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C)...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809786/analysis-of-gene-expression-in-the-midgut-of-bombyx-mori-during-the-larval-molting-stage
#10
Bing Yang, Wuren Huang, Jie Zhang, Qiuyun Xu, Shoulin Zhu, Qiaoli Zhang, Brenda T Beerntsen, Hongsheng Song, Erjun Ling
BACKGROUND: Insects can be models for understanding human intestinal infection and pathology. Molting, a special period during which the old insect cuticle is shed and a new one is produced, is crucial for insect development. Holometabolous insects may experience several larva-to-larva moltings to become larger, a pupal molt and adult eclosion to become adults. During the larval molts, they stop feeding and become quiescent. Although the molting larvae become quiescent, it is not known if changes in microbiome, physiology, development and immunity of midguts occur...
November 3, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763563/cloning-and-expression-of-ecdysone-receptor-and-retinoid-x-receptor-from-procambarus-clarkii-induction-by-eyestalk-ablation
#11
Tian-Hao Dai, Ali Sserwadda, Kun Song, Ya-Nan Zang, Huai-Shun Shen
Ecdysone receptor and retinoid X receptor are key regulators in molting. Here, full length ecdysone receptor (PcEcR) and retinoid X receptor (PcRXR) cDNAs from Procambarus clarkii were cloned. Full length cDNA of PcEcR has 2500 bp, encoding 576 amino acid proteins, and full length cDNA of PcRXR has 2593 bp, in which a 15 bp and a 204 bp insert/deletion splice variant regions in DNA binding domain and hinge domain were identified. The two splice variant regions in PcRXR result four isoforms: PcRXR1-4, encoding 525, 520, 457 and 452 amino acids respectively...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762340/juvenile-hormone-regulation-of-female-reproduction-in-the-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#12
Hemant Gujar, Subba Reddy Palli
To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742364/an-investigation-into-the-formation-of-tebufenozide-s-toxic-aromatic-amine-metabolites-in-human-in-vitro-hepatic-microsomes
#13
Khaled M Abass
Tebufenozide is a nonsteroid ecdysone agonist that causes premature and incomplete molting in Lepidoptera. Studies conducted so far have shown the low toxicity of tebufenozide in mammals, birds and invertebrates. Tebufenozide potential metabolites such as aromatic amines are known to induce methemoglobinemia disorder in humans, most likely by the formation of N-hydroxy metabolites; therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the formation of the potential toxic N-hydroxy derivatives in pooled human hepatic microsomal fractions...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737823/ecdysone-signaling-induces-two-phases-of-cell-cycle-exit-in-drosophila-cells
#14
Yongfeng Guo, Kerry Flegel, Jayashree Kumar, Daniel J McKay, Laura A Buttitta
During development, cell proliferation and differentiation must be tightly coordinated to ensure proper tissue morphogenesis. Because steroid hormones are central regulators of developmental timing, understanding the links between steroid hormone signaling and cell proliferation is crucial to understanding the molecular basis of morphogenesis. Here we examined the mechanism by which the steroid hormone ecdysone regulates the cell cycle in Drosophila We find that a cell cycle arrest induced by ecdysone in Drosophila cell culture is analogous to a G2 cell cycle arrest observed in the early pupa wing...
November 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706817/fluorescence-imaging-of-posterior-spiracles-from-second-and-third-instars-of-forensically-important-chrysomya-rufifacies-diptera-calliphoridae
#15
Danielle Flores, Amy L Miller, Angelique Showman, Caitlyn Tobita, Lori M N Shimoda, Carl Sung, Alexander J Stokes, Jeffrey K Tomberlin, David O Carter, Helen Turner
Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704796/whole-organism-transcriptomic-analysis-provides-mechanistic-insight-into-the-acute-toxicity-of-emamectin-benzoate-in-daphnia-magna
#16
You Song, Jan Thomas Rundberget, Linn Mari Evenseth, Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Tore Høgåsen, Taisen Iguchi, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Emamectin benzoate (EMB) is an anti-sea lice chemical widely used in the aquaculture that may also unintentionally affect non-target crustaceans in the environment. Although the adverse effects of this compound are well documented in various species, the full modes of action (MoAs) are still not well characterized. The current study was therefore conducted to characterize the MoAs of EMB and link perturbations of key toxicological pathways to adverse effects in the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684286/preparation-of-single-cohort-colonies-and-hormone-treatment-of-worker-honeybees-to-analyze-physiology-associated-with-role-and-or-endocrine-system
#17
Takayuki Ueno, Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Takeo Kubo
Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680968/dynamics-of-nuclear-receptor-gene-expression-during-pacific-oyster-development
#18
Susanne Vogeler, Tim P Bean, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway
BACKGROUND: Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conservation of developmental processes across phyla. Here, we studied nuclear receptor expression in the early life stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to identify at which specific key stages nuclear receptors are expressed RESULTS: We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression profiles of 34 nuclear receptors, revealing three developmental key stages, during which nuclear receptor expression is dynamically regulated: embryogenesis, mid development from gastrulation to trochophore larva, and late larval development prior to metamorphosis...
September 29, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673563/ecdysone-receptor-based-singular-gene-switches-for-regulated-transgene-expression-in-cells-and-adult-rodent-tissues
#19
Seoghyun Lee, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Dae-Kyoung Choi, Minho Won, Kyeong Ah Park, Sung-Kyu Ju, Kidong Kang, Young-Ki Bae, Gang Min Hur, Hyunju Ro
Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet)-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR)-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+) and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site)...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662806/characterization-of-candidate-intermediates-in-the-black-box-of-the-ecdysone-biosynthetic-pathway-in-drosophila-melanogaster-evaluation-of-molting-activities-on-ecdysteroid-defective-larvae
#20
Junki Saito, Ryota Kimura, Yuya Kaieda, Ritsuo Nishida, Hajime Ono
Early steps of the biosynthetic pathway of the insect steroid hormone ecdysone remains the "Black Box" wherein the characteristic ecdysteroid skeleton is built. 7-Dehydrocholesterol (7dC) is the precursor of uncharacterized intermediates in the Black Box. The oxidation step at C-3 has been hypothesized during conversion from 7dC to 3-oxo-2,22,25-trideoxyecdysone, yet 3-dehydroecdysone is undetectable in some insect species. Therefore, we first confirmed that the oxidation at C-3 occurs in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster using deuterium-labeled cholesterol...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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