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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635673/toxicity-of-naphthalene-and-benzene-on-tribollium-castaneum-herbst
#1
Nerlis Pajaro-Castro, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4-48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630299/bacteria-mediated-hypoxia-functions-as-a-signal-for-mosquito-development
#2
Kerri L Coon, Luca Valzania, David A McKinney, Kevin J Vogel, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. In contrast, several species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, rescue development of axenic larvae into adults. The molecular mechanisms underlying bacteria-dependent growth are unknown. Here, we designed a genetic screen around E...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627423/severe-developmental-timing-defects-in-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-deficient-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#3
Miwa Uchibori-Asano, Takumi Kayukawa, Hideki Sezutsu, Tetsuro Shinoda, Takaaki Daimon
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) triggers the biosynthesis and release of the molting hormone ecdysone in the prothoracic gland (PG), thereby controlling the timing of molting and metamorphosis. Despite the well-documented physiological role of PTTH and its signaling pathway in the PG, it is not clear whether PTTH is an essential hormone for ecdysone biosynthesis and development. To address this question, we established and characterized a PTTH knockout line in the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
June 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623733/a-novel-immune-related-gene-hdd1-of-silkworm-bombyx-mori-is-involved-in-bacterial-response
#4
Kui Zhang, Guangzhao Pan, Yuzu Zhao, Xiangwei Hao, Chongyang Li, Li Shen, Rui Zhang, Jingjing Su, Hongjuan Cui
Insects have evolved an effective immune system to respond to various challenges. In this study, a novel immune-related gene, called BmHDD1, was first charactered in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmHDD1 contained an ORF of 837bp and encoding a deduced protein of 278 amino acids. BmHDD1 was specifically expressed in hemocytes, and highly expressed at the molting and metamorphosis stages under normal physiological conditions. Our results suggested that BmHDD1 was mainly generated by hemocytes and secreted into hemolymph...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610887/a-hormonal-cue-promotes-timely-follicle-cell-migration-by-modulating-transcription-profiles
#5
Lathiena Manning, Jinal Sheth, Stacey Bridges, Afsoon Saadin, Kamsi Odinammadu, Deborah Andrew, Susan Spencer, Denise Montell, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
Cell migration is essential during animal development. In the Drosophila ovary, the steroid hormone ecdysone coordinates nutrient sensing, growth, and the timing of morphogenesis events including border cell migration. To identify downstream effectors of ecdysone signaling, we profiled gene expression in wild-type follicle cells compared to cells expressing a dominant negative Ecdysone receptor or its coactivator Taiman. Of approximately 400 genes that showed differences in expression, we validated 16 candidate genes for expression in border and centripetal cells, and demonstrated that seven responded to ectopic ecdysone activation by changing their transcriptional levels...
June 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572000/c-type-lectin-interacting-with-%C3%AE-integrin-enhances-hemocytic-encapsulation-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#6
Pan Wang, Xiao-Rong Zhuo, Lin Tang, Xu-Sheng Liu, Yu-Feng Wang, Guo-Xiu Wang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jia-Lin Wang
The encapsulation reaction in invertebrates is analogous to granuloma formation in vertebrates, and this reaction is severely compromised when ecdysone signaling is blocked. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the encapsulation reaction and its regulation by ecdysone remains obscure. In our previous study, we found that the C-type lectin HaCTL3, from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, is involved in anti-bacterial immune response, acting as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR). In the current study, we demonstrate that HaCTL3 is involved in defense against parasites and directly binds to the surface of nematodes...
