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spinal cord regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244790/lentivirus-mediated-silencing-of-the-ptc1-and-ptc2-genes-promotes-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury-by-activating-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model
#1
Ya-Dong Zhang, Zhong-Sheng Zhu, Dong Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Bin Ma, Shi-Chang Zhao, Feng Xue
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Patched-1 (PTC1) and PTC2 silencing in a rat model, on Hedgehog (Hh) pathway-mediated recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). An analytical emphasis on the relationship between the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway and nerve regeneration was explored. A total of 126 rats were divided into normal, sham, SCI, negative control (NC), PTC1-RNAi, PTC2-RNAi and PTC1/PTC2-RNAi groups. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale was employed to assess hind limb motor function...
December 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242993/promotion-of-neuronal-regeneration-by-using-self-polymerized-dendritic-polypeptide-scaffold-for-spinal-cord-tissue-engineering
#2
Jun Ming Wan, Liang le Liu, Jian Fang Zhang, Jian Wei Lu, Qi Li
Tissue engineering technology is applicable for study of nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury. Many natural and artificial scaffold are not applicable because of poor mechanical properties and cell compatibility. Polypeptides with fine three-dimensional structure and cell compatibility and are widely used in tissue engineering research. The purpose of this study was to verify the neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells by using self-polymerize dendritic polypeptide for spinal cord tissue engineering...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239337/globose-basal-cells-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#3
Durai Murugan Muniswami, Indirani Kanakasabapathy, George Tharion
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with loss of motor and sensory functions below the injury level. Cell based therapies are experimented in pre-clinical studies around the world. Neural stem cells are located intra-cranially in subventricular zone and hippocampus which are highly invasive sources. The olfactory epithelium is a neurogenic tissue where neurogenesis takes place throughout the adult life by a population of stem/progenitor cells. Easily accessible olfactory neuroepithelial stem/progenitor cells are an attractive cell source for transplantation in SCI...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239316/design-and-criteria-of-electrospun-fibrous-scaffolds-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Barbara Vigani, Silvia Rossi, Giuseppina Sandri, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Franca Ferrari
The complex pathophysiology of spinal cord injury may explain the current lack of an effective therapeutic approach for the regeneration of damaged neuronal cells and the recovery of motor functions. Many efforts have been performed to design and develop suitable scaffolds for spinal cord regeneration, keeping in mind that the reconstruction of a pro-regenerative environment is the key challenge for an effective neurogenesis. The aim of this review is to outline the main features of an ideal scaffold, based on biomaterials, produced by the electrospinning technique and intended for the spinal cord regeneration...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239014/cortical-electrical-stimulation-in-female-rats-with-a-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-to-promote-axonal-outgrowth
#5
Andrew S Jack, Caitlin Hurd, Juan Forero, Andrew Nataraj, Keith Fenrich, Armin Blesch, Karim Fouad
Electrical stimulation (ES) to promote corticospinal tract (CST) repair after spinal cord injury (SCI) is underinvestigated. This study is the first to detail intracortical ES of the injured CST. We hypothesize that cortical ES will promote CST collateralization and regeneration, prevent dieback, and improve recovery in an SCI rat model. The CST was transected at the the fourth cervical level in adult female Lewis rats trained in a stairwell grasping task. Animal groups included (a) ES333 (n = 14; 333 Hz, biphasic pulse for 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238462/mechanisms-of-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration-in-zebrafish-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Zeynab Noorimotlagh, Mahla Babaie, Mahdi Safdarian, Tahereh Ghadiri, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Objectives: To determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Materials and Methods: Medical databases of PubMed and Scopus were searched with following key words: Zebrafish; spinal cord injuries; regeneration; recovery of function. The map of mechanisms was performed using Xmind software. Results: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, L1.1, L1.2, Major vault protein (MVP), contactin-2 and High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) had positive promoting effects on axonal re-growth while Ptena had an inhibitory effect...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231515/-reviews-on-acupuncture-for-cellular-signal-transduction-in-spinal-cord-injury
#7
REVIEW
Jisheng Liu, Hong Zhang, Guilan Huang, Ming Xu, Jian Zhang, Xiuting Yin
Investigating the influence of acupuncture on cellular signal transduction is an efficient pathway to reveal the action mechanism of acupuncture on spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, the experiment research literature regarding acupuncture for SCI during past 10 years was reviewed and analyzed. As a result, it was found that acupuncture could regulate the expression of the first intercellular messenger as well as the second signal molecules including cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Ca2+, nitric oxide to intervene the apoptotic signaling pathway, Rho/Rock signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, etc...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230638/application-of-the-sodium-hyaluronate-cntf-scaffolds-in-repairing-adult-rat-spinal-cord-injury-and-facilitating-neural-network-formation
#8
Yabin Xie, Wei Song, Wen Zhao, Yudan Gao, Junkui Shang, Peng Hao, Zhaoyang Yang, Hongmei Duan, Xiaoguang Li
The present study aimed to explore the potential of the sodium hyaluronate-CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor) scaffold in activating endogenous neurogenesis and facilitating neural network re-formation after the adult rat spinal cord injury (SCI). After completely cutting and removing a 5-mm adult rat T8 segment, a sodium hyaluronate-CNTF scaffold was implanted into the lesion area. Dil tracing and immunofluorescence staining were used to observe the proliferation, differentiation and integration of neural stem cells (NSCs) after SCI...
