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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821904/developmentally-regulated-signaling-pathways-in-glioma-invasion
#1
REVIEW
Shwetal Mehta, Costanza Lo Cascio
Malignant gliomas are the most common, infiltrative, and lethal primary brain tumors affecting the adult population. The grim prognosis for this disease is due to a combination of the presence of highly invasive tumor cells that escape surgical resection and the presence of a population of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells found within these tumors. Several studies suggest that glioma cells have cleverly hijacked the normal developmental program of neural progenitor cells, including their transcriptional programs, to enhance gliomagenesis...
August 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817802/molecular-memory-of-morphologies-by-septins-during-neuron-generation-allows-early-polarity-inheritance
#2
Leila Boubakar, Julien Falk, Hugo Ducuing, Karine Thoinet, Florie Reynaud, Edmund Derrington, Valérie Castellani
Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817722/nicotinamide-alone-accelerates-the-conversion-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neuronal-populations
#3
Síle M Griffin, Mark R Pickard, Rowan P Orme, Clive P Hawkins, Adrian C Williams, Rosemary A Fricker
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B3 has been shown to play an important role during embryogenesis. Specifically, there is growing evidence that nicotinamide, the biologically active form of vitamin B3, plays a critical role as a morphogen in the differentiation of stem cells to mature cell phenotypes, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed knowledge of the action of small molecules during neuronal differentiation is not only critical for uncovering mechanisms underlying lineage-specification, but also to establish more effective differentiation protocols to obtain clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816361/msel-1l-deficiency-affects-vasculogenesis-and-neural-stem-cell-lineage-commitment
#4
Cardano M, Diaferia G R, Conti L, Baronchelli S, Sessa A, Broccoli V, Barbieri A, De Blasio P, Biunno I
mSEL-1L is a highly conserved ER-resident type I protein, involved in the degradation of misfolded peptides through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a pathway known to control the plasticity of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) phenotype and survival. In this article we demonstrate that mSEL-1L deficiency interferes with the murine embryonic vascular network, showing particular irregularities in the intracranic and intersomitic neurovascular units and in the cerebral capillary microcirculation. During murine embryogenesis, mSEL-1L is expressed in cerebral areas known to harbor progenitor neural cells, while in the adult brain the protein is specifically restricted to the stem cell niches, co-localizing with Sox2 and Nestin...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815561/early-segregation-of-the-adrenal-cortex-and-gonad-in-chicken-embryos
#5
Daisuke Saito, Koji Tamura, Yoshiko Takahashi
The adrenal gland is an endocrine organ that plays essential roles in stress responses. This organ consists of two types of tissues, adrenomedulla and adrenocortex, deriving from different embryonic origins. Whereas it is well accepted that the adrenomedulla derives from neural crest cells, the origin of the adrenocortex remains elusive. In addition, the adrenocortex and gonads, two major steroid hormone-producing tissues, have been thought to share the same origin, although the experimental evidence is lacking...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815211/phenotypic-differences-between-asian-and-african-lineage-zika-viruses-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#6
Fatih Anfasa, Jurre Y Siegers, Mark van der Kroeg, Noreen Mumtaz, V Stalin Raj, Femke M S de Vrij, W Widagdo, Gülsah Gabriel, Sara Salinas, Yannick Simonin, Chantal Reusken, Steven A Kushner, Marion P G Koopmans, Bart Haagmans, Byron E E Martina, Debby van Riel
Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been associated with a range of neurological complications, in particular congenital microcephaly. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of microcephaly, and experimental ZIKV infection of hNPCs has been shown to induce cell death. However, the infection efficiency and rate of cell death have varied between studies, which might be related to intrinsic differences between African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814327/neocortical-sox9-radial-glia-generate-glutamatergic-neurons-for-all-layers-but-lack-discernible-evidence-of-early-laminar-fate-restriction
#7
E S Kaplan, K A Ramos-Laguna, A B Mihalas, R A M Daza, R F Hevner
Glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex are derived from embryonic neural stem cells known as radial glial progenitors (RGPs). Early RGPs, present at the onset of cortical neurogenesis, are classically thought to produce columnar clones of glutamatergic neurons spanning the cortical layers. Recently, however, it has been reported that a subset of early RGPs may undergo early commitment to upper layer neuron fates, thus bypassing genesis of deep layer neurons. However, the latter mode of early RGP differentiation was not confirmed in some other studies, and remains controversial...
