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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541393/adrenomedullin-promotes-the-odontogenic-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-through-creb-bmp2-signaling-pathway
#1
Qiang Zhu, Jianyong Gao, Zhen Tang, Jianyong Gao, Yinghui Tan
Adrenomedullin (AM) could promote the proliferation, the odontogenic differentiation and inhibit the apoptosis of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). AM in combination with DPSCs may be an effective strategy for pulp repair. However, there was no report on the mechanisms of AM in the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which AM promotes the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Freshly extracted wisdom teeth were obtained from 27 patients...
May 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529456/ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-huogu-formula-inhibits-adipogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-via-the-bmp-and-wnt-signaling-pathways
#2
Xiangying Kong, Xiaomin Li, Cun Zhang, Liuluan Zhu, Chunfang Liu, Qingxia Qin, Cuiling Liu, Qianqian Wang, Jia Zhu, Xuan Wu, Hongye Wan, Weiheng Chen, Na Lin
Elevated adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is closely associated with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Our previous studies have shown that Huogu (HG) formula was effective both in clinic experience and experimental ONFH. How HG impacts the differentiation of BMSCs and what is the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Our results showed that ethyl acetate extract of HG (HGE) significantly decreased the adipocyte differentiation as determined by oil red staining, while slightly increased the ALP activity...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523267/a-novel-role-for-the-bmp-antagonist-noggin-in-sensitizing-cells-to-non-canonical-wnt-5a-ror2-disheveled-pathway-activation
#3
Ondrej Bernatik, Tomasz Radaszkiewicz, Martin Behal, Zankruti Dave, Florian Witte, Annika Mahl, Nicole H Cernohorsky, Pavel Krejci, Sigmar Stricker, Vitezslav Bryja
Mammalian limb development is driven by the integrative input from several signaling pathways; a failure to receive or a misinterpretation of these signals results in skeletal defects. The brachydactylies, a group of overlapping inherited human hand malformation syndromes, are mainly caused by mutations in BMP signaling pathway components. Two closely related forms, Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) and BDB1 are caused by mutations in the BMP antagonist Noggin (NOG) and the atypical receptor tyrosine kinase ROR2 that acts as a receptor in the non-canonical Wnt pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500669/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-signaling-is-influenced-by-follistatin-288-but-not-14-other-transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily-regulators
#4
Yui Kawagishi, Michael W Pankhurst, Yoshio Nakatani, Ian S McLennan
The hypothesis that, in contrast to other transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily ligands, the dose-response curve of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is unmodulated was tested by examining whether known TGFB superfamily modulators affect AMH signaling, using a P19/BRE luciferase reporter assay. AMHC and AMHN,C activated the reporter with an EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM. Follistatins (FS) produced concentration-dependent increases in AMHC - and AMHN,C -initiated reporter activity, with FS288 being more potent than FS315; however, the maximum bioactivity of AMH was not altered by either follistatin...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478981/effects-of-noggin-transfected-neural-stem-cells-on-neural-functional-recovery-and-underlying-mechanism-in-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Jun-de Zhu, Jun-Jie Wang, Guo Ge, Chao-Sheng Kang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate neuroprotection of noggin-transfected neural stem cells (NSCs) against focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. METHODS: Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into the sham, IRI, NSCs, and noggin + NSCs groups. Noggin containing adenoviral vectors was transfected into rat NSCs. Rats were subjected to 2.0 hours middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion 1.0 hour, followed by infusion into the lateral ventricles of NSCs alone, noggin-transfected NSCs, and saline at 3 days in the NSCs, noggin + NSCs, and sham groups, respectively...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470822/pericyte-derived-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-underlies-white-matter-damage-after-chronic-hypoperfusion
#6
Maiko T Uemura, Masafumi Ihara, Takakuni Maki, Takayuki Nakagomi, Seiji Kaji, Kengo Uemura, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Raj N Kalaria, Ayae Kinoshita, Ryosuke Takahashi
Subcortical small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by white matter damage resulting from arteriolosclerosis and chronic hypoperfusion. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) is dysregulated in the hereditary SVD, CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy). However, very little is known about the role of the largest group in the TGFB superfamily - the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) - in SVD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize signaling abnormalities of BMPs in sporadic SVD...
