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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679559/foxd1-is-required-for-terminal-differentiation-of-anterior-hypothalamic-neuronal-subtypes
#1
Elizabeth A Newman, Dong Won Kim, Jun Wan, Jie Wang, Jiang Qian, Seth Blackshaw
Although the hypothalamus functions as a master homeostat for many behaviors, little is known about the transcriptional networks that control its development. To investigate this question, we analyzed mice deficient for the Forkhead domain transcription factor Foxd1. Foxd1 is selectively expressed in neuroepithelial cells of the prethalamus and hypothalamus prior to the onset of neurogenesis, and is later restricted to neural progenitors of the prethalamus and anterior hypothalamus. During early stages of neurogenesis, we observed that Foxd1-deficient mice showed reduced expression of Six3 and Vax1 in anterior hypothalamus, but overall patterning of the prethalamus and hypothalamus is unaffected...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678815/feedback-between-tissue-packing-and-neurogenesis-in-the-zebrafish-neural-tube
#2
Tom W Hiscock, Joel B Miesfeld, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Brian A Link, Sean G Megason
Balancing the rate of differentiation and proliferation in developing tissues is essential to produce organs of robust size and composition. Whilst many molecular regulators have been established, how these connect to physical and geometrical aspects of tissue architecture is poorly understood. Here, using high-resolution timelapse imaging, we find that changes to cell geometry associated with dense tissue packing play a significant role in regulating differentiation rate in the zebrafish neural tube. Specifically, progenitors that are displaced away from the apical surface due to crowding tend to differentiate, in a Notch-dependent manner...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677184/elasticity-based-boosting-of-neuroepithelial-nucleokinesis-via-indirect-energy-transfer-from-mother-to-daughter
#3
Tomoyasu Shinoda, Arata Nagasaka, Yasuhiro Inoue, Ryo Higuchi, Yoshiaki Minami, Kagayaki Kato, Makoto Suzuki, Takefumi Kondo, Takumi Kawaue, Kanako Saito, Naoto Ueno, Yugo Fukazawa, Masaharu Nagayama, Takashi Miura, Taiji Adachi, Takaki Miyata
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are apicobasally elongated and densely packed in the developing brain, systematically move their nuclei/somata in a cell cycle-dependent manner, called interkinetic nuclear migration (IKNM): apical during G2 and basal during G1. Although intracellular molecular mechanisms of individual IKNM have been explored, how heterogeneous IKNMs are collectively coordinated is unknown. Our quantitative cell-biological and in silico analyses revealed that tissue elasticity mechanically assists an initial step of basalward IKNM...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675520/designing-well-defined-photopolymerized-synthetic-matrices-for-three-dimensional-culture-and-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Elisa M Ovadia, David W Colby, April M Kloxin
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are of interest for the study of disease, where these cells can be derived from patients and have the potential to be differentiated into any cell type; however, three-dimensional (3D) culture and differentiation of iPSCs within well-defined synthetic matrices for these applications remains limited. Here, we aimed to establish synthetic cell-degradable hydrogels that allow precise presentation of specific biochemical cues for 3D culture of iPSCs with relevance for hypothesis testing and lineage-specific differentiation...
April 20, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674963/a-bivalent-securinine-compound-sn3-l6-induces-neuronal-differentiation-via-translational-upregulation-of-neurogenic-transcription-factors
#5
Yumei Liao, Xiaoji Zhuang, Xiaojie Huang, Yinghui Peng, Xuanyue Ma, Zhi-Xing Huang, Feng Liu, Junyu Xu, Ying Wang, Wei-Min Chen, Wen-Cai Ye, Lei Shi
Developing therapeutic approaches that target neuronal differentiation will be greatly beneficial for the regeneration of neurons and synaptic networks in neurological diseases. Protein synthesis (mRNA translation) has recently been shown to regulate neurogenesis of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). However, it has remained unknown whether engineering translational machinery is a valid approach for manipulating neuronal differentiation. The present study identifies that a bivalent securinine compound SN3-L6, previously designed and synthesized by our group, induces potent neuronal differentiation through a novel translation-dependent mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#6
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673042/regulation-of-neural-crest-development-by-the-formin-family-protein-daam1
#7
Olga Ossipova, Ryan Kerney, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet, Sergei Y Sokol
The neural crest (NC) multipotent progenitor cells form at the neural plate border and migrate to diverse locations in the embryo to differentiate into many cell types. NC is specified by several embryonic pathways, however the role of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process remains poorly defined. Daam1 is a formin family protein that is present in embryonic ectoderm at the time of NC formation and can mediate noncanonical Wnt signaling. Our interference experiments indicated that Daam1 is required for NC gene activation...