August 16, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814279/musashi-1-is-the-candidate-of-the-regulator-of-hair-cell-progenitors-during-inner-ear-regeneration
#8
Takahiro Wakasaki, Hiroaki Niiro, Siamak Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Mitsuru Ohashi, Takashi Kimitsuki, Takashi Nakagawa, Shizuo Komune, Koichi Akashi
BACKGROUND: Hair cell loss in the cochlea is caused by ototoxic drugs, aging, and environmental stresses and could potentially lead to devastating pathophysiological effects. In adult mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and may result in hearing and balance deficits. In contrast, nonmammalian vertebrates, including birds, can regenerate hair cells through differentiation of supporting cells and restore inner ear function, suggesting that hair cell progenitors are present in the population of supporting cells...
August 16, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813511/differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-corneal-epithelial-progenitor-cells-under-defined-conditions
#9
Canwei Zhang, Liqun Du, Kunpeng Pang, Xinyi Wu
The development of cell-based therapies using stem cells represents a significant breakthrough in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). The aim of this study was to develop a novel protocol to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), with similar features to primary cultured human limbal stem cells (LSCs), using a medium composed of DMEM/F12 and defined keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM) (1:1) under different carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813139/tunable-injectable-hydrogels-based-on-peptide-crosslinked-cyclized-polymer-nanoparticles-for-neural-progenitor-cell-delivery
#10
Tianyu Zhao, Drew L Sellers, Yilong Cheng, Philip J Horner, Suzie H Pun
A PEG-based cyclized vinyl polymer was synthesized via one-step RAFT polymerization and used as a precursor of injectable hydrogels. Dithiol linkers including laminin-derived peptides containing IKVAV and YIGSR sequences and DTT were used for gelation. Fast and adjustable gelation rate was achieved through nucleophile-initiated thiol-Michael reaction under physiological conditions. Low swelling ratio and moderate degradation rate of the formed hydrogels were observed. 3D encapsulation of neural progenitor cells in the synthetic hydrogel showed good cell viability over 8 days...
August 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811263/the-role-of-escrt-during-development-and-functioning-of-the-nervous-system
#11
REVIEW
Rémy Sadoul, Marine H Laporte, Romain Chassefeyre, Yves Goldberg, Christine Chatellard, Fiona J Hemming, Sandrine Fraboulet
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is made of subcomplexes (ESCRT I-III), crucial to membrane remodelling at endosomes, nuclear envelope and cell surface. ESCRT-III shapes membranes and in most cases cooperates with the ATPase VPS4 to mediate fission of membrane necks from the inside. The first ESCRT complexes mainly serve to catalyse the formation of ESCRT-III but can be bypassed by accessory proteins like the Alg-2 interacting protein-X (ALIX). In the nervous system, ALIX/ESCRT controls the survival of embryonic neural progenitors and later on the outgrowth and pruning of axons and dendrites, all necessary steps to establish a functional brain...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809027/in-vitro-and-ex-ovo-culture-of-reptilian-and-avian-neural-progenitor-cells
#12
Wataru Yamashita, Toyo Shimizu, Tadashi Nomura
Reptiles and birds have been highlighted as excellent experimental models for the study of developmental biology; however, due to technical limitations in cellular analysis, dynamics of neural stem/progenitor cells of these animals remain unclear. In this chapter, we introduce the protocols for neurosphere culture and ex ovo embryonic culture of developing reptilian and avian embryos, which are modified from the method originally established for rodent embryos. Applications of these techniques provide powerful strategies for the study of comparative neural development of amniotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808337/microrna-214-modulates-neural-progenitor-cell-differentiation-by-targeting-quaking-during-cerebral-cortex-development
#13
Pengcheng Shu, Hongye Fu, Xiangyu Zhao, Chao Wu, Xiangbin Ruan, Yi Zeng, Wei Liu, Ming Wang, Lin Hou, Pan Chen, Bin Yin, Jiangang Yuan, Boqin Qiang, Xiaozhong Peng
The accurate generation of an appropriate number of different neuronal and glial subtypes is fundamental to normal brain functions and requires tightly orchestrated spatial and temporal developmental programmes to maintain the balance between the proliferation and the differentiation of neural progenitor cells. However, the molecular mechanism governing this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we found that miR-214-3p was highly expressed in neural progenitor cells and dynamically regulated during neocortical development...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808228/loss-of-usp9x-disrupts-cell-adhesion-and-components-of-the-wnt-and-notch-signaling-pathways-in-neural-progenitors
#14
Susitha Premarathne, Mariyam Murtaza, Nicholas Matigian, Lachlan A Jolly, Stephen A Wood
