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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601661/recent-advances-in-gene-enhanced-bone-tissue-engineering
#1
REVIEW
Volker M Betz, Stefan Kochanek, Stefan Rammelt, Peter E Müller, Oliver B Betz, Carolin Messmer
AIMS: The loss of bone tissue represents a critical clinical condition that is frequently faced by surgeons. Substantial progress has been made in the area of bone research providing insight into the biology of bone at physiological and pathological conditions and also tools for the stimulation of bone regeneration. The aim of this review article was to discuss recent advances in the field of gene-enhanced bone tissue engineering. DISCUSSION: Gene transfer strategies have emerged as highly effective tissue engineering approaches to support the repair of the musculoskeletal system...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593746/-plasmodium-falciparum-liver-stage-infection-and-transition-to-stable-blood-stage-infection-in-liver-humanized-and-blood-humanized-frgn-ko-mice-enables-testing-of-blood-stage-inhibitory-antibodies-reticulocyte-binding-protein-homolog-5-in-vivo
#2
Lander Foquet, Carola Schafer, Nana K Minkah, Daniel G W Alanine, Erika L Flannery, Ryan W J Steel, Brandon K Sack, Nelly Camargo, Matthew Fishbaugher, Will Betz, Thao Nguyen, Zachary P Billman, Elizabeth M Wilson, John Bial, Sean C Murphy, Simon J Draper, Sebastian A Mikolajczak, Stefan H I Kappe
The invention of liver-humanized mouse models has made it possible to directly study the preerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum . In contrast, the current models to directly study blood stage infection in vivo are extremely limited. Humanization of the mouse blood stream is achievable by frequent injections of human red blood cells (hRBCs) and is currently the only system with which to study human malaria blood stage infections in a small animal model. Infections have been primarily achieved by direct injection of P...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569436/macro-sicm-a-scanning-ion-conductance-microscope-for-large-range-imaging
#3
Nicolas Schierbaum, Martin Hack, Oliver Betz, Tilman E Schäffer
The scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) is a versatile, high-resolution imaging technique that uses an electrolyte-filled nanopipet as a probe. Its non-contact imaging principle makes the SICM uniquely suited for the investigation of soft and delicate surface structures in a liquid environment. The SICM has found an ever-increasing number of applications in chemistry, physics, and biology. However, a drawback of conventional SICMs is their relatively small scan range (typically 100 µm × 100 µm in the lateral and 10 µm in the vertical direction)...
March 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530864/substrate-selectivity-check-of-the-ergothioneine-transporter
#4
Julia Tschirka, Madlen Kreisor, Janina Betz, Dirk Grundemann
The candidate vitamin ergothioneine (ET) is a unique antioxidant. Expression of the ergothioneine transporter (ETT) (gene symbol SLC22A4) in distinct cells is thought to signal intracellular ET activity, since we have previously shown that the ETT is highly selective for ET. Unfortunately, some continue to hold the ETT as a relevant drug transporter, using the misleading functional name OCTN1, novel organic cation transporter. The present study was provoked by 2 recent reports in which new ETT substrates were declared...
March 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462278/neonatal-ethanol-disturbs-the-normal-maturation-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-surrounded-by-subsets-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-cerebral-cortex-partial-reversal-by-lithium
#5
Mariko Saito, John F Smiley, Maria Hui, Kurt Masiello, Judith Betz, Maria Ilina, Mitsuo Saito, Donald A Wilson
Reduction in parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons is observed in adult mice exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 (P7), a late gestation fetal alcohol spectrum disorder model. To evaluate whether PV+ cells are lost, or PV expression is reduced, we quantified PV+ and associated perineuronal net (PNN)+ cell densities in barrel cortex. While PNN+ cell density was not reduced by P7 ethanol, PV cell density decreased by 25% at P90 with no decrease at P14. PNN+ cells in controls were virtually all PV+, whereas more than 20% lacked PV in ethanol-treated adult animals...