May 4, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462376/regulation-of-gastric-metaplasia-dysplasia-and-neoplasia-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Andrea Todisco
The bone morphogenetic proteins, (BMP)s are regulatory peptides that have significant effects on the growth and differentiation of gastrointestinal tissues. In addition, the BMPs have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory actions in the gut and to negatively regulate the growth of gastric neoplasms. The role of BMP signaling in the regulation of gastric metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia has been poorly characterized. Transgenic expression in the mouse stomach of the BMP inhibitor noggin leads to decreased parietal cell number, increased epithelial cell proliferation, and to the emergence of SPEM...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399140/collinear-hox-hox-interactions-are-involved-in-patterning-the-vertebrate-anteroposterior-a-p-axis
#8
Kongju Zhu, Herman P Spaink, Antony J Durston
Investigating regulation and function of the Hox genes, key regulators of positional identity in the embryo, opened a new vista in developmental biology. One of their most striking features is collinearity: the temporal and spatial orders of expression of these clustered genes each match their 3' to 5' order on the chromosome. Despite recent progress, the mechanisms underlying collinearity are not understood. Here we show that ectopic expression of 4 different single Hox genes predictably induces and represses expression of others, leading to development of different predictable specific sections of the body axis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398705/associations-between-the-noggin-rs227731-polymorphism-and-nscl-p-risk-may-be-associated-with-ethnicities-a-meta-analysis
#9
Feilong Wang, Ying Jiang, Sheng Yang, Qin Liu, Juhong Lin, Hongmei Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the noggin rs227731 polymorphism on chromosome 17q22 and risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P). METHODS: Three online databases were searched, including Embase, PubMed, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. The strength of the associations was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also made a subgroup analysis to explore sources of heterogeneity...
April 3, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392831/directing-three-dimensional-multicellular-morphogenesis-by-self-organization-of-vascular-mesenchymal-cells-in-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogels
#10
Xiaolu Zhu, Shiva Gojgini, Ting-Hsuan Chen, Peng Fei, Siyan Dong, Chih-Ming Ho, Tatiana Segura
BACKGROUND: Physical scaffolds are useful for supporting cells to form three-dimensional (3D) tissue. However, it is non-trivial to develop a scheme that can robustly guide cells to self-organize into a tissue with the desired 3D spatial structures. To achieve this goal, the rational regulation of cellular self-organization in 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) such as hydrogel is needed. RESULTS: In this study, we integrated the Turing reaction-diffusion mechanism with the self-organization process of cells and produced multicellular 3D structures with the desired configurations in a rational manner...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362406/efficient-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-nkx6-1-pancreatic-progenitors
#11
Emily C McGaugh, M Cristina Nostro
Pluripotent stem cells have the ability to self renew and differentiate to multiple lineages, making them an attractive source for the generation of pancreatic progenitor cells that can be used for the study of and future treatment of diabetes. This article outlines a four-stage differentiation protocol designed to generate pancreatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This protocol can be applied to a number of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines. The approach taken to generate pancreatic progenitor cells is to differentiate hESCs to accurately model key stages of pancreatic development...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361317/generation-of-gastrointestinal-organoids-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Jorge O Múnera, James M Wells
Over the past several decades, developmental biologists have discovered fundamental mechanisms by which organs form in developing embryos. With this information it is now possible to generate human "organoids" by the stepwise differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells using a process that recapitulates organ development. For the gastrointestinal tract, one of the first key steps is the formation of definitive endoderm and mesoderm, a process that relies on the TGFb molecule Nodal. Endoderm is then patterned along the anterior-posterior axis, with anterior endoderm forming the foregut and posterior endoderm forming the mid and hindgut...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347989/wrn-conditioned-media-is-sufficient-for-in-vitro-propagation-of-intestinal-organoids-from-large-farm-and-small-companion-animals
#13
Robin H Powell, Michael S Behnke
Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids) from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC) animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN)...
May 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266688/the-bmp2-variant-l51p-restores-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-the-presence-of-intervertebral-disc-cells
#14
A Tekari, R D May, D A Frauchiger, S C Chan, L M Benneker, B Gantenbein
Spinal fusion is hampered by the presence of remaining intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue and leads to spinal non-union. While the exact mechanism remains unknown, we hypothesise that factors preventing disc ossification, such as antagonists of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), could be responsible for this process. The objective of this study was to investigate spinal non-union using an in vitro human model with a focus on the BMP signalling components and to identify factors contributing to the incomplete and delayed ossification...
February 23, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253550/olig1-is-required-for-noggin-induced-neonatal-myelin-repair
#15
Jennifer K Sabo, Vivi Heine, John C Silbereis, Lucas Schirmer, Steven W Levison, David H Rowitch
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal white matter injury (NWMI) is a lesion found in preterm infants that can lead to cerebral palsy. Although antagonists of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, such as Noggin, promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) production after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, the downstream functional targets are poorly understood. The basic helix-loop-helix protein, oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1), promotes oligodendrocyte (OL) development and is essential during remyelination in adult mice...