May 29, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555616/central-and-peripheral-clocks-are-coupled-by-a-neuropeptide-pathway-in-drosophila
#7
Mareike Selcho, Carola Millán, Angelina Palacios-Muñoz, Franziska Ruf, Lilian Ubillo, Jiangtian Chen, Gregor Bergmann, Chihiro Ito, Valeria Silva, Christian Wegener, John Ewer
Animal circadian clocks consist of central and peripheral pacemakers, which are coordinated to produce daily rhythms in physiology and behaviour. Despite its importance for optimal performance and health, the mechanism of clock coordination is poorly understood. Here we dissect the pathway through which the circadian clock of Drosophila imposes daily rhythmicity to the pattern of adult emergence. Rhythmicity depends on the coupling between the brain clock and a peripheral clock in the prothoracic gland (PG), which produces the steroid hormone, ecdysone...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554773/modulation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-by-dopecr-a-unique-dual-receptor-for-ecdysone-and-dopamine
#8
REVIEW
Arianna Lark, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Jean-René Martin
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for steroid hormones mediate unconventional steroid signaling and play a significant role in the rapid actions of steroids in a variety of biological processes, including those in the nervous system. However, the effects of these GPCRs on overall neuronal activity remain largely elusive. Drosophila DopEcR is a GPCR that responds to both ecdysone (the major steroid hormone in insects) and dopamine, regulating multiple second messenger systems. Recent studies have revealed that DopEcR is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and involved in behavioral regulation...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536147/hormone-dependent-control-of-developmental-timing-through-regulation-of-chromatin-accessibility
#9
Christopher M Uyehara, Spencer L Nystrom, Matthew J Niederhuber, Mary Leatham-Jensen, Yiqin Ma, Laura A Buttitta, Daniel J McKay
Specification of tissue identity during development requires precise coordination of gene expression in both space and time. Spatially, master regulatory transcription factors are required to control tissue-specific gene expression programs. However, the mechanisms controlling how tissue-specific gene expression changes over time are less well understood. Here, we show that hormone-induced transcription factors control temporal gene expression by regulating the accessibility of DNA regulatory elements. Using the Drosophila wing, we demonstrate that temporal changes in gene expression are accompanied by genome-wide changes in chromatin accessibility at temporal-specific enhancers...
May 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528906/warts-signaling-controls-organ-and-body-growth-through-regulation-of-ecdysone
#10
Morten E Moeller, Stanislav Nagy, Stephan U Gerlach, Karen C Soegaard, E Thomas Danielsen, Michael J Texada, Kim F Rewitz
Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510140/nuclear-receptors-ecr-usp-e75-dhr3-and-err-regulate-transcription-of-ecdysone-cascade-genes
#11
M Yu Mazina, E V Kocheryzhkina, J V Nikolenko, A N Krasnov, S G Georgieva, N E Vorobyeva
We found that an increase in the expression level of E75, DHR3, and ERR increases the degree of activation of dhr3 and hr4 genes in Drosophila S2 cells. We also detected a repressing effect of these nuclear receptors on the basal transcription level of these genes. This is the first study to show the ability of nuclear receptors E75, DHR3, and ERR to function as activators or repressors depending on external conditions. We also confirmed the existence of the interaction of all studied nuclear receptors with the promoters of dhr3 and hr4 genes of the ecdysone cascade in vivo...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493870/functional-male-accessory-glands-and-fertility-in-drosophila-require-novel-ecdysone-receptor
#12
Vandana Sharma, Anuj K Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Snigdha Misra, Himanshu P K Gupta, Snigdha Gupta, Anshuman Singh, Norene A Buehner, Kristipati Ravi Ram
In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins), which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448606/a-feeding-protocol-for-delivery-of-agents-to-assess-development-in-varroa-mites
#13
Ana R Cabrera, Paul D Shirk, Peter E A Teal
A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439742/exploration-of-the-binding-affinities-between-ecdysone-agonists-and-ecr-usp-by-docking-and-mm-pb-gbsa-approaches
#14
Xueping Hu, Jin Xie, Song Hu, Li Zhang, Yanhong Dong
Ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a significant target in the identification of new environmentally friendly pesticides. There are two types of ecdysone agonists: steroidal ecdysone agonists and dibenzoylhydrazines (DBHs). In this study, various modeling methods (homology modeling, molecular docking, MD simulation, binding free energy calculation, and per-residue binding free energy decomposition) were utilized to study the different binding mechanisms of two types of ecdysone agonists. Our theoretical results indicated that the relative binding potencies of DBHs can be ranked sufficiently accurately using the MOE docking method...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439025/endocrine-network-essential-for-reproductive-success-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Matthew Meiselman, Sang Soo Lee, Raymond-Tan Tran, Hongjiu Dai, Yike Ding, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Thilini P Wijesekera, Brigitte Dauwalder, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) was originally discovered and characterized as a molt termination signal in insects through its regulation of the ecdysis sequence. Here we report that ETH persists in adult Drosophila melanogaster, where it functions as an obligatory allatotropin to promote juvenile hormone (JH) production and reproduction. ETH signaling deficits lead to sharply reduced JH levels and consequent reductions of ovary size, egg production, and yolk deposition in mature oocytes. Expression of ETH and ETH receptor genes is in turn dependent on ecdysone (20E)...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428023/cyp450s-analysis-across-spiny-lobster-metamorphosis-identifies-a-long-sought-missing-link-in-crustacean-development
#16
Tomer Ventura, Utpal Bose, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Gregory G Smith, P Nicholas Shaw, Scott F Cummins, Abigail Elizur
Cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) are a rapidly evolving family of enzymes, making it difficult to identify bona fide orthologs with notable lineage-specific exceptions. In ecdysozoans, a small number of the most conserved orthologs include enzymes which metabolize ecdysteroids. Ecdysone pathway components were recently shown in a decapod crustacean but with a notable absence of shade, which is important for converting ecdysone to its active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), suggesting that another CYP450 performs a similar function in crustaceans...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414820/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-epidermis-of-the-purple-quail-like-q-lp-mutant-of-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#17
Pingyang Wang, Zhiyong Qiu, Dingguo Xia, Shunming Tang, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
A new purple quail-like (q-lp) mutant found from the plain silkworm strain 932VR has pigment dots on the epidermis similar to the pigment mutant quail (q). In addition, q-lp mutant larvae are inactive, consume little and grow slowly, with a high death rate and other developmental abnormalities. Pigmentation of the silkworm epidermis consists of melanin, ommochrome and pteridine. Silkworm development is regulated by ecdysone and juvenile hormone. In this study, we performed RNA-Seq on the epidermis of the q-lp mutant in the 4th instar during molting, with 932VR serving as the control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408149/leptinotarsa-cap-n-collar-isoform-c-kelch-like-ech-associated-protein%C3%A2-1-signaling-is-critical-for-the-regulation-of-ecdysteroidogenesis-in-the-larvae
#18
Qiang-Kun Sun, Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Drosophila cap 'n' collar isoform C (CncC) and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) regulate metamorphosis by transcriptional control of a subset of genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling, and juvenile hormone (JH) degradation. In the present paper, we found that prothoracicotropic hormone signal was required for the activation of LdCncC and LdKeap1 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Moreover, RNA interference of LdCncC or LdKeap1 in the fourth-instar larvae delayed development...
April 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394252/steroid-hormone-induction-of-temporal-gene-expression-in-drosophila-brain-neuroblasts-generates-neuronal-and-glial-diversity
#19
Mubarak Hussain Syed, Brandon Mark, Chris Q Doe
An important question in neuroscience is how stem cells generate neuronal diversity. During Drosophila embryonic development, neural stem cells (neuroblasts) sequentially express transcription factors that generate neuronal diversity; regulation of the embryonic temporal transcription factor cascade is lineage-intrinsic. In contrast, larval neuroblasts generate longer ~50 division lineages, and currently only one mid-larval molecular transition is known: Chinmo/Imp/Lin-28+ neuroblasts transition to Syncrip+ neuroblasts...
April 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388784/beta-ecdysone-protects-mouse-osteoblasts-from-glucocorticoid-induced-apoptosis-in-vitro
#20
Wei-Wei Dai, Li-Bo Wang, Guo-Qin Jin, Hong-Jin Wu, Jie Zhang, Cheng-Long Wang, Yuan-Ji Wei, Joon-Ho Lee, Yu-An Evan Lay, Wei Yao
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is a common form of secondary osteoporosis. Glucocorticoids affect both bone formation and resorption, and prolonged glucocorticoid exposure can suppress osteoblast activities. beta-Ecdysone, found in many plants, is involved in protein synthesis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and immunologic modulation. Here, we evaluated the effects of beta-ecdysone on osteoblast viability by assessing apoptosis following treatment with excess glucocorticoids. Mouse bone marrow stromal cells were induced to differentiate and grow into osteoblasts, and then treated with 10 µM glucocorticoid and 10, 1, or 0...
April 7, 2017: Planta Medica
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