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neural progenitor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535392/nervous-system-development-temporal-patterning-of-large-neural-lineages
#1
Stefan Thor
Neural progenitor cells in most, if not all, systems generate different cell types according to a fixed birth-order. Studies in the Drosophila central nervous system now identify an expanding regulatory network underlying temporal diversification of very large neural lineages.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535372/a-brain-region-specific-neural-pathway-regulating-germinal-matrix-angiogenesis
#2
Shang Ma, Devi Santhosh, Peeyush Kumar T, Zhen Huang
Intimate communication between neural and vascular cells is critical for normal brain development and function. Germinal matrix (GM), a key primordium for the brain reward circuitry, is unique among brain regions for its distinct pace of angiogenesis and selective vulnerability to hemorrhage during development. A major neonatal condition, GM hemorrhage can lead to cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Here we identify a brain-region-specific neural progenitor-based signaling pathway dedicated to regulating GM vessel development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533935/a-review-of-the-emerging-potential-therapy-for-neurological-disorders-human-embryonic-stem-cell-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Geeta Shroff, Jyoti Dhanda Titus, Rhea Shroff
The first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line was developed in the late nineties. hESCs are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiate into all the three embryonic germ layers. Further, the differentiation of hESC lines into neural precursor cells and neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes showed their potential in treating several incurable neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will discuss the global scenario of research and therapeutic use of hESCs in the treatment of neurological disorders...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#4
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532226/novel-biological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#5
Jennifer Adeghate, Syed Nurulain, Kornélia Tekes, Erzsébet Fehér, Huba Kalász, Ernest Adeghate
The number of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) is estimated to exceed 640 million by the year 2040. Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a debilitating illness that affects more than 2% of DM patients. DFU is caused by DM-induced neural and vascular lesions leading to a reduced sensation and microcirculation. The increase in the prevalence of DFU has prompted researchers to find new therapies for the management of DFU. Areas covered: This review presents the current status of novel biological therapies used in the treatment of DFU...
May 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529072/rescue-of-il-1%C3%AE-induced-reduction-of-human-neurogenesis-by-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-antidepressants
#6
Alessandra Borsini, Silvia Alboni, Mark A Horowitz, Luis M Tojo, Giuseppe Cannazza, Kuan-Pin Su, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia A Zunszain
Both increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. We have previously described how interleukin-1 (IL-1) β,a pro-inflammatory cytokine increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. Here, using the same human in vitro model, we show how omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and conventional antidepressants reverse this reduction in neurogenesis, while differentially affecting the kynurenine pathway...
May 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527331/analysis-of-zip-zrt-irt-related-protein-transporter-gene-expression-in-murine-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#7
Mayu Nishikawa, Hideki Mori, Masayuki Hara
Zinc plays important roles for brain development. Zrt-, Irt-related protein (ZIP) is a major transporter family to regulate the intracellular zinc levels. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are more sensitive than their differentiated progeny (neural/glial cells) to zinc in vitro (Nishikawa et al., 2015). We analyzed relative gene expression of 14 different ZIPs in murine NSPCs and differentiated cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Expression of Zip4 and that of Zip12 drastically increased, while that of Zip8 clearly decreased after differentiation of NSPCs...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#8
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#9
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#10
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521038/ventricular-zone-disruption-in-human-neonates-with-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#11
James P McAllister, Maria Montserrat Guerra, Leandro Castaneyra Ruiz, Antonio J Jimenez, Dolores Dominguez-Pinos, Deborah Sival, Wilfred den Dunnen, Diego M Morales, Robert E Schmidt, Esteban M Rodriguez, David D Limbrick
To determine if ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) alterations are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, we compared postmortem frontal and subcortical brain samples from 12 infants with IVH and 3 nonneurological disease controls without hemorrhages or ventriculomegaly. Birth and expiration estimated gestational ages were 23.0-39.1 and 23.7-44.1 weeks, respectively; survival ranges were 0-42 days (median, 2.0 days). Routine histology and immunohistochemistry for neural stem cells (NSCs), neural progenitors (NPs), multiciliated ependymal cells (ECs), astrocytes (AS), and cell adhesion molecules were performed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516108/what-is-car-doing-in-the-middle-of-the-adult-neurogenic-road
#12
COMMENT
Sara Salinas, Felix Junyent, Nathalie Coré, Harold Cremer, Eric J Kremer
The molecular and cellular basis of adult neurogenesis has attracted considerable attention for fundamental and clinical applications because neural stem cells and newborn neurons may, one day, be harnessed to replace neurons and allow cognitive improvement in the diseased brain. In rodents, neural progenitors are located in the dentate gyrus and the sub/periventricular zone. In the dentate gyrus the generation of newborn neurons is associated with plasticity, including regulation of memory. The role of subventricular zone neural precursors that migrate to the olfactory bulb is less characterized...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515277/histone-chaperone-hira-regulates-neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-neurogenesis-via-%C3%AE-catenin
#13
Yanxin Li, Jianwei Jiao
