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Ecdysone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733163/rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-spook-reduces-ecdysteroid-titers-and-causes-precocious-metamorphosis-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#1
Ryohei Sugahara, Seiji Tanaka, Takahiro Shiotsuki
The Halloween gene SPOOK (SPO) is involved in the production of the active metabolite of ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in insects. A previous study showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPO in Schistocerca gregaria last instar nymphs markedly reduced the hemolymph 20E titer, but did not affect metamorphosis. In the present study, the effects of SPO interference on development were re-examined in this locust. Injections of SPO double-stranded RNA (dsSPO) into nymphs at mid and late instars significantly delayed nymphal development and interfered with molting...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727825/differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-head-of-the-2nd-instar-pre-molting-larvae-of-the-nm2-mutant-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#2
Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Fan Wu, Pingzhen Xu, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726107/studying-a-novel-ecdysone-dependent-enhancer
#3
J V Nikolenko, A N Krasnov, M Y Mazina, S G Georgieva, N E Vorobyeva
Earlier [4], we developed a two-stage scheme of the activation of expression of the ecdysone cascade gene ftz-f1 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. In the first intron of the ftz-f1 gene, we found a binding site for the transcription activator DHR3. In this work, we studied the properties of this genomic element: the change in the histone modification level at different stages of transcription activation were analyzed, and data indicating the interaction of the intron element with the promoter were obtained...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700620/correction-functional-male-accessory-glands-and-fertility-in-drosophila-require-novel-ecdysone-receptor
#4
Vandana Sharma, Anuj K Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Snigdha Misra, Himanshu P K Gupta, Snigdha Gupta, Anshuman Singh, Norene A Buehner, Kristipati Ravi Ram
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006788.].
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687780/nuclear-receptors-connect-progenitor-transcription-factors-to-cell-cycle-control
#5
Marta Neto, Marina Naval-Sánchez, Delphine Potier, Paulo S Pereira, Dirk Geerts, Stein Aerts, Fernando Casares
The specification and growth of organs is controlled simultaneously by networks of transcription factors. While the connection between these transcription factors with fate determinants is increasingly clear, how they establish the link with the cell cycle is far less understood. Here we investigate this link in the developing Drosophila eye, where two transcription factors, the MEIS1 homologue hth and the Zn-finger tsh, synergize to stimulate the proliferation of naïve eye progenitors. Experiments combining transcriptomics, open-chromatin profiling, motif analysis and functional assays indicate that these progenitor transcription factors exert a global regulation of the proliferation program...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680812/new-reporter-gene-assays-for-detecting-natural-and-synthetic-molting-hormone-agonists-using-yeasts-expressing-ecdysone-receptors-of-various-insects
#6
Sayoko Ito-Harashima, Mai Matsuura, Masanobu Kawanishi, Yoshiaki Nakagawa, Takashi Yagi
Synthetic nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists, a class of insect growth regulators (IGRs), target the ecdysone receptor (EcR), which forms a heterodimer with ultraspiracle (USP) to transactivate ecdysone response genes. These compounds have high binding affinities to the EcR-USP complexes of certain insects and their toxicity is selective for certain taxonomic orders. In the present study, we developed reporter gene assay (RGA) systems to detect molting hormone (ecdysone) activity by introducing EcR-USP cDNA and a bacterial lacZ reporter gene into yeast...
July 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677913/identification-of-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-coding-gene-and-localization-of-its-site-of-expression-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#7
M Barberà, D Martínez-Torres
Insect hormones control essential aspects of physiology, behaviour and development in insects. The majority of insect hormones are peptide hormones that perform a highly diverse catalogue of functions. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is a brain neuropeptide hormone whose main function is to stimulate the secretion of ecdysone (the moulting hormone) by the prothoracic glands in insect larvae thus playing a key role in the control of moulting and metamorphosis. Moreover, both PTTH release or blockade have been reported to act as a switch to terminate or initiate larval and pupal diapauses...