February 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320689/collective-cell-migration-in-embryogenesis-follows-the-laws-of-wetting
#6
Bernhard Wallmeyer, Sarah Trinschek, Sargon Yigit, Uwe Thiele, Timo Betz
Collective cell migration is a fundamental process during embryogenesis and its initial occurrence, called epiboly, is an excellent in vivo model to study the physical processes involved in collective cell movements that are key to understanding organ formation, cancer invasion, and wound healing. In zebrafish, epiboly starts with a cluster of cells at one pole of the spherical embryo. These cells are actively spreading in a continuous movement toward its other pole until they fully cover the yolk. Inspired by the physics of wetting, we determine the contact angle between the cells and the yolk during epiboly...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216536/myelodysplastic-syndromes-without-peripheral-monocytosis-but-with-evidence-of-marrow-monocytosis-share-clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-with-cmml
#7
E Schuler, F Frank, B Hildebrandt, B Betz, C Strupp, M Rudelius, C Aul, T Schroeder, N Gattermann, R Haas, U Germing
MDS patients may present with monocytic marrow proliferation not fulfilling criteria for CMML. We analyzed MDS patients with or without a marrow monocytic proliferation by following up the amount of monocytic proliferation and characterizing their molecular profile. 315 MDS patients of Duesseldorf MDS registry were divided into two groups: A) 183 patients with monocytic esterase positive cells in marrow and monocytes between 101 and 900/μl in blood and B) 132 patients without monocytic esterase positive cells in marrow and monocytes in blood ≤100/μl...
February 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183826/developmental-ethanol-induced-sleep-fragmentation-behavioral-hyperactivity-cognitive-impairment-and-parvalbumin-cell-loss-are-prevented-by-lithium-co-treatment
#8
M Lewin, M Ilina, J Betz, K Masiello, M Hui, D A Wilson, M Saito
Developmental ethanol exposure is a well-known cause of lifelong cognitive deficits, behavioral hyperactivity, emotional dysregulation, and more. In healthy adults, sleep is thought to have a critical involvement in each of these processes. Our previous work has demonstrated that some aspects of cognitive impairment in adult mice exposed at postnatal day 7 (P7) to ethanol (EtOH) correlate with slow-wave sleep (SWS) fragmentation (Wilson et al., 2016). We and others have also previously demonstrated that co-treatment with LiCl on the day of EtOH exposure prevents many of the anatomical and physiological impairments observed in adults...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173819/bleb-expansion-in-migrating-cells-depends-on-supply-of-membrane-from-cell-surface-invaginations
#9
Mohammad Goudarzi, Katsiaryna Tarbashevich, Karina Mildner, Isabell Begemann, Jamie Garcia, Azadeh Paksa, Michal Reichman-Fried, Harsha Mahabaleshwar, Heiko Blaser, Johannes Hartwig, Dagmar Zeuschner, Milos Galic, Michel Bagnat, Timo Betz, Erez Raz
Cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, organ formation, and homeostasis, with relevance for clinical conditions. The migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is a useful model for studying this process in the context of the developing embryo. Zebrafish PGC migration depends on the formation of cellular protrusions in form of blebs, a type of protrusion found in various cell types. Here we report on the mechanisms allowing the inflation of the membrane during bleb formation. We show that the rapid expansion of the protrusion depends on membrane invaginations that are localized preferentially at the cell front...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145573/human-papillomavirus-hpv-and-somatic-egfr-mutations-are-essential-mutually-exclusive-oncogenic-mechanisms-for-inverted-sinonasal-papillomas-and-associated-sinonasal-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#10
A M Udager, J B McHugh, C M Goudsmit, H C Weigelin, M S Lim, K S J Elenitoba-Johnson, B L Betz, T E Carey, N A Brown
Background: Inverted sinonasal (Schneiderian) papilloma (ISP) is a locally aggressive neoplasm often associated with sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC). While the etiology of ISP is not well understood, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in a subset of cases. Our group recently identified activating somatic EGFR mutations in the majority of ISP and ISP-associated SNSCC. However, the relationship between EGFR mutations and HPV infection has not been explored. Patients and methods: We evaluated 58 ISP and 22 ISP-associated SNSCC (including 13 patients with matched ISP/SNSCC samples), as well as 14 SNSCC without clinical or pathologic evidence of an associated ISP...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122765/semiautomated-evaluation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-at-3t
#11
G Donatelli, A Retico, E Caldarazzo Ienco, P Cecchi, M Costagli, D Frosini, L Biagi, M Tosetti, G Siciliano, M Cosottini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease involving the upper and lower motor neurons. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pathologic changes in the primary motor cortex include Betz cell depletion and the presence of reactive iron-loaded microglia, detectable on 7T MR images as atrophy and T2*-hypointensity. Our purposes were the following: 1) to investigate the signal hypointensity-to-thickness ratio of the primary motor cortex as a radiologic marker of upper motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a semiautomated method at 3T, 2) to compare 3T and 7T results, and 3) to evaluate whether semiautomated measurement outperforms visual image assessment...
