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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317899/minocycline-treatment-suppresses-juvenile-development-and-growth-by-attenuating-insulin-tor-signaling-in-drosophila-animal-model
#1
Hyun Myoung Yun, Sujin Noh, Seogang Hyun
Minocycline is a broad spectrum, semi-synthetic tetracycline analog that is used to treat bacterial infection. Recently, this drug has been receiving increasing attention for its non-antibiotic properties, including anti-inflammatory, tumor suppressive, and neuroprotective effects. Drosophila is a useful model organism for studying human metabolism and disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of minocycline on juvenile development and growth in Drosophila. Feeding minocycline to Drosophila larvae suppresses larval body growth and delays the timing of pupation in a dose-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292900/hormone-and-receptor-interplay-in-the-regulation-of-mosquito-lipid-metabolism
#2
Xueli Wang, Yuan Hou, Tusar T Saha, Gaofeng Pei, Alexander S Raikhel, Zhen Zou
Mosquitoes transmit devastating human diseases because they need vertebrate blood for egg development. Metabolism in female mosquitoes is tightly coupled with blood meal-mediated reproduction, which requires an extremely high level of energy consumption. Functional analysis has shown that major genes encoding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (LM) in the mosquito fat bodies are down-regulated at the end of the juvenile hormone (JH)-controlled posteclosion (PE) phase but exhibit significant elevation in their transcript levels during the post-blood meal phase (PBM), which is regulated mainly by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282622/the-effects-of-fipronil-and-the-photodegradation-product-fipronil-desulfinyl-on-growth-and-gene-expression-in-juvenile-blue-crabs-callinectes-sapidus-at-different-salinities
#3
Andrew D Goff, Parichehr Saranjampour, Lauren M Ryan, Michelle L Hladik, Joseph A Covi, Kevin L Armbrust, Susanne M Brander
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are now widely established to be present in the environment at concentrations capable of affecting wild organisms. Although many studies have been conducted in fish, less is known about effects in invertebrates such as decapod crustaceans. Decapods are exposed to low concentrations of EDCs that may cause infertility, decreased growth, and developmental abnormalities. The objective herein was to evaluate effects of fipronil and its photodegradation product fipronil desulfinyl...
February 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260683/endocrine-related-genes-are-altered-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-in-chironomus-riparius-aquatic-larvae
#4
Pedro Martínez-Paz, Mónica Morales, Josune Urien, Gloria Morcillo, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent widely used in personal care and consumer products and commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of TCS on endocrine-related genes of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology, were evaluated. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures at 10µg/L, 100µg/L, and 1000µg/L TCS revealed that this xenobiotic was able to alter the transcriptional activity of ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp), the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR...
March 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257485/deep-sequencing-of-the-prothoracic-gland-transcriptome-reveals-new-players-in-insect-ecdysteroidogenesis
#5
Takayoshi Nakaoka, Masatoshi Iga, Tetsuya Yamada, Ikumi Koujima, Mika Takeshima, Xiangying Zhou, Yutaka Suzuki, Mari H Ogihara, Hiroshi Kataoka
Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that induce molting and determine developmental timing in arthropods. In insect larva, the prothoracic gland (PG) is a major organ for ecdysone synthesis and release. Released ecdysone is converted into the active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the peripheral tissues. All processes from ecdysone synthesis and release from the PG to its conversion to 20E are called ecdysteroidogenesis and are under the regulation of numerous factors expressed in the PG and peripheral tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254619/20-hydroxyecdysone-activates-pgrp-sa-mediated-immune-response-in-locusta-migratoria
#6
Pengfei Han, Jiao Han, Jiqiao Fan, Min Zhang, Enbo Ma, Sheng Li, Renjun Fan, Jianzhen Zhang
20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) has been implicated in regulating the immune response in insects. Conflicting conclusions on 20E regulating immunity have been reported in model holometabolous species. However, in hemimetabolous insects, the role of 20E as an immune-suppressor or activator and the mechanism remains unclear. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria is a representative member of hemimetabolous insects. Here, digital gene expression (DGE) profiles of Locusta migratoria treated with 20E were analyzed. Pattern recognition receptors [peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA), PGRP-LE, and gram-negative binding protein (GNBP3)] and antimicrobial peptides (defensin, diptericin, and i-type lysozyme) were significantly induced by 20E in fat body...
