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spinal cord regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535416/the-role-of-timing-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
Regeneration failure after primary spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to diverse clinical complications in a severity- and level of SCI-dependent manner. The cost of treating both of them (initial regeneration failure and following complications) would be prohibitive, particularly in less developed nations. The well-recognized circumstances arose from primary SCI include excitotoxicity and inflammation. SCI increases concentrations of extracellular amino acids (EAAs) in the severity-dependent manner and the maximum level of EAAs at the injury site will be reduced by distance from the injury site...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529158/evaluation-of-direct-and-cell-mediated-triple-gene-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#2
Rustem Robertovich Islamov, Andrey Alexandrovich Izmailov, Mikhail Evgenyevich Sokolov, Philip Olegovich Fadeev, Farid Vagizovich Bashirov, Anton Alexandrovich Eremeev, Gulnara Ferdinantovna Shaymardanova, Maxim Michaylovich Shmarov, Boris Savelyevich Naroditskiy, Yuri Alexandrovich Chelyshev, Igor Aleksandrovich Lavrov, András Palotás
Current treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI) are scarce. One of the most promising innovative approaches include gene-therapy, however no single gene has so far been shown to be of clinical relevance. This study investigates the efficacy of various combinations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG) and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in rats. Multiple therapeutic genes were administered intrathecally either via adenoviral vectors or by using genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBMCs)...
May 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527111/human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-linear-ordered-collagen-scaffold-improves-functional-recovery-after-completely-transected-spinal-cord-injury-in-canine
#3
Sufang Han, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Huan Zhao, Bin Wang, Zhixue Qiu, Zhi Li, Xin Mei, Bai Xu, Caixia Fan, Bing Chen, Jin Han, Yanzheng Gu, Huilin Yang, Qin Shi, Jianwu Dai
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major challenge in the clinic. In this study, we sought to examine the synergistic effects of linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) and human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) when transplanted into completely transected beagle dogs. After 36 weeks observation, we found that LOCS+hPMSCs implants promoted better hindlimb locomotor recovery than was observed in the non-treatment (control) group and LOCS group. Histological analysis showed that the regenerated tissue after treatment was well integrated with the host tissue, and dramatically reduced the volume of cystic and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) expression...
May 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522294/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-spinal-cord-regeneration-of-adult-zebrafish
#4
Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Hou-De Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Li Yao, Yan-Qin Shen
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#5
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518122/dorsal-root-ganglion-injection-and-dorsal-root-crush-injury-as-a-model-for-sensory-axon-regeneration
#6
Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett, Melissa R Andrews
Achieving axon regeneration after nervous system injury is a challenging task. As different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) differ from each other anatomically, it is important to identify an appropriate model to use for the study of axon regeneration. By using a suitable model, we can formulate a specific treatment based on the severity of injury, the neuronal cell type of interest, and the desired spinal tract for assessing regeneration. Within the sensory pathway, DRG neurons are responsible for relaying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514764/trim32-affects-the-recovery-of-motor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury-through-regulating-proliferation-of-glia
#7
Qiang Fu, Ming-Ming Zou, Jian-Wei Zhu, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jin Chen, Mei Cheng, Chun-Feng Liu, Quan-Hong Ma, Ru-Xiang Xu
Both the extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic neuronal mechanisms limit the axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we identify tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is barely detected in glial cells in the normal uninjured spinal cord, exhibits strong expression in both astrocytes and microglia following SCI. We further observe that deficiency of TRIM32 results in increased numbers of astrocytes and microglia, which is accompanied by enhanced proliferation of both cells and increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-10...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511287/generation-and-characterization-of-highly-purified-canine-schwann-cells-from-spinal-nerve-dorsal-roots-as-potential-new-candidates-for-transplantation-strategies
#8
