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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634261/autophagy-gene-fip200-in-neural-progenitors-non-cell-autonomously-controls-differentiation-by-regulating-microglia
#1
Chenran Wang, Syn Yeo, Michael A Haas, Jun-Lin Guan
Recent studies have shown important roles for autophagy genes in the regulation of different tissue stem cells, including neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). However, little is known about whether autophagy can regulate NSCs through cell-extrinsic mechanisms. Here, we show that deletion of an essential autophagy gene, FIP200, in NSCs increased expression of Ccl5 and Cxcl10 in a p53-independent manner, mediating increased infiltration of microglia into the subventricular zone of both FIP200hGFAP conditional knockout (cKO) and FIP200;p53hGFAP 2cKO mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634230/similarity-in-gene-regulatory-networks-suggests-that-cancer-cells-share-characteristics-of-embryonic-neural-cells
#2
Zan Zhang, Anhua Lei, Liyang Xu, Lu Chen, Yonglong Chen, Xuena Zhang, Yan Gao, Xiaoli Yang, Min Zhang, Ying Cao
Cancer cells are immature cells resulting from cellular reprogramming by gene misregulation, and re-differentiation is expected to reduce malignancy. It is unclear, however, whether cancer cells can undergo terminal differentiation. Here, we show that, inhibition of the epigenetic modification enzymes enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 3, lysine demethylase 1A (LSD1), or DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which all promote cancer development and progression, leads to postmitotic neuron-like differentiation with loss of malignant features in distinct solid cancer cell lines...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631858/sensory-response-in-host-and-engrafted-astrocytes-of-adult-brain-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Kuan Zhang, Xiaowei Chen
Rapid advances in Ca(2+) imaging techniques enable us to simultaneously monitor the activities of hundreds of astrocytes in the intact brain, thus providing a powerful tool for understanding the functions of both host and engrafted astrocytes in sensory processing in vivo. These techniques include both improved Ca(2+) indicators and advanced optical recording methods. Astrocytes in multiple cortical and sub-cortical areas are able to respond to the corresponding sensory modalities. These sensory stimuli produce astrocytic Ca(2+) responses through different cellular mechanisms...
June 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630660/npc-exs-alleviate-endothelial-oxidative-stress-and-dysfunction-through-the-mir-210-downstream-nox2-and-vegfr2-pathways
#4
Hua Liu, Jinju Wang, Yusen Chen, Yanfang Chen, Xiaotang Ma, Ji C Bihl, Yi Yang
We have demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) protect endothelial cells (ECs) from oxidative stress. Since exosomes (EXs) can convey the benefit of parent cells through their carried microRNAs (miRs) and miR-210 is ubiquitously expressed with versatile functions, we investigated the role of miR-210 in the effects of NPC-EXs on oxidative stress and dysfunction in ECs. NPCs were transfected with control and miR-210 scramble/inhibitor/mimic to generate NPC-EXs(con), NPC-EXs(sc), NPC-EXs(anti-miR-210), and NPC-EXs(miR-210)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628625/neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-the-hypothalamus-is-involved-in-acquired-heat-tolerance-in-long-term-heat-acclimated-rats
#5
Kentaro Matsuzaki, Masanori Katakura, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Toshiko Hara, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628306/lysine-deacetylation-by-hdac6-regulates-the-kinase-activity-of-akt-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#6
Jonathan Iaconelli, Jasmin Lalonde, Bradley Watmuff, Bangyan Liu, Ralph Mazitschek, Stephen J Haggarty, Rakesh Karmacharya
AKT family of serine-threonine kinases functions downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to transmit signals by direct phosphorylation of a number of targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and β-catenin. AKT binds to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) generated by PI3K activation, which results in its membrane localization and subsequent activation through phosphorylation by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627366/pqbp1-an-intrinsically-disordered-denatured-protein-at-the-crossroad-of-intellectual-disability-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Hitoshi Okazawa
PQBP1 (polyglutamine binding protein-1) is the earliest identified molecule among the group of disease-related intrinsically disordered/denatured proteins. PQBP1 interacts with splicing-related factors via the disordered/denatured domain and regulates post-transcriptional gene expression. The mutations cause intellectual disability due to decreased dendritic spines and abnormal expression of synapse molecules in neurons, and microcephaly due to elongated cell cycle time and abnormal expression of cell cycle proteins in neural stem progenitor cells...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627365/mitochondria-metabolic-reprogramming-in-the-formation-of-neurons-from-peripheral-cells-cause-or-consequence-and-the-implications-to-their-utility
