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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324742/functional-characterization-of-adaptive-variation-within-a-cis-regulatory-element-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-growth
#1
Amanda Glaser-Schmitt, John Parsch
Gene expression variation is a major contributor to phenotypic diversity within species and is thought to play an important role in adaptation. However, examples of adaptive regulatory polymorphism are rare, especially those that have been characterized at both the molecular genetic level and the organismal level. In this study, we perform a functional analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster CG9509 enhancer, a cis-regulatory element that shows evidence of adaptive evolution in populations outside the species' ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288754/microrna-14-regulates-larval-development-time-in-bombyx-mori
#2
Zulian Liu, Lin Ling, Jun Xu, Baosheng Zeng, Yongping Huang, Peng Shang, Anjiang Tan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate multiple physiological processes including development and metamorphosis in insects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a conserved invertebrate miRNA-14 (miR-14) plays an important role in ecdysteroid regulated development in the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of miR-14 using the GAL4/UAS system resulted in delayed silkworm larval development and smaller body size of larva and pupa with decrease in ecdysteriod titers...
December 27, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286360/conditional-knockdown-of-gene-expression-in-cancer-cell-lines-to-study-the-recruitment-of-monocytes-macrophages-to-the-tumor-microenvironment
#3
Marta H Kubala, Yves A DeClerck
siRNA and shRNA-mediated knock down (KD) methods of regulating gene expression are invaluable tools for understanding gene and protein function. However, in the case that the KD of the protein of interest has a lethal effect on cells or the anticipated effect of the KD is time-dependent, unconditional KD methods are not appropriate. Conditional systems are more suitable in these cases and have been the subject of much interest. These include Ecdysone-inducible overexpression systems, Cytochrome P-450 induction system1, and the tetracycline regulated gene expression systems...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284404/multiple-functions-of-creb-binding-protein-during-postembryonic-development-identification-of-target-genes
#4
Amit Roy, Smitha George, Subba Reddy Palli
BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids control postembryonic development in insects. They serve as valuable targets for pest management. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms of their action is of crucial importance. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a universal transcriptional co-regulator. It controls the expression of several genes including those from hormone signaling pathways through co-activation of many transcription factors. However, the role of CBP during postembryonic development in insects is not well understood...
December 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258759/expression-profiles-of-cuticular-protein-genes-in-wing-tissues-during-pupal-to-adult-stages-and-the-deduced-adult-cuticular-structure-of-bombyx-mori
#5
Rima Shahin, Masashi Iwanaga, Hideki Kawasaki
We aimed to clarify the regulation of cuticular protein (CP) gene expression and the resulting insect cuticular layers by comparing the expression pattern of CP genes and related ecdysone-responsive transcription factor (ERTF) genes, the coding amino acid sequences of CP genes, and histological observation. The expression of CP and ERTF genes during pupal and adult stages was examined via qPCR. The number of CP genes expressed during pupal and adult stages decreased as compared to that during prepupal to pupation stages, particularly in CPRs...
December 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205800/cucurbitacin-b-acts-a-potential-insect-growth-regulator-by-antagonizing-20-hydroxyecdysone-activity
#6
Chuanshan Zou, Guifen Liu, Suning Liu, Shumin Liu, Qisheng Song, Jian Wang, Qili Feng, Yunling Su, Sheng Li
BACKGROUND: 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), a crucial insect steroid hormone, can bind to its cognate nuclear receptor composed of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) to activate expression of 20E-response genes, enabling subsequent metamorphosis. In this study, we tried to find out the steroid-like compounds that are able to block insect metamorphosis effectively and to provide useful information for biopesticide study. For this purpose, we screened 126 steroid-like compounds for possible 20E antagonists using a dual-luciferase reporter assay with Drosophila melanogaster Kc and Bombyx mori Bm12 cells...
