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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068081/peptide-decorated-nanofibrous-niche-augments-in-vitro-directed-osteogenic-conversion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Yi Deng, Yuanyi Yang, Shicheng Wei
Realization of clinical potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in bone regenerative medicine requires development of simple and safe biomaterials for expansion of hPSCs followed by directing their lineage commitment to osteoblasts. In the present study, a chemically defined peptide-decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous microenvironment was prepared through electrospinning technology and subsequent conjugation with vitronectin peptide to promote the culture and osteogenic potential of hPSCs in vitro...
January 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066542/characterization-of-tubular-liquid-crystal-structure-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-embryoid-bodies
#2
MengMeng Xu, Odell D Jones, Liyang Wang, Xin Zhou, Harry G Davis, Joseph L Bryant, Jianjie Ma, Willian B Isaacs, Xuehong Xu
BACKGROUND: Massive liquid crystal droplets have been found during embryonic development in more than twenty different tissues and organs, including the liver, brain and kidney. Liquid crystal deposits have also been identified in multiple human pathologies, including vascular disease, liver dysfunction, age-related macular degeneration, and other chronic illnesses. Despite the involvement of liquid crystals in such a large number of human processes, this phenomenon is poorly understood and there are no in vitro systems to further examine the function of liquid crystals in biology...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017376/myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lacking-functional-pax7-tested-in-vitro-by-5-azacitidine-treatment-and-in-vivo-in-regenerating-skeletal-muscle
#3
Anita Helinska, Maciej Krupa, Karolina Archacka, Areta M Czerwinska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Maria A Ciemerych, Iwona Grabowska
Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on the presence of satellite cells. Satellite cells deficiency accompanying some degenerative diseases is the reason for the search for the "replacement cells" that can be used in the muscle therapies. Due to their unique properties embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as myogenic cells derived from them, are considered as a promising source of therapeutic cells. Among the factors crucial for the specification of myogenic precursor cells is Pax7 that sustains proper function of satellite cells...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000905/teratomas-produced-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-xenografted-into-immunodeficient-mice-a-histopathology-atlas
#4
Ivan Damjanov, Peter W Andrews
This atlas illustrates the microscopic features of tumors produced from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) xenografted into immunosuppressed mice, according to the generally accepted protocols for performing this teratoma assay of stem cell pluripotency. Microphotographs depict various hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). The appearance of persistent hPSC in teratomas is also described with special emphasis on the morphogenesis of embryoid bodies and yolk sac components surrounding them...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987073/comparison-of-four-protocols-to-generate-chondrocyte-like-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipscs
#5
Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Ewelina Augustyniak, Magdalena Richter, Tomasz Trzeciak
Stem cells (SCs) are a promising approach to regenerative medicine, with the potential to treat numerous orthopedic disorders, including osteo-degenerative diseases. The development of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has increased the potential of SCs for new treatments. However, current methods of differentiating hiPSCs into chondrocyte-like cells are suboptimal and better methods are needed. The aim of the present study was to assess four different chondrogenic differentiation protocols to identify the most efficient method of generating hiPSC-derived chondrocytes...
December 16, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934689/differentiating-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-embryoid-bodies-by-hanging-drop-cultures
#6
Richard Behringer, Marina Gertsenstein, Kristina Vintersten Nagy, Andras Nagy
Embryonic stem (ES) cells can develop into many types of differentiated tissues if they are placed into a differentiating environment. This can occur in vivo when the ES cells are injected into or aggregated with an embryo, or in vitro if their culture conditions are modified to induce differentiation. There are an increasing number of differentiating culture conditions that can bias the differentiation of ES cells into desired cell types. Determining the mechanisms that control ES cell differentiation into therapeutically important cell types is a quickly growing area of research...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934594/establishment-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-55-year-old-male-patient-with-hemorrhagic-moyamoya-disease
#7
Marina Cardano, Fabio Marsoner, Matteo Marcatili, Thodoris Karnavas, Jacopo Zasso, Luigi Andrea Lanterna, Luciano Conti
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 55-year old male patient with a confirmed diagnosis of hemorrhagic Moyamoya disease (MMD). PBMCs were reprogrammed using Sendai virus particles delivering the four Yamanaka factors. A footprint-free hiPSC line was characterized by the expression of pluripotency markers and a normal karyotype. These cells were able to give rise to Embryoid Bodies and to a progeny of differentiated cells belonging to the 3 germ layers. This hiPSC line represents a suitable tool for modelling in vitro MMD disease to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this pathology...