April 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246470/long-term-culture-induced-phenotypic-difference-and-efficient-cryopreservation-of-small-intestinal-organoids-by-treatment-timing-of-rho-kinase-inhibitor
#16
Sung-Hoon Han, Sehwan Shim, Min-Jung Kim, Hye-Yun Shin, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Seung-Sook Lee, Seung Bum Lee, Sunhoo Park
AIM: To investigate a suitable long-term culture system and optimal cryopreservation of intestinal organoid to improve organoid-based therapy by acquiring large numbers of cells. METHODS: Crypts were isolated from jejunum of C57BL/6 mouse. Two hundred crypts were cultured in organoid medium with either epidermal growth factor/Noggin/R-spondin1 (ENR) or ENR/CHIR99021/VPA (ENR-CV). For subculture, organoids cultured on day 7 were passaged using enzyme-free cell dissociation buffer (STEMCELL Technologies)...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207159/the-critical-role-of-the-znf217-oncogene-in-promoting-breast-cancer-metastasis-to-the-bone
#17
Aurélie Bellanger, Caterina F Donini, Julie A Vendrell, Jonathan Lavaud, Irma Machuca-Gayet, Maëva Ruel, Julien Vollaire, Evelyne Grisard, Balázs Győrffy, Ivan Bièche, Olivier Peyruchaud, Jean-Luc Coll, Isabelle Treilleux, Véronique Maguer-Satta, Véronique Josserand, Pascale A Cohen
Bone metastasis affects >70% of patients with advanced breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. On the basis of analysis of clinical datasets, and in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that the ZNF217 oncogene is a crucial mediator and indicator of bone metastasis. Patients with high ZNF217 mRNA expression levels in primary breast tumours had a higher risk of developing bone metastases. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells stably transfected with ZNF217 (MDA-MB-231-ZNF217) showed the dysregulated expression of a set of genes with bone-homing and metastasis characteristics, which overlapped with two previously described 'osteolytic bone metastasis' gene signatures, while also highlighting the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149772/differentiation-potential-of-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-into-photoreceptors-through-explants-culture-and-enzyme-methods
#18
Wei-Wei Xu, Li Huang, Kelvin K L Chong, Doreen S Y Leung, Benjamin F L Li, Zheng-Qin Yin, Yi-Fei Huang, Chi Pui Pang
AIM: To investigate the retinal photoreceptor differentiation potential of human orbital adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) generated by enzyme (EN) and explant (EX) culture methods. METHODS: We investigated potentials of human orbital ADSCs to differentiate into photoreceptors through EN and EX culture methods. EN and EX orbital ADSCs were obtained from the same donor during rehabilitative orbital decompression, and then were subject to a 3-step induction using Noggin, DKK-1, IGF-1 and b-FGF at different time points for 38d...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125332/the-versatility-of-rhoa-activities-in-neural-differentiation
#19
Arie Horowitz, Junning Yang, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti
In this commentary we discuss a paper we published recently on the activities of the GTPase RhoA during neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells, and relate our findings to previous studies. We narrate how we found that RhoA impedes neural differentiation by inhibiting the production as well as the secretion of noggin, a soluble factor that antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein. We discuss how the questions we tried to address shaped the study, and how embryonic stem cells isolated from a genetically modified mouse model devoid of Syx, a RhoA-specific guanine exchange factor, were used to address them...
January 26, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096456/antibody-conjugated-dna-based-nanocarriers-intercalated-with-doxorubicin-eliminate-myofibroblasts-in-explants-of-human-lens-tissue
#20
Jacquelyn Gerhart, Marvin Greenbaum, Lou Casta, Anthony Clemente, Keith Mathers, Robert Getts, Mindy George-Weinstein
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) occurs in some adults and most children following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO arises, in part, from migratory, contractile myofibroblasts that deform the lens capsule and impair vision. In short-term cultures of human anterior lens tissue, myofibroblasts emerge from Myo/Nog cells that are identified with the G8 monoclonal antibody and by their expression of the MyoD transcription factor and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor noggin. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that targeted depletion of Myo/Nog cells with the G8 mAb conjugated to three-dimensional DNA nanocarriers intercalated with Doxorubicin (G8:3DNA:Dox) would prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in long-term, serum and growth factor free cultures of human lens tissue obtained by capsulorhexis...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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