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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866256/evaluation-of-ecdysteroid-antisera-for-a-competitive-enzyme-immunoassay-and-extraction-procedures-for-the-measurement-of-mosquito-ecdysteroids
#1
David A McKinney, Michael R Strand, Mark R Brown
Ecdysteroid hormones regulate several aspects of insect development and reproduction. The predominant ecdysteroids produced by insects including mosquitoes are ecdysone (E) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The ability to measure E and 20E titers is essential for many studies, but few sensitive, low cost options are currently available for doing so. To address this deficiency, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). In the first part of the study, we compared the affinity of two new antisera named EAB25 and EAB27 to other available ecdysteroid antisera...
September 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854664/hyperecdysonism-in-the-formosan-subterranean-termite-and-eastern-subterranean-termite-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#2
Nan-Yao Su, Erin J Monteagudo
Effects of ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and an ecdysone agonist, halofenozide, were tested against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), in a 12-d no choice assay. Approximately 22-26% of R. flavipes and C. formosanus exhibited symptoms of hyperecdysonism, that is, "jackknife" position, when exposed to ecdysone and 20E at 1,000 ppm, respectively. High mortalities were recorded for both termite species in ecdysone and 20E at 100 and 1,000 ppm, but only at 10,000 ppm for halofenizide...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851709/imp-and-syp-rna-binding-proteins-govern-decommissioning-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#3
Ching-Po Yang, Tamsin J Samuels, Yaling Huang, Lu Yang, David Ish-Horowicz, Ilan Davis, Tzumin Lee
The termination of the proliferation of Drosophila neural stem cells, also known as neuroblasts (NBs), requires a "decommissioning" phase that is controlled in a lineage-specific manner. Most NBs, with the exception of those of the Mushroom body (MB), are decommissioned by the ecdysone receptor and mediator complex causing them to shrink during metamorphosis, followed by nuclear accumulation of Prospero and cell cycle exit. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of Imp and Syp RNA-binding proteins regulate NB decommissioning...
August 29, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843894/modulation-of-gene-expression-by-nutritional-state-and-hormones-in-bombyx-larvae-in-relation-to-its-growth-period
#4
Bembem Thounaojam, Bela Keshan
Insect growth and development are mainly regulated via synchronization of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as nutrition and hormones. Previously we have demonstrated that larval growth period influences the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in the fat body of Bombyx larvae. In the present study we demonstrate that Bombyx larvae at the terminal growth period (TGP, after critical weight) had a significantly greater increase in the expression level of Akt in the fat body than at the active growth period (AGP, before critical weight)...
August 23, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842196/gonadal-ecdysone-titers-are-modulated-by-protein-availability-but-do-not-impact-protein-appetite
#5
Zita Carvalho-Santos, Carlos Ribeiro
How animals survey internal nutrient availability to modulate specific appetites is currently largely unknown. Dietary proteins have a profound impact on the reproductive capacity and the selection of food sources in insects. When deprived of dietary proteins, insects stop producing eggs and develop strong protein appetites. In many adult insects, the ovaries are the site of synthesis of the ecdysone hormone. Therefore, an attractive hypothesis is that protein availability changes the gonadal production of ecdysone, which instructs the brain to increase its preference for yeast...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837687/the-spliceosome-associated-protein-mfap1-binds-to-vcp-in-drosophila
#6
Sandra Rode, Henrike Ohm, Jaqueline Zipfel, Sebastian Rumpf
Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression contributes to many developmental transitions. Previously, we found that the AAA chaperone Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP) regulates ecdysone-dependent dendrite pruning of Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (c4da) neurons via an effect on RNA metabolism. In a search for RNA binding proteins associated with VCP, we identified the spliceosome-associated protein Mfap1, a component of the tri-snRNP complex. Mfap1 is a nucleolar protein in neurons and its levels are regulated by VCP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790182/protein-kinase-c-delta-phosphorylates-ecdysone-receptor-b1-to-promote-gene-expression-and-apoptosis-under-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulation
#7
Cai-Hua Chen, Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Wen Liu, Li Hou, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
The nuclear receptor EcRB1, which is activated by the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is reportedly phosphorylated by a protein kinase after 20E induction. However, the protein kinase has not been identified, and the significance of EcRB1 phosphorylation is unclear. In this study, we identified a protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) isoform (the E isoform) that phosphorylates EcRB1 in the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera, a serious agricultural pest worldwide, to promote apoptotic gene expression and apoptosis during metamorphosis...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782527/glue-protein-production-can-be-triggered-by-steroid-hormone-signaling-independent-of-the-developmental-program-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Yuya Kaieda, Ryota Masuda, Ritsuo Nishida, MaryJane Shimell, Michael B O'Connor, Hajime Ono
Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
August 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776797/micrornas-are-differentially-abundant-during-aedes-albopictus-diapause-maintenance-but-not-diapause-induction
#9
Z A Batz, A C Goff, P A Armbruster
Diapause is a programmed dormancy that allows organisms to tolerate predictable periods of unfavourable conditions by temporarily halting development and reducing metabolism. Diapause is widespread amongst insects and is crucial for allowing organisms to coordinate their growth and reproduction with favourable environmental conditions. Although the adaptive significance of diapause is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underpinning diapause remain unresolved. We performed high-throughput sequencing to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the diapause of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus...