July 5, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665301/comparative-proteomic-profiling-reveals-molecular-characteristics-associated-with-oogenesis-and-oocyte-maturation-during-ovarian-development-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#8
Dong Wei, Ran Li, Meng-Yi Zhang, Yu-Wei Liu, Zheng Zhang, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A total of 4838 proteins were identified with an average peptide number of 8.15 and sequence coverage of 20.79%. Quantitative proteomic analysis showed that a total of 612 and 196 proteins were differentially expressed in developing and mature ovaries, respectively...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652267/mammalian-ecd-protein-is-a-novel-negative-regulator-of-the-perk-arm-of-unfolded-protein-response
#9
Appolinaire A Olou, Aniruddha Sarkar, Aditya Bele, C B Gurumurthy, Riyaz A Mir, Shalis A Ammons, Sameer Mirza, Irfana Saleem, Fumihiko Urano, Hamid Band, Vimla Band
The mammalian Ecdysoneless (ECD) is a highly-conserved ortholog of the Drosophila Ecd gene product whose mutations impair the synthesis of Ecdysone and produce cell-autonomous survival defects but mechanisms by which ECD functions are largely unknown. Here, we present evidence that ECD regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress induction led to a reduced ECD protein but this effect was not seen in PERK KO or phospho-deficient eIF2α MEFs; moreover, ECD mRNA levels were increased, suggesting impaired ECD translation as the mechanism for reduced protein levels...
June 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635673/toxicity-of-naphthalene-and-benzene-on-tribollium-castaneum-herbst
#10
Nerlis Pajaro-Castro, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4-48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630299/bacteria-mediated-hypoxia-functions-as-a-signal-for-mosquito-development
#11
Kerri L Coon, Luca Valzania, David A McKinney, Kevin J Vogel, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. In contrast, several species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, rescue development of axenic larvae into adults. The molecular mechanisms underlying bacteria-dependent growth are unknown. Here, we designed a genetic screen around E...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627423/severe-developmental-timing-defects-in-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-deficient-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#12
Miwa Uchibori-Asano, Takumi Kayukawa, Hideki Sezutsu, Tetsuro Shinoda, Takaaki Daimon
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) triggers the biosynthesis and release of the molting hormone ecdysone in the prothoracic gland (PG), thereby controlling the timing of molting and metamorphosis. Despite the well-documented physiological role of PTTH and its signaling pathway in the PG, it is not clear whether PTTH is an essential hormone for ecdysone biosynthesis and development. To address this question, we established and characterized a PTTH knockout line in the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
June 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623733/a-novel-immune-related-gene-hdd1-of-silkworm-bombyx-mori-is-involved-in-bacterial-response
#13
Kui Zhang, Guangzhao Pan, Yuzu Zhao, Xiangwei Hao, Chongyang Li, Li Shen, Rui Zhang, Jingjing Su, Hongjuan Cui
Insects have evolved an effective immune system to respond to various challenges. In this study, a novel immune-related gene, called BmHDD1, was first charactered in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmHDD1 contained an ORF of 837bp and encoding a deduced protein of 278 amino acids. BmHDD1 was specifically expressed in hemocytes, and highly expressed at the molting and metamorphosis stages under normal physiological conditions. Our results suggested that BmHDD1 was mainly generated by hemocytes and secreted into hemolymph...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610887/a-hormonal-cue-promotes-timely-follicle-cell-migration-by-modulating-transcription-profiles
#14
Lathiena Manning, Jinal Sheth, Stacey Bridges, Afsoon Saadin, Kamsi Odinammadu, Deborah Andrew, Susan Spencer, Denise Montell, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
Cell migration is essential during animal development. In the Drosophila ovary, the steroid hormone ecdysone coordinates nutrient sensing, growth, and the timing of morphogenesis events including border cell migration. To identify downstream effectors of ecdysone signaling, we profiled gene expression in wild-type follicle cells compared to cells expressing a dominant negative Ecdysone receptor or its coactivator Taiman. Of approximately 400 genes that showed differences in expression, we validated 16 candidate genes for expression in border and centripetal cells, and demonstrated that seven responded to ectopic ecdysone activation by changing their transcriptional levels...
