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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784791/steroid-signaling-mediates-nutritional-regulation-of-juvenile-body-growth-via-igf-binding-protein-in-drosophila
#1
Gang Jun Lee, Gangsik Han, Hyun Myoung Yun, Jin Ju Lim, Sujin Noh, Jaegeun Lee, Seogang Hyun
Nutritional condition during the juvenile growth period considerably affects final adult size. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS)/target of rapamycin (TOR) nutrient-sensing pathway is known to regulate growth and metabolism in response to nutritional conditions. However, there is limited information on how endocrine pathways communicate nutritional information to different metabolic organs to regulate organismal growth. Here, we show that Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), a Drosophila homolog of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), plays a key role in the nutritional control of organismal growth...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781995/an-ecdysone-receptor-based-singular-gene-switch-for-deliberate-expression-of-transgene-with-robustness-reversibility-and-negligible-leakiness
#2
Seoghyun Lee, Minho Won, Ran Hee Hwang, Gang Min Hur, Hyunju Ro
Precise control of transgene expression is desirable in biological and clinical studies. However, because the binary feature of currently employed gene switches requires the transfer of two therapeutic expression units concurrently into a single cell, the practical application of the system for gene therapy is limited. To simplify the transgene expression system, we generated a gene switch designated as pEUI(+) encompassing a complete set of transgene expression modules in a single vector. Comprising of the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and modified EcR (GvEcR), a minimal VP16 activation domain fused with a GAL4 DNA-binding domain, as well as a modified Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR), the newly developed singular gene switch is highly responsive to the administration of a chemical inducer in a time- and dosage-dependent manner...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778903/orcokinins-regulate-the-expression-of-neuropeptide-precursor-genes-related-to-ecdysis-in-the-hemimetabolous-insect-rhodnius-prolixus
#3
Juan Pedro Wulff, Natalia Capriotti, Sheila Ons
Ecdysis is a vital process for insects, during which they shed the old cuticle in order to emerge as the following developmental stage. Given its relevance for survival and reproduction, ecdysis is tightly regulated by peptidic hormones that conform an interrelated neuromodulatory network. This network was studied in species that undergo a complete metamorphosis, but not in hemimetabola. In a recent work, we demonstrated that orcokinin neuropeptides are essential for ecdysis to occur in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715504/the-biology-and-evolution-of-the-dilp8-lgr3-pathway-a-relaxin-like-pathway-coupling-tissue-growth-and-developmental-timing-control
#4
REVIEW
Alisson M Gontijo, Andres Garelli
Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila. The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis...
April 28, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714689/temporospatial-induction-of-homeodomain-gene-cut-dictates-natural-lineage-reprogramming
#5
Ke Xu, Xiaodan Liu, Yuchun Wang, Chouin Wong, Yan Song
Understanding how cellular identity naturally interconverts with high efficiency and temporospatial precision is crucial for regenerative medicine. Here we revealed a natural midgut-to-renal lineage conversion event during Drosophila metamorphosis and identified the evolutionarily-conserved homeodomain protein Cut as a master switch in this process. A steep Wnt/Wingless morphogen gradient intersects with a pulse of steroid hormone ecdysone to induce cut expression in a subset of midgut progenitors and reprogram them into renal progenitors...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618455/juvenile-hormone-reveals-mosaic-developmental-programs-in-the-metamorphosing-optic-lobe-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Lynn M Riddiford, James W Truman, Aljoscha Nern
The development of the adult optic lobe (OL) of Drosophila melanogaster is directed by a wave of ingrowth of the photoreceptors over a two day period at the outset of metamorphosis which is accompanied by the appearance of the pupal-specific transcription factor Broad-Z3 (Br-Z3) and expression of early drivers in OL neurons. During this time, there are pulses of ecdysteroids that time the metamorphic events. At the outset, the transient appearance of juvenile hormone (JH) prevents precocious development of the OL caused by the ecdysteroid peak that initiates pupariation, but the artificial maintenance of JH after this time misdirects subsequent development...
April 4, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603466/oestrogen-related-receptor-reduces-vitellogenin-expression-by-crosstalk-with-the-ecdysone-receptor-pathway-in-female-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#7
G Shen, J Wu, C Han, H Liu, Y Xu, H Zhang, Y Lin, Q Xia
Oestrogen-related receptor (ERR) is involved in oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling pathways owing to its similarity to ER in terms of domain structure and co-activator and response elements. Although insects lack ER, they harbour an ERR gene that is thought to modulate metabolism and energy conversion via an unknown mechanism. The present study investigated the function of ERR in insects using female silkworm (Bombyx mori, Bm). We found that the expression of B. mori vitellogenin (BmVg) and B. mori ERR (BmERR) in the fat bodies of female silkworms at different stages of development exhibited alternating patterns, and RNA interference of BmERR in females induced BmVg transcription, resulting in an increase in egg weight relative to the control...