February 27, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251296/hard-shell-mating-in-neohelice-granulata-the-role-of-ecdysone-in-female-receptivity-and-mate-attraction
#7
María P Sal Moyano, Tomás Luppi, Daniel A Medesani, Colin L McLay, Enrique M Rodríguez
Most brachyuran females become receptive during the intermolt period, a condition considered "derived". However, as far as we know, studies testing the existence and function of pheromones in decapods are based on species which have mating linked to molting, a condition considered as "ancestral". For the first time, we studied some physiological and morphological processes involved in Neohelice granulata intermolt female crabs becoming receptive and potentially attracting males. We found that receptive females have mobile vulvae opercula due to a softening process of the cuticle hinge which showed lower calcium levels compared to the hinge of unreceptive females...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241066/ras-like-family-small-gtpases-genes-in-nilaparvata-lugens-identification-phylogenetic-analysis-gene-expression-and-function-in-nymphal-development
#8
Weixia Wang, Kailong Li, Pinjun Wan, Fengxiang Lai, Qiang Fu, Tingheng Zhu
Twenty-nine cDNAs encoding Ras-like family small GTPases (RSGs) were cloned and sequenced from Nilaparvata lugens. Twenty-eight proteins are described here: 3 from Rho, 2 from Ras, 9 from Arf and 14 from Rabs. These RSGs from N.lugens have five conserved G-loop motifs and displayed a higher degree of sequence conservation with orthologues from insects. RT-qPCR analysis revealed NlRSGs expressed at all life stages and the highest expression was observed in hemolymph, gut or wing for most of NlRSGs. RNAi demonstrated that eighteen NlRSGs play a crucial role in nymphal development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174130/identification-and-expression-of-nuclear-receptor-genes-and-ecdysteroid-titers-during-nymphal-development-in-the-spider-agelena-silvatica
#9
Yoshiko Honda, Wataru Ishiguro, Mari H Ogihara, Hiroshi Kataoka, DeMar Taylor
Ecdysteroids play an essential role in the regulation of the molting processes of arthropods. Nuclear receptors of the spider Agelena silvatica that showed high homology with other arthropods especially in the functional domains were identified, two isoforms of ecdysone receptor (AsEcRA, AsEcRB), retinoid X receptor (AsRXR) and two isoforms of E75 (AsE75A, AsE75D). AsEcR and AsRXR mRNA did not show major changes in expression but occurred throughout the third instar nymphal stage. AsE75DBD was low or non-existent at first then showed a sudden increase from D7 to D10...
February 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166271/transcriptional-deregulation-of-genetic-biomarkers-in-chironomus-riparius-larvae-exposed-to-ecologically-relevant-concentrations-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp
#10
Óscar Herrero, Gloria Morcillo, Rosario Planelló
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used worldwide as a plasticizer and solvent in many formulations. Based on available toxicological data, it has been classified as toxic for reproduction and as an endocrine disruptor. Despite this, ecotoxicological studies in aquatic wildlife organisms are still scarce. In the present work, the toxic molecular alterations caused by DEHP in aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius have been studied, by analyzing the transcriptional activity of genes related to some vital cellular pathways, such as the ribosomal machinery (rpL4, rpL13), the cell stress response (hsc70, hsp70, hsp40, hsp27), the ecdysone hormone pathway (EcR), the energy metabolism (GAPDH), and detoxication processes (CYP4G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158280/proximate-mechanism-of-behavioral-manipulation-of-an-orb-weaver-spider-host-by-a-parasitoid-wasp
#11
Thiago Gechel Kloss, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Carlos Frankl Sperber
Some ichneumonid wasps induce modifications in the web building behavior of their spider hosts to produce resistant "cocoon" webs. These structures hold and protect the wasp's cocoon during pupa development. The mechanism responsible for host manipulation probably involves the inoculation of psychotropic chemicals by the parasitoid larva during a specific developmental period. Recent studies indicate that some spiders build cocoon webs similar to those normally built immediately before ecdysis, suggesting that this substance might be a molting hormone or a precursor chemical of this hormone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153644/cathepsin-l-participates-in-the-remodeling-of-the-midgut-through-dissociation-of-midgut-cells-and-activation-of-apoptosis-via-caspase-1
#12
Cui Yang, Xian-Wu Lin, Wei-Hua Xu
The larval midgut in holometabolous insects must undergo a remodeling process during metamorphosis to form the pupal-adult midgut. However, the molecular mechanism of larval midgut cell dissociation remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression and activity of Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CatL) are high in the midgut at the mid-late stage of the 6th-instar larvae and are responsive to the upstream hormone ecdysone. Immunocytochemistry shows that signals for Har-CatL-like are localized in midgut cells, and an inhibitor experiment demonstrates that Har-CatL functions in the dissociation of midgut epithelial cells...
