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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051854/an-important-function-of-petrosiol-e-in-inducing-the-differentiation-of-neuronal-progenitors-and-in-protecting-them-against-oxidative-stress
#1
Jing Liu, Linlin Wang, Yuguo Du, Sijin Liu
Insufficient endogenous neurotrophin supply contributes to neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, neuronal injuries are also attributed to oxidative stress upon toxin exposure. Thus, reconstruction neurite extension and antioxidative stress are the potential strategies for ameliorating neuronal injuries. However, there is no well-defined therapeutic developed in this regard. In search of such therapeutics, Petrosiol E is identified here as a potent inducer to guide the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells. Petrosiol E also considerably promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural ectoderm features...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050872/manf-promotes-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-progenitor-cells-with-potential-neural-regenerative-effects-in-stroke
#2
Kuan-Yin Tseng, Jenni E Anttila, Konstantin Khodosevich, Raimo K Tuominen, Maria Lindahl, Andrii Domanskyi, Mikko Airavaara
Cerebral ischemia activates endogenous reparative processes, such as increased proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward the ischemic area. However, this reparative process is limited because most of the NPCs die shortly after injury or are unable to arrive at the infarct boundary. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endogenous mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protects NSCs against oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced injury and has a crucial role in regulating NPC migration...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049289/a-molecular-atlas-of-the-developing-ectoderm-defines-neural-neural-crest-placode-and-nonneural-progenitor-identity-in-vertebrates
#3
Jean-Louis Plouhinec, Sofía Medina-Ruiz, Caroline Borday, Elsa Bernard, Jean-Philippe Vert, Michael B Eisen, Richard M Harland, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045839/heterotopic-transplantations-reveal-environmental-influences-on-interneuron-diversity-and-maturation
#4
Giulia Quattrocolo, Gord Fishell, Timothy J Petros
During embryogenesis, neural progenitors in the ganglionic eminences give rise to diverse GABAergic interneuron subtypes that populate all forebrain regions. The extent to which these cells are genetically predefined or determined by postmigratory environmental cues remains unknown. To address this question, we performed homo- and heterotopic transplantation of early postnatal MGE-derived cortical and hippocampal interneurons. Grafted cells migrated, and displayed neurochemical, electrophysiological, morphological, and neurochemical profiles similar to endogenous interneurons...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044560/regulating-the-transcriptomes-that-mediate-the-conversion-of-fibroblasts-to-various-nervous-system-neural-cell-types
#5
Niusha Khazaei, Shima Rastegar-Pouyani, Nicholas O'Toole, Ping Wee, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia, Moein Yaqubi
Our understanding of the mechanism of cell fate transition during the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into various central nervous system (CNS) neural cell types has been limited by the lack of a comprehensive analysis on generated cells, independently and in comparison with other CNS neural cell types. Here, we applied an integrative approach on 18 independent high throughput expression data sets to gain insight into the regulation of the transcriptome during the conversion of fibroblasts into induced neural stem cells, induced neurons, induced astrocytes, and induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042477/kdm3a-mediated-demethylation-of-histone-h3-lysine-9-facilitates-the-chromatin-binding-of-neurog2-during-neurogenesis
#6
Hao Lin, Xuechen Zhu, Geng Chen, Lei Song, Li Gao, Aftab A Khand, Ying Chen, Gufa Lin, Qinghua Tao
Neurog2 is a crucial regulator of neuronal fate specification and differentiation in vivo and in vitro However, it remains unclear how Neurog2 transactivates neuronal genes that are silenced by repressive chromatin. Here, we provide evidence that the histone H3 lysine 9 demethylase KDM3A facilitates the Xenopus Neurog2 (formerly known as Xngnr1) chromatin accessibility during neuronal transcription. Loss-of-function analyses reveal that KDM3A is not required for the transition of naive ectoderm to neural progenitor cells but is essential for primary neuron formation...
October 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042205/postnatal-administration-of-memantine-rescues-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-decreased-hippocampal-precursor-proliferation
#7
Zhongke Wang, Xie He, Xiaotang Fan
Pro-inflammatory cytokine exposure in early postnatal life triggers clear neurotoxic effects on the developing hippocampus. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is one of the inflammatory mediators and is a potent inhibitor of neurogenesis. Memantine (MEM) is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been demonstrated to increase the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells. However, the effects of MEM on TNF-α-mediated impairment of hippocampal precursor proliferation remain unclear...