January 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066223/application-of-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-in-an-experimental-model-of-isolated-subendocardial-damage
#12
Niklas Beyhoff, Sarah Brix, Iris R Betz, Robert Klopfleisch, Anna Foryst-Ludwig, Alexander Krannich, Philipp Stawowy, Fabian Knebel, Jana Grune, Ulrich Kintscher
BACKGROUND: The subendocardium is highly vulnerable to damage and is thus affected even in subclinical disease stages. Therefore, methods reflecting subendocardial status are of great clinical relevance for the early detection of cardiac damage and the prevention of functional impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential ability of myocardial strain parameters to evaluate changes within the subendocardium. METHODS: Male 129/Sv mice were injected with isoproterenol (ISO; n = 32) to induce isolated subendocardial fibrotic lesions or saline as appropriate control (n = 15)...
December 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978027/functional-dissection-of-breast-cancer-risk-associated-tert-promoter-variants
#13
Sonja Helbig, Leesa Wockner, Annick Bouendeu, Ursula Hille-Betz, Karen McCue, Juliet D French, Stacey L Edwards, Hilda A Pickett, Roger R Reddel, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Thilo Dörk, Jonathan Beesley
The multi-cancer susceptibility locus at 5p15.33 includes TERT, encoding the telomerase catalytic subunit. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TERT promoter associated with decreased breast cancer risk, although the precise causal variants and their mechanisms of action have remained elusive. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the protective haplotype reduced TERT promoter activity in human mammary epithelial and cancer cells in an estrogen-independent manner...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931653/combined-ox40l-and-mtor-blockade-controls-effector-t-cell-activation-while-preserving-t-reg-reconstitution-after-transplant
#14
Victor Tkachev, Scott N Furlan, Benjamin Watkins, Daniel J Hunt, Hengqi Betty Zheng, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Kayla Betz, Melanie Brown, John B Schell, Katie Zeleski, Alison Yu, Ian Kirby, Sarah Cooley, Jeffrey S Miller, Bruce R Blazar, Duncan Casson, Phil Bland-Ward, Leslie S Kean
A critical question facing the field of transplantation is how to control effector T cell (Teff ) activation while preserving regulatory T cell (Treg ) function. Standard calcineurin inhibitor-based strategies can partially control Teffs , but breakthrough activation still occurs, and these agents are antagonistic to Treg function. Conversely, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition with sirolimus is more Treg -compatible but is inadequate to fully control Teff activation. In contrast, blockade of OX40L signaling has the capacity to partially control Teff activation despite maintaining Treg function...