December 6, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230560/non-functionalized-soft-alginate-hydrogel-promotes-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-rat-hemimyelonectomy-model
#9
Kerim Hakan Sitoci-Ficici, Marina Matyash, Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Elke Leipnitz, Robert Later, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Michael Gelinsky, Gabriele Schackert, Matthias Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) and the consecutive devastating neurological sequelae have an enormous individual and economic impact. Implantation of functionalized hydrogels is a promising approach, because they can serve as a matrix for the regenerating tissue, carry and release bioactive molecules and various cell types. We already demonstrated that non-functionalized soft alginate hydrogel supported axonal outgrowth and protected neurons against oxidative stress in vitro. Here, we investigated the effects of such soft alginate hydrogels on locomotor recovery in small and large spinal cord lesions...
December 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229841/predicting-glycosaminoglycan-surface-protein-interactions-and-implications-for-studying-axonal-growth
#10
Adam R Griffith, Claude J Rogers, Gregory M Miller, Ravinder Abrol, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson, William A Goddard
Cell-surface carbohydrates play important roles in numerous biological processes through their interactions with various protein-binding partners. These interactions are made possible by the vast structural diversity of carbohydrates and the diverse array of carbohydrate presentations on the cell surface. Among the most complex and important carbohydrates are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which display varied stereochemistry, chain lengths, and patterns of sulfation. GAG-protein interactions participate in neuronal development, angiogenesis, spinal cord injury, viral invasion, and immune response...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228020/transplantation-of-canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-producing-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-digestion-and-axonal-sprouting-following-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Darren Carwardine, Jonathan Prager, Jacob Neeves, Elizabeth M Muir, James Uney, Nicolas Granger, Liang-Fong Wong
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), as has been demonstrated in experimental SCI models and naturally occurring SCI in dogs. However, the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans within the extracellular matrix of the glial scar can inhibit efficient axonal repair and limit the therapeutic potential of OECs. Here we have used lentiviral vectors to genetically modify canine OECs to continuously deliver mammalian chondroitinase ABC at the lesion site in order to degrade the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in a rodent model of spinal cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225159/histopathology-of-periarticular-non-hereditary-heterotopic-ossification
#12
REVIEW
Kristin L Foley, Nader Hebela, Mary Ann Keenan, Robert J Pignolo
In the mature adult skeleton, new bone formation is normally restricted to regeneration of osseous tissue at sites of fracture. However, heterotopic ossification, or the formation of bone outside the normal skeleton, can occur within muscle, adipose, or fibrous connective tissue. Periarticular non-hereditary heterotopic ossification (NHHO) may occur after musculoskeletal trauma, following CNS injury, with certain arthropathies, or following injury or surgery that is often sustained in the context of age-related pathology...
December 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224279/-overexpression-of-trpv1-after-periphery-nerve-injury-attenuates-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#13
J Bai, Y Zhang, Y F Wang, J Lan, X Q Li
Objective: To observe the effect of the expressive or functional blockage of TRPV1 on nerve regeneration after sciatic trans-section injury. Methods: AMG-517, a kind of TRPV1 inhibitor, was injected into the surrounding area of the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia while unilateral sciatic nerve was transected. A total of 24 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, injury only group, injury+ AMG-517 150 μg/kg group, injury+ AMG-517 300 μg/kg group. The injury only group was injected the same volume of medium...