November 9, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911036/properties-of-embryoid-bodies
#8
REVIEW
Joshua M Brickman, Palle Serup
Embryoid bodies (EBs) have been popular in vitro differentiation models for pluripotent stem cells for more than five decades. Initially, defined as aggregates formed by embryonal carcinoma cells, EBs gained more prominence after the derivation of karyotypically normal embryonic stem cells from early mouse blastocysts. In many cases, formation of EBs constitutes an important initial step in directed differentiation protocols aimed at generated specific cell types from undifferentiated stem cells. Indeed state-of-the-art protocols for directed differentiation of cardiomyocytes still rely on this initial EB step...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904699/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-with-high-efficiency-from-human-embryonic-renal-cortical-cells
#9
Ling Yao, Ruifang Chen, Pu Wang, Qi Zhang, Hailiang Tang, Huaping Sun
Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) emerges as a prospective therapeutic angle in regenerative medicine and a tool for drug screening. Although increasing numbers of iPSCs from different sources have been generated, there has been limited progress in yield of iPSC. Here, we show that four Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can convert human embryonic renal cortical cells (hERCCs) to pluripotent stem cells with a roughly 40-fold higher reprogramming efficiency compared with that of adult human dermal fibroblasts...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electrical-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#10
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, Wenfeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIMS: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS compared with control treatment...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883036/the-mevalonate-pathway-regulates-primitive-streak-formation-via-protein-farnesylation
#11
Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, Ruoxing Yu, Norio Miyamura, Norie Arima, Mari Ishigami-Yuasa, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Suguru Yoshida, Takamitsu Hosoya, Makiko Nawa, Takeshi Kasama, Yoichi Asaoka, Reiner Wimmer Alois, Ulrich Elling, Josef M Penninger, Sachiko Nishina, Noriyuki Azuma, Hiroshi Nishina
The primitive streak in peri-implantation embryos forms the mesoderm and endoderm and controls cell differentiation. The metabolic cues regulating primitive streak formation remain largely unknown. Here we utilised a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation system and a library of well-characterised drugs to identify these metabolic factors. We found that statins, which inhibit the mevalonate metabolic pathway, suppressed primitive streak formation in vitro and in vivo. Using metabolomics and pharmacologic approaches we identified the downstream signalling pathway of mevalonate and revealed that primitive streak formation requires protein farnesylation but not cholesterol synthesis...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873029/induction-of-pluripotency-in-long-term-cryopreserved-human-neonatal-fibroblasts-in-feeder-free-condition
#12
Maria Csobonyeiova, Lubica Krajciova, Andreas Nicodemou, Stefan Polak, Lubos Danisovic
A novel approach for stem cell generation is the attempt to induce conversion of the adult somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells so called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by introducing specific transcription factors. iPSCs have two essential cell characteristics, they are pluripotent and posses long term cell-renewal capacity. Additionally, iPSCs can be derived from patient-specific somatic cells, thus bypassing ethical and immunological issues. The aim of our study was to reprogram long-term cryopreserved human neonatal fibroblasts by new method using lipid nano-particle technology (Lipofectamine 3000 reagent transfection system) in combination with Epi 5 reprogramming vectors...
November 21, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870307/abrogation-of-gap-junctional-communication-in-es-cells-results-in-a-disruption-of-primitive-endoderm-formation-in-embryoid-bodies
#13
Philipp Wörsdörfer, Felicitas Bosen, Martina Gebhardt, Nicole Russ, Katrin Zimmermann, David Komla Kessie, Thileepan Sekaran, Angela Egert, Süleyman Ergün, Hubert Schorle, Alexander Pfeifer, Frank Edenhofer, Klaus Willecke
Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development but the actual functional role remained elusive. Connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx45 are co-expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, form gap junctions and are considered to exhibit adhesive function and/or to contribute to the establishment of defined communication compartments. Here, we describe the generation of Cx43/Cx45-double deficient mouse ES cells to achieve almost complete breakdown of GJIC. Cre-loxP induced deletion of both, Cx43 and Cx45, results in a block of differentiation in embryoid bodies (EBs) without affecting pluripotency marker expression and proliferation in ES cells...