#8
REVIEW
Gary E Gibson, Ankita Thakkar
The induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from differentiated cells such as fibroblasts and their subsequent conversion to neural progenitor cells (NPC) and finally to neurons is intriguing scientifically, and its potential to medicine nearly infinite, but unrealized. A better understanding of the changes at each step of the transformation will enable investigators to use them better to model neurological disease. Each step of conversion from a differentiated cell to an iPSC to a NPC to neurons requires large changes in glycolysis including aerobic glycolysis, the pentose shunt, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the electron transport chain and in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625870/pax3-and-pax7-mediated-dbx1-regulation-orchestrates-the-patterning-of-intermediate-spinal-interneurons
#9
Chris Gard, Gloria Gonzalez-Curto, Youcef El-Mokhtar Frarma, Elodie Chollet, Nathalie Duval, Valentine Auzié, Frédéric Auradé, Lisa Vigier, Frédéric Relaix, Alessandra Pierani, Frédéric Causeret, Vanessa Ribes
Transcription factors are key orchestrators of the emergence of neuronal diversity within the developing spinal cord. As such, the two paralogous proteins Pax3 and Pax7 regulate the specification of progenitor cells within the intermediate neural tube, by defining a neat segregation between those fated to form motor circuits and those involved in the integration of sensory inputs. To attain insights into the molecular means by which they control this process, we have performed detailed phenotypic analyses of the intermediate spinal interneurons (IN), namely the dI6, V0D, V0VCG and V1 populations in compound null mutants for Pax3 and Pax7...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625813/neurogenesis-in-the-aging-brain
#10
REVIEW
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano-Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623786/proteolytic-processed-form-of-cxcl12-abolishes-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#11
Taís Adelita, Roberta Sessa Stilhano, Sang Won Han, Giselle Zenker Justo, Marimelia Porcionatto
The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain hosts full potential neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are able to respond to extracellular signals in the brain, amplifying the pool of progenitor cells and giving rise to neuroblasts that show ability to migrate towards an injury site. These signals can come from vascular system, cerebrospinal fluid, glial cells, or projections of neurons in adjoining regions. CXCL12, a chemokine secreted after brain injury, reaches the SVZ in a gradient manner and drives neuroblasts towards the lesion area...
June 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623616/cyclosporine-a-mediated-il-6-expression-promotes-neural-induction-in-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Ashwathnarayan Ashwini, Sushma S Naganur, Bhaskar Smitha, Preethi Sheshadri, Jyothi Prasanna, Anujith Kumar
Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to neural lineages has gathered huge attention in both basic research and regenerative medicine. The major hurdle lies in the efficiency of differentiation and identification of small molecules that facilitate neurogenesis would partly circumvent this limitation. The small molecule Cyclosporine A (CsA), a commonly used immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to enhance in vivo neurogenesis. To extend the information to in vitro neurogenesis, we examined the effect of CsA on neural differentiation of PSCs...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621417/cell-fate-decisions-during-neural-crest-ontogeny
#13
Chaya Kalcheim, Deepak Kumar
The neural crest (NC) originates in the central nervous system (CNS) primordium. Born as an epithelium, NC progenitors undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that generates cellular movement away from the CNS. Mesenchymal NC progenitors then migrate through stereotypic pathways characteristic of various axial levels until homing to distinct primordia where phenotypic differentiation takes place. Being the source of most of the peripheral nervous system, pigment cells and ectomesenchyme, the embryonic NC is considered to be a multipotent population of precursors...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621171/boundary-cap-neural-crest-stem-cell-transplants-contribute-mts1-s100a4-expressing-cells-in-the-glial-scar
#14
Carl Trolle, Patrik Ivert, Jan Hoeber, Iris Rocamonde-Lago, Svitlana Vasylovska, Eugen Lukanidin, Elena N Kozlova
AIM: During development, boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) assist sensory axon growth into the spinal cord. Here we repositioned them to test if they assist regeneration of sensory axons in adult mice after dorsal root avulsion injury. MATERIALS & METHODS: Avulsed mice received bNCSC or human neural progenitor (hNP) cell transplants and their contributions to glial scar formation and sensory axon regeneration were analyzed with immunohistochemistry and transganglionic tracing...