March 30, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602363/the-distinct-roles-of-insulin-signaling-in-polyphenic-development
#8
REVIEW
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
Many insects have the ability to develop alternative morphologies in response to specific environmental signals such as photoperiod, temperature, nutrition and crowding. These signals are integrated by the brain and result in alternative patterns of secretion of developmental hormones like ecdysone, juvenile hormone and insulin-like growth factors, which, in turn, direct alternative developmental trajectories. Insulin signaling appears to be particularly important when the polyphenism involves differences in the sizes of the body, appendages and other structures, such as wings, mandibles and horns...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602358/endocrine-regulation-of-a-dispersal-polymorphism-in-winged-insects-a-short-review
#9
REVIEW
Xinda Lin, Laura Corley Lavine
Changes in food availability and crowding are two critical environmental conditions that impact an animal's trajectory toward either reproduction or migration. Many insects facing this challenge have evolved wing polymorpisms that allow them to respond to changing conditions. When conditions favor reproduction, wing polymorphic species produce adults that either have no wings or short, non-functional wings; however, when conditions favor migration, adults with functional wings and robust flight muscles develop...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582498/requirement-of-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-gene-within-the-74ef-puff-for-larval-pupal-metamorphosis-and-appendage-growth
#10
Q-Y Xu, Q-W Meng, P Deng, K-Y Fu, W-C Guo, G-Q Li
Two Drosophila melanogaster E-twenty-six domain transcription factor isoforms (E74A and E74B) act differentially at the start of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signalling cascade to regulate larval-pupal metamorphosis. In the present paper, we identified the two isoforms (LdE74A and LdE74B) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. During the larval development stage, the mRNA transcript levels of the two LdE74 isoforms were correlated with circulating 20E titres. In vitro midgut culture and in vivo dietary supplementation with 20E revealed that the presence of 20E induced expression peaks of both LdE74A and LdE74B, with similar patterns observed for the two isoforms...
March 26, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567866/kr%C3%A3-ppel-homolog-1-represses-insect-ecdysone-biosynthesis-by-directly-inhibiting-the-transcription-of-steroidogenic-enzymes
#11
Tianlei Zhang, Wei Song, Zheng Li, Wenliang Qian, Ling Wei, Yan Yang, Weina Wang, Xuan Zhou, Meng Meng, Jian Peng, Qingyou Xia, Norbert Perrimon, Daojun Cheng
In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroid hormone ecdysone have opposing effects on regulation of the larval-pupal transition. Although increasing evidence suggests that JH represses ecdysone biosynthesis during larval development, the mechanism underlying this repression is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of the Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a gene encoding a transcription factor that mediates JH signaling, in ecdysone-producing organ prothoracic gland (PG) represses ecdysone biosynthesis by directly inhibiting the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes in both Drosophila and Bombyx Application of a JH mimic on ex vivo cultured PGs from Drosophila and Bombyx larvae induces Kr-h1 expression and inhibits the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes...
March 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559251/a-polydnavirus-encoded-ank-protein-has-a-negative-impact-on-steroidogenesis-and-development
#12
Marilena Ignesti, Rosalba Ferrara, Patrizia Romani, Luca Valzania, Giulia Serafini, Francesco Pennacchio, Valeria Cavaliere, Giuseppe Gargiulo
Polydnaviruses (PDV) are viral symbionts associated with ichneumonid and braconid wasps parasitizing moth larvae, which are able to disrupt the host immune response and development, as well as a number of other physiological pathways. The immunosuppressive role of PDV has been more intensely investigated, while very little is known about the PDV-encoded factors disrupting host development. Here we address this research issue by further expanding the functional analysis of ankyrin genes encoded by the bracovirus associated with Toxoneuron nigriceps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)...