December 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193521/assembly-of-insect-hormone-enthusiasts-at-nasu-highland-japan-report-of-the-3rd-international-insect-hormone-21st-ecdysone-workshop
#7
Ryusuke Niwa, Takashi Nishimura
The 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop (IIHW2017) was held in July 2017 at Nasu Highland, Japan. In the 40 years of the workshop's history, this was the first to be held in an Asian country. A total of 109 insect hormone researchers from 18 countries (62 overseas and 47 domestic participants) attended IIHW2017. During the workshop, all participants stayed on-site at the venue's hotel; this was ideal for fostering communication between participants, in particular, interactions between principal investigators and young scientists...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187506/cooperative-control-of-ecdysone-biosynthesis-in-drosophila-by-transcription-factors-s%C3%A3-ance-ouija-board-and-molting-defective
#8
Outa Uryu, Qiuxiang Ou, Tatsuya Komura-Kawa, Takumi Kamiyama, Masatoshi Iga, Monika Syrzycka, Keiko Hirota, Hiroshi Kataoka, Barry M Honda, Kirst King-Jones, Ryusuke Niwa
Insect ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that control many aspects of development and physiology. During larval development, ecdysone is synthesized in an endocrine organ called the prothoracic gland (PG) through a series of ecdysteroidogenic enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes. The expression of the Halloween genes is highly restricted and dynamic, indicating that their spatiotemporal regulation is mediated by their tight transcriptional control. In this study, we report that three ZAD-C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors-Séance (Séan), Ouija board (Ouib), and Molting defective (Mld)-cooperatively control ecdysone biosynthesis in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Séan and Ouib act in cooperation with Mld to positively regulate the transcription of neverland and spookier, respectively, two Halloween genes...
November 29, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182104/steered-molecular-dynamics-for-studying-ligand-unbinding-of-ecdysone-receptor
#9
Xueping Hu, Song Hu, Jiazhe Wang, Yawen Dong, Li Zhang, Yanhong Dong
Ecdysone receptor (EcR) is an important target for pesticide design. Ligand binding regulates EcR transcriptional activity similar to other nuclear receptors; however, the pathways by which ligands enter and leave the EcR remain poorly understood. Here, we performed computational studies to identify unbinding pathways of an ecdysone agonist [the selective ecdysone agonist, BYI06830] from the EcR ligand binding domain (EcR LBD). BYI06830 can dissociate from EcR LBD via four different pathways with little effect on receptor structure...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180716/drosophila-kruppel-homolog-1-represses-lipolysis-through-interaction-with-dfoxo
#10
Ping Kang, Kai Chang, Ying Liu, Mark Bouska, Allison Birnbaum, Galina Karashchuk, Rachel Thakore, Wenjing Zheng, Stephanie Post, Colin S Brent, Sheng Li, Marc Tatar, Hua Bai
Transcriptional coordination is a vital process contributing to metabolic homeostasis. As one of the key nodes in the metabolic network, the forkhead transcription factor FOXO has been shown to interact with diverse transcription co-factors and integrate signals from multiple pathways to control metabolism, oxidative stress response, and cell cycle. Recently, insulin/FOXO signaling has been implicated in the regulation of insect development via the interaction with insect hormones, such as ecdysone and juvenile hormone...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172130/multigenerational-effects-of-4-methylbenzylidene-camphor-4-mbc-on-the-survival-development-and-reproduction-of-the-marine-copepod-tigriopus-japonicus
#11
Leyun Chen, Xiaolin Li, Haizheng Hong, Dalin Shi
One of the most widely used organic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), is present at high concentrations in offshore waters. The marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus was exposed to different concentrations of 4-MBC (i.e., 0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10μgL(-1)) for 4 consecutive generations (F0-F3) to evaluate the impact of 4-MBC on marine ecosystems. The results showed that in the F0 generation, 4-MBC caused significant lethal toxicity in T. japonicas at concentrations of 5 and 10μgL(-1) and the nauplii were more sensitive to 4-MBC toxicity than the adults...