April 19, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671028/biochemical-profiling-of-rat-embryonic-stem-cells-grown-on-electrospun-polyester-fibers-using-synchrotron-infrared-microspectroscopy
#8
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Gary Ellis, Christophe Sandt, Peter S Shuttleworth, Agatha Bastida, Julia Revuelta, Eduardo García-Junceda, Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas, Leoncio Garrido
Therapeutic options for spinal cord injuries are severely limited; current treatments only offer symptomatic relief and rehabilitation focused on educating the individual on how to adapt to their new situation to make best possible use of their remaining function. Thus, new approaches are needed, and interest in the development of effective strategies to promote the repair of neural tracts in the central nervous system inspired us to prepare functional and highly anisotropic polymer scaffolds. In this work, an initial assessment of the behavior of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) seeded on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) fiber scaffolds using synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS) is described...
April 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669275/zika-virus-can-strongly-infect-and-disrupt-secondary-organizers-in-the-ventricular-zone-of-the-embryonic-chicken-brain
#9
Ankita Thawani, Devika Sirohi, Richard J Kuhn, Donna M Fekete
Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental impairments in human fetuses, including microencephaly. Previous reports examining neural progenitor tropism of ZIKV in organoid and animal models did not address whether the virus infects all neural progenitors uniformly. To explore this, ZIKV was injected into the neural tube of 2-day-old chicken embryos, resulting in nonuniform periventricular infection 3 days later. Recurrent foci of intense infection were present at specific signaling centers that influence neuroepithelial patterning at a distance through secretion of morphogens...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668332/neurological-complications-of-zika-virus-infection
#10
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis...
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666150/epigenetics-and-epitranscriptomics-in-temporal-patterning-of-cortical-neural-progenitor-competence
#11
REVIEW
Ki-Jun Yoon, Caroline Vissers, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
During embryonic brain development, neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons and glia via a highly orchestrated process. To accomplish the ordered generation of distinct progenies, NPCs go through multistep transitions of their developmental competence. The molecular mechanisms driving precise temporal coordination of these transitions remains enigmatic. Epigenetic regulation, including changes in chromatin structures, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, has been extensively investigated in the context of cortical neurogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665410/the-role-of-the-rx-homeobox-gene-in-retinal-progenitor-proliferation-and-cell-fate-specification
#12
H M Rodgers, V J Huffman, V A Voronina, M Lewandoski, P H Mathers
The Retinal homeobox gene (Rx; also Rax) plays a crucial role in the early development of the vertebrate eye. Germline deletion of Rx in mice results in the failure of optic vesicle formation, leading to anophthalmia. Recent research using conditional mouse knockout models provides some clues to the role of Rx in eye development following optic vesicle formation. However, the functions of Rx in embryonic retinogenesis are still not fully understood. We investigated the function of Rx in the mouse neural retina using a conditional knockout where the Pax6α-Cre driver deletes Rx activity in early retinal progenitors...