December 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223322/systemic-administration-of-epothilone-d-improves-functional-recovery-of-walking-after-rat-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#14
Jörg Ruschel, Frank Bradke
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries cause permanent impairments of sensorimotor functions as mature neurons fail to regenerate their severed axons. The poor intrinsic growth capacity of adult CNS neurons and the formation of an inhibitory lesion scar are key impediments to axon regeneration. Systemic administration of the microtubule stabilizing agent epothilone B promotes axon regeneration and recovery of motor function by activating the intrinsic axonal growth machinery and by reducing the inhibitory fibrotic lesion scar...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218002/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-organism-for-the-study-of-spinal-cord-formation-development-function-and-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Laura N Borodinsky
The spinal cord is the first central nervous system structure to develop during vertebrate embryogenesis, underscoring its importance to the organism. Because of its early formation, accessibility to the developing spinal cord in amniotes is challenging, often invasive and the experimental approaches amenable to model systems like mammals are limited. In contrast, amphibians, in general and the African-clawed frog Xenopus laevis, in particular, offer model systems in which the formation of the spinal cord, the differentiation of spinal neurons and glia and the establishment of spinal neuron and neuromuscular synapses can be easily investigated with minimal perturbations to the whole organism...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216010/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-role-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Albert M Chung
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has an important anti-inflammatory role in the immune system. Research has shown that CGRP is an integral part in peripheral nerve regeneration by (1) suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α, (2) forming an initial nerve bridge by increasing fibroblast motility and extracellular matrix synthesis, (3) vascularizing the spinal cord injury site, and (4) inducing Schwann cell (SC) proliferation. In this treatise, the following hypotheses will be explored: (1) CGRP is induced by c-Jun to regulate SC dedifferentiation, (2) CGRP promotes the chemotaxic migration of SCs along the nerve bridge, and (3) CGRP induces myelinophagy by activating various signaling pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase...
December 7, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205090/rapamycin-exacerbates-cardiovascular-dysfunction-after-complete-high-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Khalid C Eldahan, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal level that is characterized by episodic hypertension in response to noxious stimuli below the lesion. Maladaptive intraspinal plasticity is thought to contribute to the temporal development of AD, and experimental approaches that reduce such plasticity mitigate the severity of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has gained interest as a mediator of plasticity, regeneration and nociceptor hypersensitivity in the injured spinal cord...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204466/restoration-of-anatomical-continuity-after-spinal-cord-transection-depends-on-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-larval-zebrafish
#18
Daniel Wehner, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker
This data article contains descriptive and experimental data on spinal cord regeneration in larval zebrafish and its dependence on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Analyzing spread of intraspinally injected fluorescent dextran showed that anatomical continuity is rapidly restored after complete spinal cord transection. Pharmacological interference with Wnt/β-catenin signaling (IWR-1) impaired restoration of spinal continuity. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the research article by Wehner et al...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201191/extended-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-on-the-effect-of-classically-activated-microglia-transplantation-on-white-matter-regeneration-following-spinal-cord-focal-injury-in-adult-rats
#19
Wiesław Marcol, Wojciech Ślusarczyk, Magdalena Larysz-Brysz, Krzysztof Łabuzek, Bartosz Kapustka, Rafał Staszkiewicz, Paulina Rosicka, Katarzyna Kalita, Władysław Węglarz, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
Spinal cord injuries are still a serious problem for regenerative medicine. Previous research has demonstrated that activated microglia accumulate in spinal lesions, influencing the injured tissues in various ways. Therefore, transplantation of activated microglia may have a beneficial role in the regeneration of the nervous system. The present study examined the influence of transplanted activated microglial cells in adult rats with injured spinal cords. Rats were randomly divided into an experimental (M) and control (C) group, and were subjected to non-laminectomy focal injury of spinal cord white matter by means of a high-pressured air stream...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187247/improvement-of-renal-function-after-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-treatment-on-chronic-renal-failure-and-thoracic-spinal-cord-entrapment-a-case-report
#20
Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim, Ifran Saleh, Tri Kurniawati, Andi Praja Wira Yudha Lutfi
BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure is an important clinical problem with significant socioeconomic impact worldwide. Thoracic spinal cord entrapment induced by a metabolic yield deposit in patients with renal failure results in intrusion of nervous tissue and consequently loss of motor and sensory function. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells are immune naïve and they are able to differentiate into other phenotypes, including the neural lineage. Over the past decade, advances in the field of regenerative medicine allowed development of cell therapies suitable for kidney repair...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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