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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104670/mutants-for-drosophila-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-3b-are-defective-in-mitochondrial-function-and-larval-cell-death
#1
Dianne M Duncan, Paula Kiefel, Ian Duncan
The death of larval salivary gland cells during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a key system for studying steroid controlled programmed cell death. This death is induced by a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone that takes place at the end of the prepupal period. For many years, it has been thought that the ecdysone direct response gene Eip93F (E93) plays a critical role in initiating salivary gland cell death. This conclusion was based largely on the finding that the three "type" alleles of E93 cause a near-complete block in salivary gland cell death...
January 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096379/molecular-mechanism-underlying-juvenile-hormone-mediated-repression-of-precocious-larval-adult-metamorphosis
#2
Takumi Kayukawa, Akiya Jouraku, Yuka Ito, Tetsuro Shinoda
Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval-pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093350/a-visual-screen-for-diet-regulated-proteins-in-the-drosophila-ovary-using-gfp-protein-trap-lines
#3
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet...
January 13, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069934/steroid-signaling-in-mature-follicles-is-important-for-drosophila-ovulation
#4
Elizabeth Knapp, Jianjun Sun
Although ecdysteroid signaling regulates multiple steps in oogenesis, it is not known whether it regulates Drosophila ovulation, a process involving a matrix metalloproteinase-dependent follicle rupture. In this study, we demonstrated that ecdysteroid signaling is operating in mature follicle cells to control ovulation. Moreover, knocking down shade (shd), encoding the monooxygenase that converts ecdysone (E) to the more active 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), specifically in mature follicle cells, blocked follicle rupture, which was rescued by ectopic expression of shd or exogenous 20E...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034749/functional-consequences-of-co-expressing-connexin40-or-connexin45-with-connexin43-on-intercellular-electrical-coupling
#5
Neil M Thomas, Rosaire Gray, Christopher H Fry, Thomas Desplantez, Nicholas S Peters, Nicholas J Severs, Kenneth T Macleod, Emmanuel Dupont
The functional characteristics of the co-expression of connexin43, connexin40, and connexin45 proteins in human myocardium are thought to play an important role in governing normal propagation of the cardiac electrical impulse and in generating the myocardial substrate for some arrhythmias and conduction disturbances. A rat liver epithelial cell line, that endogenously expresses connexin43, was used to induce also expression of connexin40 or connexin45 after stable transfection using an inducible ecdysone system...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034629/geographic-variation-in-rnai-sensitivity-in-the-migratory-locust
#6
Ryohei Sugahara, Seiji Tanaka, Akiya Jouraku, Takahiro Shiotsuki
The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in basic and applied research. It is known that RNAi works in some species but not in others, although the cause for this difference remains unclear. Here, we present inter- and intra-populational variations in RNAi sensitivity in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, and provide information on the genetic background of such variations. In the four strains analyzed, originating from different Japanese localities, most individuals from two of the strains were sensitive to injections of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against the corazonin (CRZ) and ecdysone receptor genes, whereas those from the other two strains were resistant...
December 26, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032930/20-hydroxyecdysone-enhances-the-expression-of-the-chitinase-5-via-broad-complex-zinc-finger-4-during-metamorphosis-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#7
X Zhang, S Zheng
Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E...