Development of neural progenitors depends upon the coordination of appropriate intrinsic responses to extrinsic signalling pathways. Here we show the deubiquitylating enzyme, Usp9x regulates components of both intrinsic and extrinsic fate determinants. Nestin-cre mediated ablation of Usp9x from embryonic neural progenitors in vivo resulted in a transient disruption of cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity and, an increased number and ectopic localisation of intermediate neural progenitors. In contrast to other adhesion and polarity proteins, levels of β-catenin protein, especially S33/S37/T41 phospho-β-catenin, were markedly increased in Usp9x (-/Y) embryonic cortices...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806852/generation-of-oligodendrogenic-spinal-neural-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Mohamad Khazaei, Christopher S Ahuja, Michael G Fehlings
This unit describes protocols for the efficient generation of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (o-NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Specifically, detailed methods are provided for the maintenance and differentiation of hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-o-NPCs) with the final products being suitable for in vitro experimentation or in vivo transplantation...
August 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805664/correlation-and-comparison-of-cortical-and-hippocampal-neural-progenitor-morphology-and-differentiation-through-the-use-of-micro-and-nano-topographies
#16
Sharvari Sathe, Xiang Quan Chan, Jing Jin, Erik Bernitt, Hans-Günther Döbereiner, Evelyn K F Yim
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to topography have not been quantitatively compared. In this study, the correlation between the morphology and differentiation of hippocampal and cortical neural progenitor cells was explored. The morphology of differentiated neural progenitors was quantified on an array of topographies...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804501/regulatory-role-of-redox-balance-in-determination-of-neural-precursor-cell-fate
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Ariff Iqbal, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
In 1990s, reports of discovery of a small group of cells capable of proliferation and contribution to formation of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) reversed a century-old concept on lack of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. These cells are found in all stages of human life and contribute to normal cellular turnover of the CNS. Therefore, the identity of regulating factors that affect their proliferation and differentiation is a highly noteworthy issue for basic scientists and their clinician counterparts for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803703/viral-hijacking-of-formins-in-neurodevelopmental-pathologies
#18
REVIEW
Karen Racicot, Sarah VanOeveren, Art Alberts
The 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak caused global concern when it was determined to cause microcephaly, hearing loss, and other neurodevelopmental manifestations upon fetal exposure. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the interactions between ZIKV and the pregnant host, but there is still a critical need to understand how ZIKV and other neurotropic viruses affect fetal neurodevelopment. Diaphanous-related formins (Diaphs) have recently been identified as microcephaly-associated proteins in humans and mice...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796246/identification-and-characterization-of-a-new-source-of-adult-human-neural-progenitors
#19
Jinan Behnan, Biljana Stangeland, Tiziana Langella, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Giovanni Tringali, Torstein R Meling, Wayne Murrell
Adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) are a potential source for cell based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries. These cells have been traditionally isolated from hippocampus, subventricular zone and white matter. However, there is still a need for an easily accessible source with better yield to counter the limitations of small surgical samples of previously characterized aNPCs. Here we show that ultrasonic aspirate (UA) samples currently considered as 'biological waste after surgery,' offer a good source for aNPCs...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795171/the-crossroads-of-neural-stem-cell-development-and-tumorigenesis
#20
Odessa R Yabut, Samuel J Pleasure
Isolated brain tumors contain cells that exhibit stem cell features and a tissue microenvironment bearing remarkable similarities to the normal neurogenic niche. This supports the idea that neural stem (NSCs) or progenitor cells, and their progeny are the likely tumor cell(s) of origin. This prompted the investigation of the relationship between NSCs/progenitors and the initiation of tumorigenesis. These studies led to the identification of common signaling machineries underlying NSC development and tumor formation, particularly those with known roles in proliferation and cell fate determination...
December 2016: Opera Medica et Physiologica
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