June 16, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620865/involvement-of-atm-and-trp53-in-neural-cell-loss-due-to-terf2-inactivation-during-mouse-brain-development
#15
Jusik Kim, Inseo Choi, Youngsoo Lee
Maintenance of genomic integrity is one of the critical features for proper neurodevelopment and inhibition of neurological diseases. The signals from both ATM and ATR to TP53 are well-known mechanisms to remove neural cells with DNA damage during neurogenesis. Here we examined the involvement of Atm and Atr in genomic instability due to Terf2 inactivation during mouse brain development. Selective inactivation of Terf2 in neural progenitors induced apoptosis, resulting in a complete loss of the brain structure...
June 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619522/integrated-analysis-of-paraquat-induced-micrornas-mrnas-changes-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#16
Mengling Yan, Tingting Dou, Wen Lv, Xinjin Wang, Lina Zhao, Xiuli Chang, Zhijun Zhou
Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used fast-acting and non-selective herbicides in the world is believed to act as a neurotoxicant, which increases the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) by selectively impairing dopaminergic neurons. However, the mechanism of PQ on neural progenitor cells remains unclear. As regulator of mRNA expression, miRNA play a crucial role in neurotoxicity. Based on our previous study, we chose 10μM PQ, which induced ROS production and inhibited proliferation but not reduced the cell viability...
June 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617078/interplay-between-notch-and-p53-promotes-neuronal-cell-death-in-ischemic-stroke
#17
Priyanka Balaganapathy, Sang-Ha Baik, Karthik Mallilankaraman, Christopher G Sobey, Dong-Gyu Jo, Thiruma V Arumugam
Stroke is the world's second leading cause of mortality, with a high incidence of morbidity. Numerous neuronal membrane receptors are activated by endogenous ligands and may contribute to infarct development. Notch is a well-characterized membrane receptor involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, and now shown to play a pivotal role in cell death during ischemic stroke. Blockade of Notch signaling by inhibition of γ-secretase, an enzyme that generates the active form of Notch, is neuroprotective following stroke...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616776/evidence-towards-rna-binding-motif-rnp1-rrm-protein-3-rbm3-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-lithium-response-in-bipolar-disorder-patients
#18
Eleni Merkouri Papadima, Paola Niola, Carla Melis, Claudia Pisanu, Donatella Congiu, Cristiana Cruceanu, Juan Pablo Lopez, Gustavo Turecki, Raffaella Ardau, Giovanni Severino, Caterina Chillotti, Maria Del Zompo, Alessio Squassina
Lithium has been used for more than six decades for the management of bipolar disorder (BD). In a previous transcriptomic study, we showed that patients affected by either BD or cluster headache, both disorders characterized by circadian disturbances and response to lithium in a subgroup of patients, have higher expression of the RNA binding motif (RNP1, RRM) protein 3 (RBM3) gene compared to controls. To investigate whether RBM3 could represent a biomarker of lithium response, we screened raw microarray expression data from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 20 BD patients, responders or non-responders to lithium...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616151/therapeutic-potential-of-dental-stem-cells
#19
REVIEW
Elna Paul Chalisserry, Seung Yun Nam, Sang Hyug Park, Sukumaran Anil
Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615204/human-cytomegalovirus-ie2-protein-disturbs-brain-development-by-dysregulating-neural-stem-cell-maintenance-and-the-polarization-of-migrating-neurons
#20
Dasol Han, Sung-Hyun Byun, Juwan Kim, Mookwang Kwon, Samuel J Pleasure, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Keejung Yoon
Despite the high incidence of severe defects in the central nervous system caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) congenital infection, the mechanism of HCMV neuropathogenesis and the roles of individual viral genes have not yet been fully determined. In this study, we show that the immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein may play a key role in HCMV-caused neurodevelopmental disorders. IE2-transduced neural progenitor cells gave rise to neurospheres with a lower frequency and produced smaller neurospheres than control cells in vitro, indicating reduction of self-renewal and expansion of neural progenitors by IE2...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
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