December 29, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008974/drosophila-microrna-34-impairs-axon-pruning-of-mushroom-body-%C3%AE-neurons-by-downregulating-the-expression-of-ecdysone-receptor
#8
Yen-Wei Lai, Sao-Yu Chu, Jia-Yi Wei, Chu-Ya Cheng, Jian-Chiuan Li, Po-Lin Chen, Chun-Hong Chen, Hung-Hsiang Yu
MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) is crucial for preventing chronic large-scale neurite degeneration in the aged brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we investigated the role of miR-34 in two other types of large-scale axon degeneration in Drosophila: axotomy-induced axon degeneration in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and developmentally related axon pruning in mushroom body (MB) neurons. Ectopically overexpressed miR-34 did not inhibit axon degeneration in OSNs following axotomy, whereas ectopically overexpressed miR-34 in differentiated MB neurons impaired γ axon pruning...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993043/mechanisms-of-action-of-compounds-that-enhance-storage-lipid-accumulation-in-daphnia-magna
#9
Rita Jordão, Bruno Campos, Benjamín Piña, Romà Tauler, Amadeu M V M Soares, Carlos Barata
Accumulation of storage lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna can be altered by a number of exogenous and endogenous compounds, like 20-hydroxyecdysone (natural ligand of the ecdysone receptor, EcR), methyl farnesoate, pyrirproxyfen (agonists of the methyl farnesoate receptor, MfR), and tributyltin (agonist of the retinoid X acid receptor, RXR). This effect, analogous to the obesogenic disruption in mammals, alters Daphnia's growth and reproductive investment. Here we propose that storage lipid accumulation in droplets is regulated in Daphnia by the interaction between the nuclear receptor heterodimer EcR:RXR and MfR...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983619/rna-interference-of-the-ecdysone-receptor-genes-ecr-and-usp-in-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae-f-affects-its-survival-and-fecundity-upon-feeding-on-wheat-plants
#10
Ting Yan, Hongmei Chen, Yongwei Sun, Xiudao Yu, Lanqin Xia
RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used in functional genomics of insects and received intensive attention in the development of RNAi-based plants for insect control. Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle protein (USP) play important roles in molting, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. EcR and USP orthologs and their function in grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) have not been documented yet. Here, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, dsRNA feeding assay and aphid bioassay were employed to isolate EcR and USP orthologs in grain aphid, investigate their expression patterns, and evaluate the effect of RNAi on aphid survival and fecundity, and its persistence...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974438/transcriptome-analysis-of-drosophila-melanogaster-third-instar-larval-ring-glands-points-to-novel-functions-and-uncovers-a-cytochrome-p450-required-for-development
#11
Danielle Christesen, Ying Ting Yang, Jason Somers, Charles Robin, Tamar Sztal, Phillip Batterham, Trent Perry
In Drosophila melanogaster larvae the ring gland is a control center that orchestrates major developmental transitions. It is a composite organ, consisting of the prothoracic gland, the corpus allatum and the corpora cardiaca, each of which synthesizes and secretes a different hormone. Until now, the ring gland's broader developmental roles beyond endocrine secretion have not been explored. RNA sequencing and analysis of a new transcriptome resource from D. melanogaster wandering third instar larval ring glands has provided a fascinating insight into the diversity of developmental signalling in this organ...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929123/rnai-mediated-mortality-of-the-whitefly-through-transgenic-expression-of-double-stranded-rna-homologous-to-acetylcholinesterase-and-ecdysone-receptor-in-tobacco-plants
#12
Hassan Jamil Malik, Amir Raza, Imran Amin, Jodi A Scheffler, Brian E Scheffler, Judith K Brown, Shahid Mansoor
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a pest and vector of plant viruses to crop and ornamental plants worldwide. Using RNA interference (RNAi) to down regulate whitefly genes by expressing their homologous double stranded RNAs in plants has great potential for management of whiteflies to reduce plant virus disease spread. Using a Tobacco rattle virus-derived plasmid for in planta transient expression of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) homologous to the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ecdysone receptor (EcR) genes of B...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927092/an-rnai-screen-for-genes-involved-in-nanoscale-protrusion-formation-on-corneal-lens-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Ryunosuke Minami, Chiaki Sato, Yumi Yamahama, Hideo Kubo, Takahiko Hariyama, Ken-Ichi Kimura
The "moth-eye" structure, which is observed on the surface of corneal lens in several insects, supports anti-reflective and self-cleaning functions due to nanoscale protrusions known as corneal nipples. Although the morphology and function of the "moth-eye" structure, are relatively well studied, the mechanism of protrusion formation from cell-secreted substances is unknown. In Drosophila melanogaster, a compound eye consists of approximately 800 facets, the surface of which is formed by the corneal lens with nanoscale protrusions...
