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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074255/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-of-substituted-imidazothiadiazoles-for-their-binding-against-the-ecdysone-receptor-of-sf-9-cells
#1
Taiyo Yokoi, Yoshiaki Nakagawa, Hisashi Miyagawa
Imidazothiadiazoles (ITDs) are a class of potent nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists with larvicidal activity. Previously, we performed the Hansch-Fujita type of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for ITD analogs (Yokoi et al., Pestic. Biochem. Physiol.2015, 120, 40-50). The activity was reasonably explained by hydrophobicity and electronegativity of substituents on the imidazothiadiazole ring system. However, the limited data points (n = 8) hampered the examination of other physicochemical parameters...
October 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021633/structure-and-function-of-the-alternatively-spliced-isoforms-of-the-ecdysone-receptor-gene-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#2
Xiaowen Chen, Jun Wang, Wucheng Yue, Shu Huang, Jiao Chen, Yipei Chen, Chenghui Wang
Alternative splicing is an essential molecular mechanism that increase the protein diversity of a species to regulate important biological processes. Ecdysone receptor (EcR), an essential nuclear receptor, is essential in the molting, growth, development, reproduction, and regeneration of crustaceans. In this study, the whole sequence of EcR gene from Eriocheir sinensis was obtained. The sequence was 45,481 bp in length with 9 exons. Moreover, four alternatively spliced EcR isoforms (Es-EcR-1, Es-EcR-2, Es-EcR-3 and Es-EcR-4) were identified...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021278/dual-roles-of-glutathione-in-ecdysone-biosynthesis-and-antioxidant-function-during-the-larval-development-in-drosophila
#3
Sora Enya, Chikana Yamamoto, Hajime Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Esaki, Hsin-Kuang Lin, Masatoshi Iga, Kana Morohashi, Yota Hirano, Hiroshi Kataoka, Tsutomu Masujima, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
Ecdysteroids, including the biologically active hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), play essential roles in controlling many developmental and physiological events in insects. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is achieved by a series of specialized enzymes encoded in the Halloween genes. Recently, a new class of Halloween gene, noppera-bo (nobo), encoding a glutathione S-transferase (GST) in dipteran and lepidopteran species, has been identified and characterized. GSTs are well known to conjugate substrates with the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a bioactive tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine...
October 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992439/temporal-patterning-in-the-drosophila-cns
#4
Chris Q Doe
A small pool of neural progenitors generates the vast diversity of cell types in the CNS. Spatial patterning specifies progenitor identity, followed by temporal patterning within progenitor lineages to expand neural diversity. Recent work has shown that in Drosophila, all neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express temporal transcription factors (TTFs) that generate molecular and cellular diversity. Embryonic neuroblasts use a lineage-intrinsic cascade of five TTFs that switch nearly every neuroblast cell division; larval optic lobe neuroblasts also use a rapid cascade of five TTFs, but the factors are completely different...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987007/honey-bee-foraging-induces-upregulation-of-early-growth-response-protein-1-hormone-receptor-38-and-candidate-downstream-genes-of-the-ecdysteroid-signalling-pathway
#5
A S Singh, A Shah, A Brockmann
In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects...
October 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972920/disrupting-effects-of-antibiotic-sulfathiazole-on-developmental-process-during-sensitive-life-cycle-stage-of-chironomus-riparius
#6
Kiyun Park, Ihn-Sil Kwak
Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. Sulfathiazole (STZ), a sulfonamide antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture and is typically found in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the ecological risk of STZ by examining biological, molecular and biochemical response in Chironomus riparius. Samples were exposed to STZ for 12, 24 and 96 h, and effects of STZ were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in gene expression related to the endocrine system, cellular stress response and enzyme activity of genes on antioxidant and detoxification pathways...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966087/steroid-hormone-ecdysone-signaling-specifies-mushroom-body-neuron-sequential-fate-via-chinmo
#7
Giovanni Marchetti, Gaia Tavosanis
The functional variety in neuronal composition of an adult brain is established during development. Recent studies proposed that interactions between genetic intrinsic programs and external cues are necessary to generate proper neural diversity [1]. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental process are still poorly understood. Three main subtypes of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons are sequentially generated during development and provide a good example of developmental neural plasticity [2]...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945006/microrna-let-7-targets-the-ecdysone-signaling-pathway-e75-gene-to-control-larval-pupal-development-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#8
Wei Peng, Wei-Wei Zheng, Kaleem Tariq, Shu-Ning Yu, Hong-Yu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes during insect development; however, their role in larval-pupal development in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) remains unknown. In current study, we address the biological function of a conserved miRNA, Bdo-Let-7 in the regulation of BdE75 gene, which belongs to ecdysone signaling pathway and participates in the larval-pupal development in B. dorsalis. Using dual luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells we show that Bdo-Let-7 miRNA interacts with the 3' UTR of BdE75 gene and suppresses its expression...