November 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171103/adult-functions-for-the-drosophila-dhr78-nuclear-receptor
#12
Stefanie Marxreiter, Carl S Thummel
BACKGROUND: The Testicular Receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4) comprise a small subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. Genetic studies in mouse models have identified roles for TR4 in developmental progression, fertility, brain development, and metabolism, as well as genetic redundancy with TR2. Here we study the adult functions of the single Drosophila member of this subfamily, DHR78, with the goal of defining its ancestral functions in the absence of genetic redundancy. RESULTS: We show that DHR78 mutants have a shortened lifespan, reduced motility, and mated DHR78 mutant females display a reduced feeding rate...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155828/role-of-co-repressor-genomic-landscapes-in-shaping-the-notch-response
#13
Stephen K K Chan, Gustavo Cerda-Moya, Robert Stojnic, Kat Millen, Bettina Fischer, Silvie Fexova, Lenka Skalska, Maria Gomez-Lamarca, Zoe Pillidge, Steven Russell, Sarah J Bray
Repressors are frequently deployed to limit the transcriptional response to signalling pathways. For example, several co-repressors interact directly with the DNA-binding protein CSL and are proposed to keep target genes silenced in the absence of Notch activity. However, the scope of their contributions remains unclear. To investigate co-repressor activity in the context of this well defined signalling pathway, we have analysed the genome-wide binding profile of the best-characterized CSL co-repressor in Drosophila, Hairless, and of a second CSL interacting repressor, SMRTER...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154136/transcriptional-activity-of-detoxification-genes-is-altered-by-ultraviolet-filters-in-chironomus-riparius
#14
José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Ultraviolet (UV) filters are compounds used to prevent the damage produced by UV radiation in personal care products, plastics, etc. They have been associated with endocrine disruption, showing anti-estrogen activity in vertebrates and altering the ecdysone pathway in invertebrates. Although they have attracted the attention of multiple research teams there is a lack of data about how animals activate detoxification systems, especially in invertebrates. Here, analysis of the effects of two UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), on the transcriptional activity of nine genes covering the three steps of the detoxification process has been performed...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074255/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-of-substituted-imidazothiadiazoles-for-their-binding-against-the-ecdysone-receptor-of-sf-9-cells
#15
Taiyo Yokoi, Yoshiaki Nakagawa, Hisashi Miyagawa
Imidazothiadiazoles (ITDs) are a class of potent nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists with larvicidal activity. Previously, we performed the Hansch-Fujita type of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for ITD analogs (Yokoi et al., Pestic. Biochem. Physiol.2015, 120, 40-50). The activity was reasonably explained by hydrophobicity and electronegativity of substituents on the imidazothiadiazole ring system. However, the limited data points (n = 8) hampered the examination of other physicochemical parameters...
October 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021633/structure-and-function-of-the-alternatively-spliced-isoforms-of-the-ecdysone-receptor-gene-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#16
Xiaowen Chen, Jun Wang, Wucheng Yue, Shu Huang, Jiao Chen, Yipei Chen, Chenghui Wang
Alternative splicing is an essential molecular mechanism that increase the protein diversity of a species to regulate important biological processes. Ecdysone receptor (EcR), an essential nuclear receptor, is essential in the molting, growth, development, reproduction, and regeneration of crustaceans. In this study, the whole sequence of EcR gene from Eriocheir sinensis was obtained. The sequence was 45,481 bp in length with 9 exons. Moreover, four alternatively spliced EcR isoforms (Es-EcR-1, Es-EcR-2, Es-EcR-3 and Es-EcR-4) were identified...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021278/dual-roles-of-glutathione-in-ecdysone-biosynthesis-and-antioxidant-function-during-the-larval-development-in-drosophila
#17
Sora Enya, Chikana Yamamoto, Hajime Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Esaki, Hsin-Kuang Lin, Masatoshi Iga, Kana Morohashi, Yota Hirano, Hiroshi Kataoka, Tsutomu Masujima, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
Ecdysteroids, including the biologically active hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), play essential roles in controlling many developmental and physiological events in insects. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is achieved by a series of specialized enzymes encoded in the Halloween genes. Recently, a new class of Halloween gene, noppera-bo (nobo), encoding a glutathione S-transferase (GST) in dipteran and lepidopteran species, has been identified and characterized. GSTs are well known to conjugate substrates with the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a bioactive tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine...
October 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992439/temporal-patterning-in-the-drosophila-cns
#18
Chris Q Doe
A small pool of neural progenitors generates the vast diversity of cell types in the CNS. Spatial patterning specifies progenitor identity, followed by temporal patterning within progenitor lineages to expand neural diversity. Recent work has shown that in Drosophila, all neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express temporal transcription factors (TTFs) that generate molecular and cellular diversity. Embryonic neuroblasts use a lineage-intrinsic cascade of five TTFs that switch nearly every neuroblast cell division; larval optic lobe neuroblasts also use a rapid cascade of five TTFs, but the factors are completely different...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987007/honey-bee-foraging-induces-upregulation-of-early-growth-response-protein-1-hormone-receptor-38-and-candidate-downstream-genes-of-the-ecdysteroid-signalling-pathway
#19
A S Singh, A Shah, A Brockmann
In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects...
October 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972920/disrupting-effects-of-antibiotic-sulfathiazole-on-developmental-process-during-sensitive-life-cycle-stage-of-chironomus-riparius
#20
Kiyun Park, Ihn-Sil Kwak
Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. Sulfathiazole (STZ), a sulfonamide antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture and is typically found in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the ecological risk of STZ by examining biological, molecular and biochemical response in Chironomus riparius. Samples were exposed to STZ for 12, 24 and 96 h, and effects of STZ were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in gene expression related to the endocrine system, cellular stress response and enzyme activity of genes on antioxidant and detoxification pathways...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
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