December 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#14
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893816/mir-34-modulates-innate-immunity-and-ecdysone-signaling-in-drosophila
#15
Xiao-Peng Xiong, Krishna Kurthkoti, Kung-Yen Chang, Jian-Liang Li, Xingjie Ren, Jian-Quan Ni, Tariq M Rana, Rui Zhou
microRNAs are endogenous small regulatory RNAs that modulate myriad biological processes by repressing target gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Here we show that the conserved miRNA miR-34 regulates innate immunity and ecdysone signaling in Drosophila. miR-34 over-expression activates antibacterial innate immunity signaling both in cultured cells and in vivo, and flies over-expressing miR-34 display improved survival and pathogen clearance upon Gram-negative bacterial infection; whereas miR-34 knockout animals are defective in antibacterial defense...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890717/ecdysone-receptor-ecr-and-ultraspiracle-usp-genes-from-the-cyclopoid-copepod-paracyclopina-nana-identification-and-expression-in-response-to-water-accommodated-fractions-wafs
#16
Jayesh Puthumana, Min-Chul Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Hui-Su Kim, Dae-Sik Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
Ecdysteroid hormones are pivotal in the development, growth, and molting of arthropods, and the hormone pathway is triggered by binding ecdysteroid to a heterodimer of the two nuclear receptors; ecdysone receptors (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). We have characterized EcR and USP genes, and their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and studied mRNA transcription levels in post-embryonic stages and in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. The open reading frames (ORF) of EcR and USP were 1470 and 1287bp that encoded 490 and 429 amino acids with molecular weight of 121...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883266/silencing-of-ecdysone-receptor-insect-intestinal-mucin-and-sericotropin-genes-by-bacterially-produced-double-stranded-rna-affects-larval-growth-and-development-in-plutella-xylostella-and-helicoverpa-armigera
#17
B Israni, M V Rajam
RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses...
November 24, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871792/dual-inhibition-of-bace1-and-a%C3%AE-aggregation-by-%C3%AE-ecdysone-application-of-a-phytoecdysteroid-scaffold-in-alzheimer-s-disease-therapeutics
#18
Sandipan Chakraborty, Soumalee Basu
Current medications for the complex neurological disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD), can neither stop disease progression nor revert back disease pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates the applicability of a phytoecdysteroid, β-ecdysone, as a multi-potent agent in AD therapeutics. β-ecdysone strongly binds to the active site cavity of BACE1 with calculated dissociation constant of 1.75±0.1μM. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that binding of β-ecdysone induces conformational transition of the protein from open to closed form thereby blocking substrate binding...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866813/rhodnius-prolixus-from-physiology-by-wigglesworth-to-recent-studies-of-immune-system-modulation-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-trypanosoma-rangeli
#19
REVIEW
P Azambuja, E S Garcia, P J Waniek, C S Vieira, M B Figueiredo, M S Gonzalez, C B Mello, D P Castro, N A Ratcliffe
This review is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir Vincent B. Wigglesworth (VW) in recognition of his many pioneering contributions to insect physiology which, even today, form the basis of modern-day research in this field. Insects not only make vital contributions to our everyday lives by their roles in pollination, balancing eco-systems and provision of honey and silk products, but they are also outstanding models for studying the pathogenicity of microorganisms and the functioning of innate immunity in humans...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855280/transcription-factor-e74a-affects-the-ecdysone-titer-by-regulating-the-expression-of-the-eo-gene-in-the-silkworm-bomby-mori
#20
Wei Sun, Cheng-Fang Wang, Ze Zhang
The formation of ecdysone pulse in insects is synergistically controlled by its biosynthesis and degradation. Previous studies have revealed the feedback regulation of the prothoracic gland (PG) activity to affect the hormone synthesis. However, the molecular regulatory mechanism of the ecdysone degradation is still unclear. In this study, we showed that ecdysone oxidase (EO) gene encoding a hormone metabolism enzyme was also induced by hormone itself in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori. Furthermore, luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ecdysone inducible transcription factor E74A could bind to the cis-regulatory elements of the EO gene...
November 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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