June 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572000/c-type-lectin-interacting-with-%C3%AE-integrin-enhances-hemocytic-encapsulation-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#15
Pan Wang, Xiao-Rong Zhuo, Lin Tang, Xu-Sheng Liu, Yu-Feng Wang, Guo-Xiu Wang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jia-Lin Wang
The encapsulation reaction in invertebrates is analogous to granuloma formation in vertebrates, and this reaction is severely compromised when ecdysone signaling is blocked. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the encapsulation reaction and its regulation by ecdysone remains obscure. In our previous study, we found that the C-type lectin HaCTL3, from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, is involved in anti-bacterial immune response, acting as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR). In the current study, we demonstrate that HaCTL3 is involved in defense against parasites and directly binds to the surface of nematodes...
May 29, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555616/central-and-peripheral-clocks-are-coupled-by-a-neuropeptide-pathway-in-drosophila
#16
Mareike Selcho, Carola Millán, Angelina Palacios-Muñoz, Franziska Ruf, Lilian Ubillo, Jiangtian Chen, Gregor Bergmann, Chihiro Ito, Valeria Silva, Christian Wegener, John Ewer
Animal circadian clocks consist of central and peripheral pacemakers, which are coordinated to produce daily rhythms in physiology and behaviour. Despite its importance for optimal performance and health, the mechanism of clock coordination is poorly understood. Here we dissect the pathway through which the circadian clock of Drosophila imposes daily rhythmicity to the pattern of adult emergence. Rhythmicity depends on the coupling between the brain clock and a peripheral clock in the prothoracic gland (PG), which produces the steroid hormone, ecdysone...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554773/modulation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-by-dopecr-a-unique-dual-receptor-for-ecdysone-and-dopamine
#17
REVIEW
Arianna Lark, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Jean-René Martin
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for steroid hormones mediate unconventional steroid signaling and play a significant role in the rapid actions of steroids in a variety of biological processes, including those in the nervous system. However, the effects of these GPCRs on overall neuronal activity remain largely elusive. Drosophila DopEcR is a GPCR that responds to both ecdysone (the major steroid hormone in insects) and dopamine, regulating multiple second messenger systems. Recent studies have revealed that DopEcR is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and involved in behavioral regulation...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536147/hormone-dependent-control-of-developmental-timing-through-regulation-of-chromatin-accessibility
#18
Christopher M Uyehara, Spencer L Nystrom, Matthew J Niederhuber, Mary Leatham-Jensen, Yiqin Ma, Laura A Buttitta, Daniel J McKay
Specification of tissue identity during development requires precise coordination of gene expression in both space and time. Spatially, master regulatory transcription factors are required to control tissue-specific gene expression programs. However, the mechanisms controlling how tissue-specific gene expression changes over time are less well understood. Here, we show that hormone-induced transcription factors control temporal gene expression by regulating the accessibility of DNA regulatory elements. Using the Drosophila wing, we demonstrate that temporal changes in gene expression are accompanied by genome-wide changes in chromatin accessibility at temporal-specific enhancers...
May 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528906/warts-signaling-controls-organ-and-body-growth-through-regulation-of-ecdysone
#19
Morten E Moeller, Stanislav Nagy, Stephan U Gerlach, Karen C Soegaard, E Thomas Danielsen, Michael J Texada, Kim F Rewitz
Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510140/nuclear-receptors-ecr-usp-e75-dhr3-and-err-regulate-transcription-of-ecdysone-cascade-genes
#20
M Yu Mazina, E V Kocheryzhkina, J V Nikolenko, A N Krasnov, S G Georgieva, N E Vorobyeva
We found that an increase in the expression level of E75, DHR3, and ERR increases the degree of activation of dhr3 and hr4 genes in Drosophila S2 cells. We also detected a repressing effect of these nuclear receptors on the basal transcription level of these genes. This is the first study to show the ability of nuclear receptors E75, DHR3, and ERR to function as activators or repressors depending on external conditions. We also confirmed the existence of the interaction of all studied nuclear receptors with the promoters of dhr3 and hr4 genes of the ecdysone cascade in vivo...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
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