January 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126734/premature-remodeling-of-fat-body-and-fat-mobilization-triggered-by-platelet-derived-growth-factor-vegf-receptor-in-drosophila
#13
Huimei Zheng, Xuexiang Wang, Pengfei Guo, Wanzhong Ge, Qinfeng Yan, Weiqiang Gao, Yongmei Xi, Xiaohang Yang
In Drosophila, fat body remodeling accompanied with fat mobilization is an ecdysone-induced dynamic process that only occurs during metamorphosis. Here, we show that the activated Drosophila platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor (PVR) is sufficient to induce shape changes in the fat body, from thin layers of tightly conjugated polygonal cells to clusters of disaggregated round-shaped cells. These morphologic changes are reminiscent of those seen during early pupation upon initiation of fat body remodeling...
January 26, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126483/the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-gene-family-of-bombyx-mori
#14
Hai-Yan Yan, Kazuei Mita, Xia Zhao, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Minoru Moriyama, Huabin Wang, Masashi Iwanaga, Hideki Kawasaki
We previously reported regarding an ecdysone-inducible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We found another four ACE genes in the Bombyx genome. The present study was undertaken to clarify the evolutionally changed function of the ACE of Bombyx mori. Core regions of deduced amino acid sequences of ACE genes were compared with those of other insect ACE genes. Five Bombyx genes have the conserved Zn(2+)-binding-site motif (HEXXH); however, BmAcer4 has only one and BmAcer3 has no catalytic ligand. BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were expressed in several organs...
April 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121986/nutrient-dependent-endocycling-in-steroidogenic-tissue-dictates-timing-of-metamorphosis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Yuya Ohhara, Satoru Kobayashi, Naoki Yamanaka
Many animals have an intrinsic growth checkpoint during juvenile development, after which an irreversible decision is made to upregulate steroidogenesis, triggering the metamorphic juvenile-to-adult transition. However, a molecular process underlying such a critical developmental decision remains obscure. Here we show that nutrient-dependent endocycling in steroidogenic cells provides the machinery necessary for irreversible activation of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Endocycle progression in cells of the prothoracic gland (PG) is tightly coupled with the growth checkpoint, and block of endocycle in PG cells causes larval developmental arrest due to reduction in biosynthesis of the steroid hormone ecdysone...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115695/ecdysone-signaling-underlies-the-pea-aphid-transgenerational-wing-polyphenism
#16
Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Purba Gupta, Tannice A Hall, Jennifer A Brisson
The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104670/mutants-for-drosophila-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-3b-are-defective-in-mitochondrial-function-and-larval-cell-death
#17
Dianne M Duncan, Paula Kiefel, Ian Duncan
The death of larval salivary gland cells during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a key system for studying steroid controlled programmed cell death. This death is induced by a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone that takes place at the end of the prepupal period. For many years, it has been thought that the ecdysone direct response gene Eip93F (E93) plays a critical role in initiating salivary gland cell death. This conclusion was based largely on the finding that the three "type" alleles of E93 cause a near-complete block in salivary gland cell death...
March 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096379/molecular-mechanism-underlying-juvenile-hormone-mediated-repression-of-precocious-larval-adult-metamorphosis
#18
Takumi Kayukawa, Akiya Jouraku, Yuka Ito, Tetsuro Shinoda
Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval-pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093350/a-visual-screen-for-diet-regulated-proteins-in-the-drosophila-ovary-using-gfp-protein-trap-lines
#19
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet...
January 16, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069934/steroid-signaling-in-mature-follicles-is-important-for-drosophila-ovulation
#20
Elizabeth Knapp, Jianjun Sun
Although ecdysteroid signaling regulates multiple steps in oogenesis, it is not known whether it regulates Drosophila ovulation, a process involving a matrix metalloproteinase-dependent follicle rupture. In this study, we demonstrated that ecdysteroid signaling is operating in mature follicle cells to control ovulation. Moreover, knocking down shade (shd), encoding the monooxygenase that converts ecdysone (E) to the more active 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), specifically in mature follicle cells, blocked follicle rupture, which was rescued by ectopic expression of shd or exogenous 20E...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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