September 25, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943345/expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-genes-during-basement-membrane-degradation-in-the-metamorphosis-of-bombyx-mori
#9
Hideki Kawasaki, Asaithambi Manickam, Rima Shahin, Manabu Ote, Masashi Iwanaga
The present study was conducted to clarify the involvement of the basement membrane (BM) in insect metamorphosis through analysis of the expression profile of two types of metalloproteinase (MMP and ADAMTS) genes in several organs, their ecdysone involvement, and the histological change of BM. BM was observed around wing sac and in the wing cavity and around fat bodies at the W0 stage but disappeared after the W3 stage, and wing discs evaginated and fat body cells scattered after the W3 stage. The disappearance of the BM of midgut and silk glands was not observed after the W3 stage, but degenerated epithelium cells in the midgut and shrunken cells in the silk gland were observed after the W3 stage...
January 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933984/differentiation-of-lepidoptera-scale-cells-from-epidermal-stem-cells-followed-by-ecdysone-regulated-dna-duplication-and-scale-secreting
#10
Shenglei Yuan, Wuren Huang, Lei Geng, Brenda T Beerntsen, Hongsheng Song, Erjun Ling
Integuments are the first line to protect insects from physical damage and pathogenic infection. In lepidopteran insects, they undergo distinct morphology changes such as scale formation during metamorphosis. However, we know little about integument development and scale formation during this stage. Here, we use the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a model and show that stem cells in the integument of each segment, but not intersegmental membrane, divide into two scale precursor cells during the spinning stage. In young pupae, the scale precursor cell divides again...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922901/localization-of-an-aldo-keto-reductase-akr2e4-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-bombycidae
#11
K Yamamoto, Y Ozakiya, T Uno
The aldo-keto reductase AKR2E4 reduces 3-dehydroecdysone to ecdysone in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. In this study, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the level of AKR2E4 mRNA was higher in the testes than in other tissues, and a western immunoblot analysis revealed that the AKR2E4 content in the testes was stage-specific from the fifth larval instar to the pupal stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the AKR2E4 protein was present in cyst cells associated with sperm cells and spermatocytes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866256/evaluation-of-ecdysteroid-antisera-for-a-competitive-enzyme-immunoassay-and-extraction-procedures-for-the-measurement-of-mosquito-ecdysteroids
#12
David A McKinney, Michael R Strand, Mark R Brown
Ecdysteroid hormones regulate several aspects of insect development and reproduction. The predominant ecdysteroids produced by insects including mosquitoes are ecdysone (E) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The ability to measure E and 20E titers is essential for many studies, but few sensitive, low cost options are currently available for doing so. To address this deficiency, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). In the first part of the study, we compared the affinity of two new antisera named EAB25 and EAB27 to other available ecdysteroid antisera...