October 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038306/pfkfb4-control-of-akt-signaling-is-essential-for-premigratory-and-migratory-neural-crest-formation
#8
Ana Leonor Figueiredo, Frédérique Maczkowiak, Caroline Borday, Patrick Pla, Meghane Sittewelle, Caterina Pegoraro, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
Neural crest (NC) specification comprises an early phase, initiating immature NC progenitors formation at neural plate stage, and a later phase at neural fold stage, resulting into functional premigratory NC, able to delaminate and migrate. We found that the NC Gene Regulatory Network triggers up-regulation of pfkfb4 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 4) during this late specification phase. As shown in previous studies, PFKFB4 controls AKT signaling in gastrulas and glycolysis rate in adult cells...
October 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037191/ascorbic-acid-alters-cell-fate-commitment-of-human-neural-progenitors-in-a-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-ros-signaling-dependent-manner
#9
Tareck Rharass, Margareta Lantow, Adam Gbankoto, Dieter G Weiss, Daniela Panáková, Stéphanie Lucas
BACKGROUND: Improving the neuronal yield from in vitro cultivated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is an essential challenge in transplantation therapy in neurological disorders. In this regard, Ascorbic acid (AA) is widely used to expand neurogenesis from NPCs in cultures although the mechanisms of its action remain unclear. Neurogenesis from NPCs is regulated by the redox-sensitive WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. We therefore aimed to investigate how AA interacts with this pathway and potentiates neurogenesis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034473/development-and-maturation-of-the-fibrous-components-of-the-arterial-roots-in-the-mouse-heart
#10
Rachel Richardson, Lorraine Eley, Charlotte Donald-Wilson, Jonathon Davis, Natasha Curley, Ahlam Alqahtani, Lindsay Murphy, Robert H Anderson, Deborah J Henderson, Bill Chaudhry
The arterial roots are important transitional regions of the heart, connecting the intrapericardial components of the aortic and pulmonary trunks with their ventricular outlets. They house the arterial (semilunar) valves and, in the case of the aorta, are the points of coronary arterial attachment. Moreover, because of the semilunar attachments of the valve leaflets, the arterial roots span the anatomic ventriculo-arterial junction. By virtue of this arrangement, the interleaflet triangles, despite being fibrous, are found on the ventricular aspect of the root and located within the left ventricular cavity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033785/versatile-roles-of-the-chromatin-remodeler-chd7-during-brain-development-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Weijun Feng, Chunxuan Shao, Hai-Kun Liu
CHD7 (Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein 7) protein is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler. Heterozygous mutation of the CHD7 gene causes a severe congenital disease known as CHARGE syndrome. Most CHARGE syndrome patients have brain structural anomalies, implicating an important role of CHD7 during brain development. In this review, we summarize studies dissecting developmental functions of CHD7 in the brain and discuss pathogenic mechanisms behind neurodevelopmental defects caused by mutation of CHD7. As we discussed, CHD7 protein exhibits a remarkably specific and dynamic expression pattern in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033352/the-primate-specific-gene-tmem14b-marks-outer-radial-glia-cells-and-promotes-cortical-expansion-and-folding
#12
Jing Liu, Wensu Liu, Lu Yang, Qian Wu, Haofeng Zhang, Ai Fang, Long Li, Xiaohui Xu, Le Sun, Jun Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Xiaoqun Wang
Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG...
October 10, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033307/neurog1-regulates-cdk2-to-promote-proliferation-in-otic-progenitors
#13
Zhichao Song, Azadeh Jadali, Bernd Fritzsch, Kelvin Y Kwan
Loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) significantly contributes to hearing loss. Otic progenitor cell transplantation is a potential strategy to replace lost SGNs. Understanding how key transcription factors promote SGN differentiation in otic progenitors accelerates efforts for replacement therapies. A pro-neural transcription factor, Neurogenin1 (Neurog1), is essential for SGN development. Using an immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP) cell line that can self-renew and differentiate into otic neurons, NEUROG1 was enriched at the promoter of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) genes...