September 20, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931556/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-lead-tumor-invasion-through-integrin-%C3%AE-3-dependent-fibronectin-assembly
#15
Youmna Attieh, Andrew G Clark, Carina Grass, Sophie Richon, Marc Pocard, Pascale Mariani, Nadia Elkhatib, Timo Betz, Basile Gurchenkov, Danijela Matic Vignjevic
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant cells of the tumor stroma. Their capacity to contract the matrix and induce invasion of cancer cells has been well documented. However, it is not clear whether CAFs remodel the matrix by other means, such as degradation, matrix deposition, or stiffening. We now show that CAFs assemble fibronectin (FN) and trigger invasion mainly via integrin-αvβ3. In the absence of FN, contractility of the matrix by CAFs is preserved, but their ability to induce invasion is abrogated...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877490/adaptive-response-of-actin-bundles-under-mechanical-stress
#16
Florian Rückerl, Martin Lenz, Timo Betz, John Manzi, Jean-Louis Martiel, Mahassine Safouane, Rajaa Paterski-Boujemaa, Laurent Blanchoin, Cécile Sykes
Actin is one of the main components of the architecture of cells. Actin filaments form different polymer networks with versatile mechanical properties that depend on their spatial organization and the presence of cross-linkers. Here, we investigate the mechanical properties of actin bundles in the absence of cross-linkers. Bundles are polymerized from the surface of mDia1-coated latex beads, and deformed by manipulating both ends through attached beads held by optical tweezers, allowing us to record the applied force...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857329/anesthetic-considerations-for-a-novel-anterior-surgical-approach-to-pediatric-scoliosis-correction
#17
Jonathan S Gal, Christopher J Curatolo, Jeron Zerillo, Bryan Hill, Baron Lonner, Laury A Cuddihy, M D Antonacci, Randal R Betz, Samuel DeMaria, Yury Khelemsky
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic scoliosis is a condition that may require surgical correction. Limitations of previous surgical modalities, however, created the need for novel methods of repair. One such technique, a newer form of anterolateral scoliosis correction, has shown considerable promise, which our center has had substantial experience performing. AIM: In this article, we present the case details of our first 105 patients for the purposes of describing the evolution and details of the anesthetic management and considerations for this procedure...
October 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840857/detection-of-6-tfeb-amplified-renal-cell-carcinomas-and-25-renal-cell-carcinomas-with-mitf-translocations-systematic-morphologic-analysis-of-85-cases-evaluated-by-clinical-tfe3-and-tfeb-fish-assays
#18
Stephanie L Skala, Hong Xiao, Aaron M Udager, Saravana M Dhanasekaran, Sudhanshu Shukla, Yang Zhang, Carrie Landau, Lina Shao, Diane Roulston, Lisha Wang, Javed Siddiqui, Xuhong Cao, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Miao Zhang, Adeboye O Osunkoya, Steven C Smith, Jesse K McKenney, Bryan L Betz, Jeffrey L Myers, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Scott A Tomlins, Rohit Mehra
Renal cell carcinomas with MITF aberrations demonstrate a wide morphologic spectrum, highlighting the need to consider these entities within the differential diagnosis of renal tumors encountered in clinical practice. Herein, we describe our experience with application of clinical fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detection of TFE3 and TFEB gene aberrations from 85 consecutive renal cell carcinoma cases submitted to our genitourinary FISH service. Results from 170 FISH assays performed on these tumors were correlated with available clinicopathologic findings...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801771/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-tarsal-adhesive-organs-of-the-madagascar-hissing-cockroach-gromphadorhina-portentosa
#19
Christian Schmitt, Oliver Betz
The present transmission and scanning electron microscopic study of the ultramorphology of the pliable attachment pads (arolium, euplantulae) of the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa reveals structural evidence for their function in producing, storing, and secreting an adhesion-mediating secretion and releasing it to the exterior. The exocrine epidermal tissue of both the arolium and the euplantula is significantly enlarged by numerous invaginations stretching into the hemolymph cavity...
November 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744947/bmp-2-gene-activated-muscle-tissue-fragments-for-osteochondral-defect-regeneration-in-the-rabbit-knee
#20
Volker M Betz, Alexander Keller, Peter Foehr, Christian Thirion, Michael Salomon, Stefan Rammelt, Hans Zwipp, Rainer Burgkart, Volkmar Jansson, Peter E Müller, Oliver B Betz
BACKGROUND: Previously published data indicate that BMP-2 gene activated muscle tissue grafts can repair large bone defects in rats. This innovative abbreviated ex vivo gene therapy is appealing because it does not require elaborative and time-consuming extraction and expansion of cells. Hence, in the present study, we evaluated the potential of this expedited tissue engineering approach for regenerating osteochondral defects in rabbits. METHODS: Autologous muscle tissue grafts from female White New Zealand rabbits were directly transduced with an adenoviral BMP-2 vector or remained unmodified...
September 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
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