November 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854664/hyperecdysonism-in-the-formosan-subterranean-termite-and-eastern-subterranean-termite-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#13
Nan-Yao Su, Erin J Monteagudo
Effects of ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and an ecdysone agonist, halofenozide, were tested against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), in a 12-d no choice assay. Approximately 22-26% of R. flavipes and C. formosanus exhibited symptoms of hyperecdysonism, that is, "jackknife" position, when exposed to ecdysone and 20E at 1,000 ppm, respectively. High mortalities were recorded for both termite species in ecdysone and 20E at 100 and 1,000 ppm, but only at 10,000 ppm for halofenizide...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851709/imp-and-syp-rna-binding-proteins-govern-decommissioning-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#14
Ching-Po Yang, Tamsin J Samuels, Yaling Huang, Lu Yang, David Ish-Horowicz, Ilan Davis, Tzumin Lee
The termination of the proliferation of Drosophila neural stem cells, also known as neuroblasts (NBs), requires a 'decommissioning' phase that is controlled in a lineage-specific manner. Most NBs, with the exception of those of the mushroom body (MB), are decommissioned by the ecdysone receptor and mediator complex, causing them to shrink during metamorphosis, followed by nuclear accumulation of Prospero and cell cycle exit. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of Imp and Syp RNA-binding proteins regulate NB decommissioning...
October 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843894/modulation-of-gene-expression-by-nutritional-state-and-hormones-in-bombyx-larvae-in-relation-to-its-growth-period
#15
Bembem Thounaojam, Bela Keshan
Insect growth and development are mainly regulated via synchronization of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as nutrition and hormones. Previously we have demonstrated that larval growth period influences the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in the fat body of Bombyx larvae. In the present study we demonstrate that Bombyx larvae at the terminal growth period (TGP, after critical weight) had a significantly greater increase in the expression level of Akt in the fat body than at the active growth period (AGP, before critical weight)...
November 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842196/gonadal-ecdysone-titers-are-modulated-by-protein-availability-but-do-not-impact-protein-appetite
#16
Zita Carvalho-Santos, Carlos Ribeiro
How animals survey internal nutrient availability to modulate specific appetites is currently largely unknown. Dietary proteins have a profound impact on the reproductive capacity and the selection of food sources in insects. When deprived of dietary proteins, insects stop producing eggs and develop strong protein appetites. In many adult insects, the ovaries are the site of synthesis of the ecdysone hormone. Therefore, an attractive hypothesis is that protein availability changes the gonadal production of ecdysone, which instructs the brain to increase its preference for yeast...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837687/the-spliceosome-associated-protein-mfap1-binds-to-vcp-in-drosophila
#17
Sandra Rode, Henrike Ohm, Jaqueline Zipfel, Sebastian Rumpf
Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression contributes to many developmental transitions. Previously, we found that the AAA chaperone Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP) regulates ecdysone-dependent dendrite pruning of Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (c4da) neurons via an effect on RNA metabolism. In a search for RNA binding proteins associated with VCP, we identified the spliceosome-associated protein Mfap1, a component of the tri-snRNP complex. Mfap1 is a nucleolar protein in neurons and its levels are regulated by VCP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790182/protein-kinase-c-delta-phosphorylates-ecdysone-receptor-b1-to-promote-gene-expression-and-apoptosis-under-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulation
#18
Cai-Hua Chen, Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Wen Liu, Li Hou, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
The nuclear receptor EcRB1, which is activated by the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is reportedly phosphorylated by a protein kinase after 20E induction. However, the protein kinase has not been identified, and the significance of EcRB1 phosphorylation is unclear. In this study, we identified a protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) isoform (the E isoform) that phosphorylates EcRB1 in the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera, a serious agricultural pest worldwide, to promote apoptotic gene expression and apoptosis during metamorphosis...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782527/glue-protein-production-can-be-triggered-by-steroid-hormone-signaling-independent-of-the-developmental-program-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Yuya Kaieda, Ryota Masuda, Ritsuo Nishida, MaryJane Shimell, Michael B O'Connor, Hajime Ono
Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776797/micrornas-are-differentially-abundant-during-aedes-albopictus-diapause-maintenance-but-not-diapause-induction
#20
Z A Batz, A C Goff, P A Armbruster
Diapause is a programmed dormancy that allows organisms to tolerate predictable periods of unfavourable conditions by temporarily halting development and reducing metabolism. Diapause is widespread amongst insects and is crucial for allowing organisms to coordinate their growth and reproduction with favourable environmental conditions. Although the adaptive significance of diapause is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underpinning diapause remain unresolved. We performed high-throughput sequencing to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the diapause of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus...
December 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
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