August 4, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750998/the-alternative-splicing-of-bdtai-and-its-involvement-in-the-development-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#10
Hong Liu, Hui-Min Li, Yong Yue, Zhong-Hao Song, Jin-Jun Wang, Wei Dou
Interest in insect metamorphosis has primarily focused on juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone. Compared to ecdysone signaling, the molecular action of JH is less well established because Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the JH receptor has been identified until recently. In vitro studies have indicated that Met forms an active JH-dependent complex with one partner protein, Taiman (Tai). However, the related studies on Tai's role in insect metamorphosis are very limited. In this study, five Tai isoforms differing in C-terminal region are identified from the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important worldwide pest infesting fruits and vegetables...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733163/rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-spook-reduces-ecdysteroid-titers-and-causes-precocious-metamorphosis-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#11
Ryohei Sugahara, Seiji Tanaka, Takahiro Shiotsuki
The Halloween gene SPOOK (SPO) is involved in the production of the active metabolite of ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in insects. A previous study showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPO in Schistocerca gregaria last instar nymphs markedly reduced the hemolymph 20E titer, but did not affect metamorphosis. In the present study, the effects of SPO interference on development were re-examined in this locust. Injections of SPO double-stranded RNA (dsSPO) into nymphs at mid and late instars significantly delayed nymphal development and interfered with molting...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727825/differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-head-of-the-2nd-instar-pre-molting-larvae-of-the-nm2-mutant-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#12
Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Fan Wu, Pingzhen Xu, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726107/studying-a-novel-ecdysone-dependent-enhancer
#13
J V Nikolenko, A N Krasnov, M Y Mazina, S G Georgieva, N E Vorobyeva
Earlier [4], we developed a two-stage scheme of the activation of expression of the ecdysone cascade gene ftz-f1 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. In the first intron of the ftz-f1 gene, we found a binding site for the transcription activator DHR3. In this work, we studied the properties of this genomic element: the change in the histone modification level at different stages of transcription activation were analyzed, and data indicating the interaction of the intron element with the promoter were obtained...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700620/correction-functional-male-accessory-glands-and-fertility-in-drosophila-require-novel-ecdysone-receptor
#14
Vandana Sharma, Anuj K Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Snigdha Misra, Himanshu P K Gupta, Snigdha Gupta, Anshuman Singh, Norene A Buehner, Kristipati Ravi Ram
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006788.].
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687780/nuclear-receptors-connect-progenitor-transcription-factors-to-cell-cycle-control
#15
Marta Neto, Marina Naval-Sánchez, Delphine Potier, Paulo S Pereira, Dirk Geerts, Stein Aerts, Fernando Casares
The specification and growth of organs is controlled simultaneously by networks of transcription factors. While the connection between these transcription factors with fate determinants is increasingly clear, how they establish the link with the cell cycle is far less understood. Here we investigate this link in the developing Drosophila eye, where two transcription factors, the MEIS1 homologue hth and the Zn-finger tsh, synergize to stimulate the proliferation of naïve eye progenitors. Experiments combining transcriptomics, open-chromatin profiling, motif analysis and functional assays indicate that these progenitor transcription factors exert a global regulation of the proliferation program...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680812/new-reporter-gene-assays-for-detecting-natural-and-synthetic-molting-hormone-agonists-using-yeasts-expressing-ecdysone-receptors-of-various-insects
#16
Sayoko Ito-Harashima, Mai Matsuura, Masanobu Kawanishi, Yoshiaki Nakagawa, Takashi Yagi
Synthetic nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists, a class of insect growth regulators (IGRs), target the ecdysone receptor (EcR), which forms a heterodimer with ultraspiracle (USP) to transactivate ecdysone response genes. These compounds have high binding affinities to the EcR-USP complexes of certain insects and their toxicity is selective for certain taxonomic orders. In the present study, we developed reporter gene assay (RGA) systems to detect molting hormone (ecdysone) activity by introducing EcR-USP cDNA and a bacterial lacZ reporter gene into yeast...
July 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677913/identification-of-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-coding-gene-and-localization-of-its-site-of-expression-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#17
M Barberà, D Martínez-Torres
Insect hormones control essential aspects of physiology, behaviour and development in insects. The majority of insect hormones are peptide hormones that perform a highly diverse catalogue of functions. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is a brain neuropeptide hormone whose main function is to stimulate the secretion of ecdysone (the moulting hormone) by the prothoracic glands in insect larvae thus playing a key role in the control of moulting and metamorphosis. Moreover, both PTTH release or blockade have been reported to act as a switch to terminate or initiate larval and pupal diapauses...
July 5, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665301/comparative-proteomic-profiling-reveals-molecular-characteristics-associated-with-oogenesis-and-oocyte-maturation-during-ovarian-development-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#18
Dong Wei, Ran Li, Meng-Yi Zhang, Yu-Wei Liu, Zheng Zhang, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A total of 4838 proteins were identified with an average peptide number of 8.15 and sequence coverage of 20.79%. Quantitative proteomic analysis showed that a total of 612 and 196 proteins were differentially expressed in developing and mature ovaries, respectively...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652267/mammalian-ecd-protein-is-a-novel-negative-regulator-of-the-perk-arm-of-the-unfolded-protein-response
#19
Appolinaire A Olou, Aniruddha Sarkar, Aditya Bele, C B Gurumurthy, Riyaz A Mir, Shalis A Ammons, Sameer Mirza, Irfana Saleem, Fumihiko Urano, Hamid Band, Vimla Band
Mammalian Ecdysoneless (ECD) is a highly conserved ortholog of the DrosophilaEcd gene product whose mutations impair the synthesis of Ecdysone and produce cell-autonomous survival defects, but the mechanisms by which ECD functions are largely unknown. Here we present evidence that ECD regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress induction led to a reduced ECD protein level, but this effect was not seen in PKR-like ER kinase knockout (PERK-KO) or phosphodeficient eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs); moreover, ECD mRNA levels were increased, suggesting impaired ECD translation as the mechanism for reduced protein levels...
September 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635673/toxicity-of-naphthalene-and-benzene-on-tribollium-castaneum-herbst
#20
Nerlis Pajaro-Castro, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4-48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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