November 21, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864696/generation-and-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reveal-ankylosing-spondylitis-risk-gene-expression-in-bone-progenitors
#14
Gerlinde Layh-Schmitt, Shajia Lu, Fatemeh Navid, Stephen R Brooks, Emily Lazowick, Kathryn M Davis, Cristina Montagna, Massimo Gadina, Robert A Colbert
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), which encompasses ankylosing spondylitis, is a complex genetic disease. Aberrant bone formation is a key feature of pathogenesis that can lead to ankylosis of the spine. Our objective is to determine, whether genes whose variants confer susceptibility to AS are expressed in bone progenitors like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since MSCs from bone marrow is difficult to obtain, we first examined, whether MSCs can be derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Dermal fibroblasts of two axSpA patients and one healthy control were reprogrammed into iPSCs using a Sendai virus vector encoding pluripotency genes...
January 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864336/bmp4-promotes-mouse-ips-cell-differentiation-to-male-germ-cells-via-smad1-5-gata4-id1-and-id2
#15
Shi Yang, Qingqing Yuan, Minghui Niu, Jingmei Hou, Zijue Zhu, Min Sun, Zheng Li, Zuping He
Generation of male germ cells from pluripotent cells could provide male gametes for treating male infertility and offer an ideal model for unveiling molecular mechanisms of spermatogenesis. However, the influence and exact molecular mechanisms, especially downstream effectors of BMP4 signaling pathways, in male germ cell differentiation of the induce pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, remain unknown. This study was designed to explore the role and mechanism of BMP4 signaling in the differentiation of mouse iPS cells to male germ cells...
February 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846905/rapamycin-regulates-autophagy-and-cell-adhesion-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Areechun Sotthibundhu, Katya McDonagh, Alexander von Kriegsheim, Amaya Garcia-Munoz, Agnieszka Klawiter, Kerry Thompson, Kapil Dev Chauhan, Janusz Krawczyk, Veronica McInerney, Peter Dockery, Michael J Devine, Tilo Kunath, Frank Barry, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
BACKGROUND: Cellular reprogramming is a stressful process, which requires cells to engulf somatic features and produce and maintain stemness machineries. Autophagy is a process to degrade unwanted proteins and is required for the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the role of autophagy during iPSC maintenance remains undefined. METHODS: Human iPSCs were investigated by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting to detect autophagy machinery...
November 15, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845273/real-time-and-non-invasive-monitoring-of-embryonic-stem-cell-survival-during-the-development-of-embryoid-bodies-with-smart-nanosensor
#17
Jiayin Fu, Christian Wiraja, Ruiqi Chong, Chenjie Xu, Dong-An Wang
: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived embryoid body (EB) is a powerful model for the study of early embryonic development and the discovery of therapeutics for tissue regeneration. This article reports a smart nanosensor platform for labeling and tracking the survival and distribution of ESCs during the EB development in a real-time and non-invasive way. Compared with the cell tracker (i.e. DiO) and the green fluorescent protein (GFP), nanosensors provide the homogenous and highly-efficient ESC labeling...
November 11, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834666/proliferation-in-culture-of-primordial-germ-cells-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cell-induction-by-retinoic-acid
#18
Zohreh Makoolati, Mansoureh Movahedin, Mehdi Forouzandeh-Moghadam
An in vitro system that supports primordial germ cells (PGCs) survival and proliferation is useful for enhancement of these cells and efficient transplantation in infertility disorders. One approach is cultivation of PGCs under proper conditions that allow self-renewal and proliferation of PGCs. For this purpose, we compared the effects of different concentrations of retinoic acid (RA), and the effect of PGCs co-culture (Co-C) with SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant (STO) cells on the proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived PGCs...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826746/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-ptp1b-is-required-for-cardiac-lineage-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Zahra Shokati Eshkiki, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Parisa Shabani, Sattar Gorgani Firuzjaee, Asie Sadeghi, Hossein Ghanbarian, Reza Meshkani
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been shown to regulate multiple cellular events such as differentiation, cell growth, and proliferation; however, the role of PTP1B in differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into cardiomyocytes remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PTP1B inhibition on differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes. PTP1B mRNA and protein levels were increased during the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, a stable ES cell line expressing PTP1B shRNA was established...
November 8, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826002/3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-rgd-alginate-hydrogel-improves-retinal-tissue-development
#20
Nicola C Hunt, Dean Hallam, Ayesha Karimi, Carla B Mellough, Jinju Chen, David H W Steel, Majlinda Lako
: No treatments exist to effectively treat many retinal diseases. Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina can be generated from human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/hiPSCs). The efficacy of current protocols is, however, limited. It was hypothesised that generation of laminated neural retina and/or RPE from hiPSCs/hESCs could be enhanced by three dimensional (3D) culture in hydrogels. hiPSC- and hESC-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) were encapsulated in 0...
November 5, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
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