March 17, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543534/ecdysone-responsive-microrna-252-5p-controls-the-cell-cycle-by-targeting-abi-in-drosophila
#13
Do-Hwan Lim, Seungjae Lee, Jee Yun Han, Min-Seok Choi, Jae-Sang Hong, Youngmo Seong, Young-Soo Kwon, Young Sik Lee
The steroid hormone ecdysone has a central role in the developmental transitions of insects through its control of responsive protein-coding and microRNA (miRNA) gene expression. However, the complete regulatory network controlling the expression of these genes remains to be elucidated. In this study, we performed cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing of endogenous Argonaute 1 (Ago1) protein, the core effector of the miRNA pathway, in Drosophila S2 cells. We found that regulatory interactions between miRNAs and their cognate targets were substantially altered by Ago1 in response to ecdysone signaling...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529496/identification-of-novel-agonists-and-antagonists-of-the-ecdysone-receptor-by-virtual-screening
#14
Xueping Hu, Bin Yin, Kaat Cappelle, Luc Swevers, Guy Smagghe, Xinling Yang, Li Zhang
Insect growth is regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which works via the ecdysone receptor (EcR). To identify biologically active and novel ecdysone agonists/antagonists, ligand/structure-based virtual screening combined with pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking was performed to identify novel nonsteroidal lead compounds. Nine molecules were screened and selected for an in vitro cell-based reporter bioassay. The results showed that VS-006 and VS-009 exhibited antagonistic activity in S2 cells, whereas only VS-006 exhibited antagonistic activity in Bm5 cells...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526770/hr38-an-ortholog-of-nr4a-family-nuclear-receptors-mediates-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulation-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-during-mosquito-reproduction
#15
Dujuan Dong, Yang Zhang, Vlastimil Smykal, Lin Ling, Alexander S Raikhel
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector for many dangerous human viral diseases. Carbohydrate metabolism (CM) is essential for supplying the energy necessary for host seeking, blood digestion and rapid egg development of this vector insect. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the ecdysone receptor (EcR) are important regulators of CM, coordinating it with female reproductive events. We report here that the NR4A nuclear receptor AHR38 plays a critical role in mediating these actions of 20E and EcR...
May 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513715/timing-of-embryonic-quiescence-determines-viability-of-embryos-from-the-calanoid-copepod-acartia-tonsa-dana
#16
Birgitte Nilsson, Benni Winding Hansen
Like 41 other calanoid copepods, Acartia tonsa, are capable of inducing embryonic quiescence when experiencing unfavorable environmental conditions. The ecdysone-signaling cascade is known to have a key function in developmental processes like embryogenesis and molting of arthropods, including copepods. We examined the role of ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), ecdysone receptor (EcR), ß fushi tarazu transcription factor 1 (ßFTZ-F1), and the ecdysteroid-regulated early gene E74 (E74), which represent different levels of the ecdysone-signaling cascade in our calanoid model organism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491422/identification-expression-and-endocrine-disruption-of-three-ecdysone-responsive-genes-in-the-sentinel-species-gammarus-fossarum
#17
D Gouveia, F Bonneton, C Almunia, J Armengaud, H Quéau, D Degli-Esposti, O Geffard, A Chaumot
Taking advantage of a large transcriptomic dataset recently obtained in the sentinel crustacean amphipod Gammarus fossarum, we developed an approach based on sequence similarity and phylogenetic reconstruction to identify key players involved in the endocrine regulation of G. fossarum. Our work identified three genes of interest: the nuclear receptors RXR and E75, and the regulator broad-complex (BR). Their involvement in the regulation of molting and reproduction, along with their sensitivity to chemical contamination were experimentally assessed by studying gene expression during the female reproductive cycle, and after laboratory exposure to model endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs): pyriproxyfen, tebufenozide and piperonyl butoxide...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487137/seven-up-is-a-novel-regulator-of-insulin-signaling
#18
Laura Palanker Musselman, Jill L Fink, Ezekiel J Maier, Jared A Gatto, Michael R Brent, Thomas J Baranski
Insulin resistance is associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. These complications are exacerbated by a high-calorie diet, which we used to model type 2 diabetes in Drosophila melanogaster Our studies focused on the fat body, an adipose- and liver-like tissue that stores fat and maintains circulating glucose. A gene regulatory network was constructed to predict potential regulators of insulin signaling in this tissue. Genomic characterization of fat bodies suggested a central role for the transcription factor Seven-up (Svp)...
April 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476823/lipophorin-receptor-regulates-nilaparvata-lugens-fecundity-by-promoting-lipid-accumulation-and-vitellogenin-biosynthesis
#19
Kai Lu, Xia Chen, Yue Li, Wenru Li, Qiang Zhou
Insect lipophorin receptor (LpR) belongs to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) superfamily and plays an essential role in fecundity by mediating the incorporation of lipophorin into developing oocytes. Here we report the identification and characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding a putative LpR from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. The deduced amino acid sequence of NlLpR possesses the conserved structural motifs of LDLR family members, and displays a high degree of similarity with sequences from other insect LpRs...
May 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467243/hormonal-control-of-growth-in-the-wing-imaginal-disks-of-junonia-coenia-the-relative-contributions-of-insulin-and-ecdysone
#20
H Frederik Nijhout, Emily Laub, Laura W Grunert
The wing imaginal disks of Lepidoptera can be grown in tissue culture, but require both insulin and ecdysone to grow normally. Here, we investigate the contributions the two hormones make to growth. Ecdysone is required to maintain mitoses, whereas in the presence of insulin alone mitoses stop. Both ecdysone and insulin stimulate protein synthesis, but only ecdysone stimulates DNA synthesis. Insulin stimulates primarily cytoplasmic growth and an increase in cell size, whereas ecdysone, by virtue of its stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitosis, stimulates growth by an increase in cell number...
March 19, 2018: Development
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