October 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031903/agmatine-inhibits-chronic-morphine-exposure-induced-impairment-of-hippocampal-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-adult-rats
#14
Ying Liu, Guan-Yi Lu, Wen-Qiang Chen, Yun-Feng Li, Ning Wu, Jin Li
Our previous studies have shown that agmatine inhibited opioid dependence, yet the neural mechanism remains unclear. Growing evidence showed that opioids decrease neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone by inhibiting neural progenitor proliferation. However, whether agmatine affects chronic opioid exposure-induced impairment to hippocampal neural progenitor cell proliferation remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of agmatine in hippocampal neural progenitors in morphine dependence rats...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031500/transcription-and-signaling-regulators-in-developing-neuronal-subtypes-of-mouse-and-human-enteric-nervous-system
#15
Fatima Memic, Viktoria Knoflach, Khomgrit Morarach, Rebecca Sadler, Catia Laranjeira, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Erik Sundström, Vassilis Pachnis, Ulrika Marklund
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates gastrointestinal function via different subtypes of neurons, organized into fine-tuned neural circuits. It is not clear how cell diversity is created within the embryonic ENS-information required for development of cell-based therapies and models of enteric neuropathies. We aimed to identify proteins that regulate ENS differentiation and network formation. METHODS: We generated and compared RNA expression profiles of the entire ENS, ENS progenitor cells, and non-ENS gut cells of mice, collected at embryonic days 11...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030949/microrna-expression-in-the-neural-retina-focus-on-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#16
REVIEW
Heberto Quintero, Mónica Lamas
The neural retina hosts a unique specialized type of macroglial cell that not only preserves retinal homeostasis, function, and integrity but also may serve as a source of new neurons during regenerative processes: the Müller cell. Precise microRNA-driven mechanisms of gene regulation impel and direct the processes of Müller glia lineage acquisition from retinal progenitors during development, the triggering of their response to retinal degeneration and, in some cases, Müller cell reprogramming and regenerative events...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030827/genome-wide-identification-of-transcription-factor-binding-sites-in-quiescent-adult-neural-stem-cells
#17
Shradha Mukherjee, Jenny Hsieh
Transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences and control the transcription rate of nearby genes in the genome. This activation or repression of gene expression is further potentiated by epigenetic modifications of histones with active and silent marks, respectively. Resident adult stem cells in the hematopoietic system, skin, and brain exist in a non-proliferative quiescent resting state. When quiescent stem cells become activated and transition to dividing progenitors and distinct cell types, they can replenish and repair tissue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030813/isolation-of-neural-stem-and-progenitor-cells-from-the-adult-brain-and-live-imaging-of-their-cell-cycle-with-the-fucci-system
#18
Alexandra Chicheportiche, Martial Ruat, François D Boussin, Mathieu Daynac
Neural stem cells (NSCs) enter quiescence in early embryonic stages to create a reservoir of dormant NSCs able to enter proliferation and produce neuronal precursors in the adult mammalian brain. Various approaches of fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) have emerged to allow the distinction between quiescent NSCs (qNSCs), their activated counterpart (aNSCs), and the resulting progeny. In this article, we review two FACS techniques that can be used alternatively. We also show that their association with transgenic Fluorescence Ubiquitination Cell Cycle Indicator (FUCCI) mice allows an unprecedented overlook on the cell cycle dynamics of adult NSCs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029631/neurotrophic-support-by-traumatized-muscle-derived-multipotent-progenitor-cells-role-of-endothelial-cells-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a
#19
Heidi R H Zupanc, Peter G Alexander, Rocky S Tuan
BACKGROUND: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to increase nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Traumatized muscle-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) share important characteristics with MSCs and are isolated from severely damaged muscle tissue following surgical debridement. Previous investigations have shown that MPCs may be induced to increase production of several neurotrophic factors, suggesting the possible utility of autologous MPCs in peripheral nerve regeneration following injury...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029423/disc1-overexpression-promotes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation
#20
Shuo Wang, Ying-Ying Chen, Yu-Peng Li, Jun Gu, Shu-Dong Gu, Hai Shi, Xue-Song Li, Xiao-Ning Lu, Xiang Li, Shuang-Long Zhang, Kang-Jun Yu, Kun Liu, Li-Li Ji
Neuropsychiatric disorder-associated disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) phosphorylation, and may promote neural progenitor cell and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. The present study found that DISC1 promotes non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that DISC1 was highly expressed in NSCLC cell lines and patient tissues. DISC1 expression was negatively associated with phosphorylated (p-) GSK3β, but positively correlated with a more invasive tumor phenotype and predicted poor NSCLC patient prognosis...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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