Histone cell cycle regulator (HIRA) is a histone chaperone and has been identified as an epigenetic regulator. Subsequent studies have provided evidence that HIRA plays key roles in embryonic development, but its function during early neurogenesis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that HIRA is enriched in neural progenitor cells, and HIRA knockdown reduces neural progenitor cell proliferation, increases terminal mitosis and cell cycle exit, and ultimately results in premature neuronal differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that HIRA enhances β-catenin expression by recruiting H3K4 trimethyltransferase Setd1A, which increases H3K4me3 levels and heightens the promoter activity of β-catenin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512781/developmental-regulation-and-localization-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferases-cpts-in-rat-brain
#14
Jennifer N Jernberg, Caitlyn E Bowman, Michael J Wolfgang, Susanna Scafidi
While the brain's high energy demands are largely met by glucose, brain is also equipped with the ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy and metabolism. The brain expresses the carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs) that mediate carnitine-dependent entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation - CPT1a and CPT2 located on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Their developmental profile, regional distribution and activity as well as cell type expression remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512399/protein-s-negatively-regulates-neural-stem-cell-self-renewal-through-bmi-1-signaling
#15
Katya Zelentsova-Levytskyi, Ziv Talmi, Ghada Abboud-Jarrous, Tal Capucha, Tamar Sapir, Tal Burstyn-Cohen
Revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying neural stem cell self-renewal is a major goal toward understanding adult brain homeostasis. The self-renewing potential of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) must be tightly regulated to maintain brain homeostasis. We recently reported the expression of Protein S (PROS1) in adult hippocampal NSPCs, and revealed its role in regulation of NSPC quiescence and neuronal differentiation. Here, we investigate the effect of PROS1 on NSPC self-renewal and show that genetic ablation of Pros1 in neural progenitors increased NSPC self-renewal by 50%...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512358/delayed-epidural-transplantation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-enhances-functional-recovery-after-stroke
#16
I-Hui Lee, Shiang-Suo Huang, Ching-Yu Chuang, Ko-Hsun Liao, Li-Hsin Chang, Chia-Chi Chuang, Yu-Shih Su, Hung-Jui Lin, Jui-Yu Hsieh, Shu-Han Su, Oscar Kuang-Sheng Lee, Hung-Chih Kuo
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (iPSC-NPCs) are a promising source of tailor-made cell therapy for neurological diseases. However, major obstacles to clinical use still exist. To circumvent complications related to intracerebral administration, we implanted human iPSC-NPCs epidurally over the peri-infarct cortex 7 days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult rats. Compared to controls, cell-treated rats showed significant improvements in paretic forelimb usage and grip strength from 10 days post-transplantation (dpt) onwards, as well as reductions in lesion volumes, inflammatory infiltration and astrogliosis at 21 dpt...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510333/tetracycline-inducible-and-reversible-stable-gene-expression-in-human-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors-and-in-the-postnatal-mouse-brain
#17
Aslam Abbasi Akhtar, Joshua J Breunig
The pB-tet-GOI plasmid system allows for stable piggyBac transposition-mediated integration into cells, a fluorescent nuclear reporter to identify cells that have been transfected, and robust transgene activation or suppression upon the addition of dox to the cell culture or diet of the animal. Furthermore, the addition of luciferase downstream of the target gene allows for quantitative assessment of gene activity in a non-invasive manner. The protocols herein provide instructions for the use of this system in cell lines and in the neonatal mouse brain...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508316/trpc-channels-and-neuron-development-plasticity-and-activities
#18
Yilin Tai, Yichang Jia
In this chapter, we mainly focus on the functions of TRPC channels in brain development, including neural progenitor proliferation, neurogenesis, neuron survival, axon guidance, dendritic morphology, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity. We also notice emerging advances in understanding the functions of TRPC channels in periphery, especially their functions in sensation and nociception in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Because TRPC channels are expressed in all major types of glial cells, which account for at least half of total cells in the brain, TRPC channels may act as modulators for glial functions as well...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505596/engineered-hydrogels-increase-the-post-transplantation-survival-of-encapsulated-hesc-derived-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons
#19
Maroof M Adil, Tandis Vazin, Badriprasad Ananthanarayanan, Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Antara T Rao, Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Evan W Miller, Sanjay Kumar, David V Schaffer
Cell replacement therapies have broad biomedical potential; however, low cell survival and poor functional integration post-transplantation are major hurdles that hamper clinical benefit. For example, following striatal transplantation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), only 1-5% of the neurons typically survive in preclinical models and in clinical trials. In general, resource-intensive generation and implantation of larger numbers of cells are used to compensate for the low post-transplantation cell-survival...
May 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505334/direction-a-machine-learning-framework-for-predicting-and-characterizing-dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation-in-mammalian-genomes
#20
Milos Pavlovic, Pradipta Ray, Kristina Pavlovic, Aaron Kotamarti, Min Chen, Michael Q Zhang
Motivation: 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in DNA are major epigenetic modifications known to significantly alter mammalian gene expression. High-throughput assays to detect these modifications are expensive, labor-intensive, unfeasible in some contexts, and leave a portion of the genome unqueried. Hence, we devised a novel, supervised, integrative learning framework to perform whole-genome methylation and hydroxymethylation predictions in CpG dinucleotides. Our framework can also perform imputation of missing or low quality data in existing sequencing datasets...
May 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
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