April 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665155/defining-mechanisms-of-neural-plasticity-after-brainstem-ischemia-in-rats
#13
Jens Minnerup, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Lydia Wachsmuth, Maike Hoppen, Antje Schmidt, Dirk M Hermann, Heinz Wiendl, Sven Meuth, Cornelius Faber, Kai Diederich, Wolf Rüdiger Schäbitz
OBJECTIVE: Neurological recovery after stroke mainly depends on the location of the lesion. A substantial portion of strokes affects the brainstem. However, patterns of neural plasticity following brainstem ischemia are almost unknown. METHODS: Here, we established a rat brainstem ischemia model that resembles key features of the human disease and investigated mechanisms of neural plasticity including neurogenesis and axonal sprouting as well as secondary neurodegeneration...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665106/conditional-deletion-of-neurog1-in-the-cerebellum-of-postnatal-mice-delays-inhibitory-interneuron-maturation
#14
Edwin A Obana, Qiong Zhou, Orion Furmanski, Martin L Doughty
The transcriptional programs that drive the generation of diverse GABAergic neuron populations from their common progenitor pools in the developing cerebellum remain unclear. Neurog1 is a pro-neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in GABAergic progenitor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) of embryos and subsequently in the presumptive white matter (pWM) tracts of developing postnatal mice. Genetic inducible fate-mapping labels Purkinje cells and all inhibitory interneuron cell types of the cerebellar cortex...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663930/diffusion-tensor-imaging-evaluation-of-axonal-white-matter-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetic-stroke-treated-with-novel-p38-mapk-inhibitor-vcp979
#15
Yu Cai, Chunqiang Lu, Tingting Xu, Yuanyuan Ma, Shudan Min, Peter Scammells, Binghui Wang, Shenghong Ju
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with severe axonal/white matter (WM) injury and poor functional outcomes following ischemic stroke. T2DM induces activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which may be linked to the axonal/WM damage. In the present study, adult male C57BL/6J mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2DM mice were subjected to photothrombotic ischemic stroke and treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitors. The novel p38 MAPK inhibitor, VCP979, significantly promoted axonal/WM remodeling, neural progenitor cell migration, and improved functional recovery in T2DM mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663175/gfap-positive-progenitor-cell-production-is-concentrated-in-specific-encephalic-regions-in-young-adult-mice
#16
Zhibao Guo, Yingying Su, Huifang Lou
Previous genetic fate-mapping studies have indicated that embryonic glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+ ) cells are multifunctional progenitor/neural stem cells that can produce astrocytes as well as neurons and oligodendrocytes throughout the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence from recent studies indicates that GFAP+ cells adopt different cell fates and generate different cell types in different regions. Moreover, the fate of GFAP+ cells in the young adult mouse CNS is not well understood...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660784/relationship-between-neural-crest-cell-specification-and-rare-ocular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Monica Akula, Jeong Won Park, Judith A West-Mays
Development of the eye is closely associated with neural crest cell migration and specification. Eye development is extremely complex, as it requires the working of a combination of local factors, receptors, inductors, and signaling interactions between tissues such as the optic cup and periocular mesenchyme (POM). The POM is comprised of neural crest-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that give rise to numerous important ocular structures including those tissues that form the optic cup and anterior segment of the eye...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660313/the-convergent-roles-of-cd271-p75-in-neural-crest-derived-melanoma-plasticity
#18
Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Paul M Kulesa
The embryonic microenvironment is an important source of signals that promote multipotent cells to adopt a specific fate and direct cells along distinct migratory pathways. Yet, the ability of the embryonic microenvironment to retain multipotent progenitors or reprogram de-differentiated cells is less clear. Mistakes in cell differentiation or migration often result in developmental defects and tumorigenesis, including aggressive cancers that share many characteristics with embryonic progenitor cells. This is a striking feature of the vertebrate neural crest, a multipotent and highly migratory cell population first identified by Wilhelm His (His, 1868) with the potential to metamorphose into aggressive melanoma cancer...
April 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657091/injectable-polypeptide-hydrogels-via-methionine-modification-for-neural-stem-cell-delivery
#19
A L Wollenberg, T M O'Shea, J H Kim, A Czechanski, L G Reinholdt, M V Sofroniew, T J Deming
Injectable hydrogels with tunable physiochemical and biological properties are potential tools for improving neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation to treat central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Here, we developed injectable diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCH) for NSPC transplantation that contain hydrophilic segments of modified l-methionine (Met). Multiple Met-based DCH were fabricated by post-polymerization modification of Met to various functional derivatives, and incorporation of different amino acid comonomers into hydrophilic segments...
April 5, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656478/transplantation-of-neural-progenitor-cells-expressing-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-into-the-motor-cortex-as-a-strategy-to-treat-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Gretchen M Thomsen, Pablo Avalos, Annie A Ma, Mor Alkaslasi, Noell Cho, Livia Wyss, Jean-Philippe Vit, Marlesa Godoy, Patrick Suezaki, Oksana Shelest, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Clive N Svendsen
Early dysfunction of cortical motor neurons may underlie the initiation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As such, the cortex represents a critical area of ALS research and a promising therapeutic target. In the current study, human cortical-derived neural progenitor cells engineered to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were transplanted into the SOD1G93A ALS rat cortex, where they migrated, matured into astrocytes, and released GDNF. This protected motor neurons, delayed disease pathology and extended survival of the animals...
April 15, 2018: Stem Cells
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