Nicole Steffensen, Annika Lehmbecker, Ingo Gerhauser, Yimin Wang, Regina Carlson, Andrea Tipold, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Veronika M Stein
Schwann cells (SCs) are promising candidates for transplantation-strategies in the central nervous system by promoting axonal regeneration. The dog represents a translational model for human spinal cord injury (SCI) for studies with new repair strategies after intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH). To overcome the necessity for an additional surgical procedure, for the first time a protocol for isolation, and purification of canine SCs from spinal-nerve-biopsies during standard hemilaminectomy in IVDH affected paraplegic dogs for potential transplantation was developed...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510778/michael-g-fehlings-norbert-weidner-guest-eds-luiz-r-g-vialle-series-ed-aospine-masters-series-vol-7-spinal-cord-injury-and-regeneration-thieme-new-york-stuttgart-2016-hardback-225%C3%A2-pp-50-illustrations-isbn-9781626232273-eisbn-9781626232280-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-109-99-us-%C3%A2-119
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502615/reduce-reuse-recycle-developmental-signals-in-spinal-cord-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Marcos Julian Cardozo, Karolina S Mysiak, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker
Anamniotes, fishes and amphibians, have the capacity to regenerate spinal cord tissue after injury, generating new neurons that mature and integrate into the spinal circuitry. Elucidating the molecular signals that promote this regeneration is a fundamental question in regeneration research. Model systems, such as salamanders and larval and adult zebrafish are used to analyse successful regeneration. This shows that many developmental signals, such as Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Wnt, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Retinoic Acid (RA) and neurotransmitters are redeployed during regeneration and activate resident spinal progenitor cells...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501777/mir-140-bdnf-axis-regulates-normal-human-astrocyte-proliferation-and-lps-induced-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-secretion
#11
Zhiming Tu, Yawei Li, Yuliang Dai, Lei Li, Guohua Lv, Ivan Chen, Bing Wang
Reactive astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying astrocyte proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as a major class of post-transcriptional gene expression regulators that participate in many biological processes. In this study, we focused on the functional role of miR-140 in normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell proliferation. Ectopic miR-140 expression significantly inhibited NHA cell viability and proliferation; miR-140 inhibition exerted the opposite function...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485802/nogo-a-antibody-treatment-enhances-neuron-recovery-after-sciatic-nerve-transection-in-rats
#12
Z-W Zhang, J-J Jiang, M-C Luan, Z-J Ma, F Gao, S-J Yu
OBJECTIVE: The use of an antibody to block the neurite outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A has been of great interest for promoting axonal recovery as a treatment for peripheral nerve injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the signaling pathway of p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) and Nogo receptor (NgR) in a sciatic nerve transection (SNT) rat model and evaluate the underlining mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=25), namely the sham group, sciatic nerve transection (model) group and Nogo-A-pAb group...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484372/potential-involvement-of-snail-members-in-neuronal-survival-and-astrocytic-migration-during-the-gecko-spinal-cord-regeneration
#13
Tingting Shen, Yingjie Wang, Qing Zhang, Xue Bai, Sumei Wei, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Ying Yuan, Yan Liu, Mei Liu, Xiaosong Gu, Yongjun Wang
Certain regenerative vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles are capable of regenerating spinal cord after injury. Most neurons of spinal cord will survive from the injury and regrow axons to repair circuits with an absence of glial scar formation. However, the underlying mechanisms of neuronal anti-apoptosis and glia-related responses have not been fully clarified during the regenerative process. Gecko has becoming an inspiring model to address spinal cord regeneration in amniotes. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of Snail family members, the important transcriptional factors involved in both triggering of the cell migration and cell survival, during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482124/collagen-scaffold-combined-with-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-functional-recovery-after-scar-resection-in-rats-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Nuo Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Bin Wang, Xing Li, Jing Li, Jianwu Dai
Effective therapeutic strategies for treating chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are currently unavailable. Scar tissue in the lesion area is a main inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration and repair of chronic SCI. In this study, scar tissue was surgically resected from adult rats with 12-week chronic SCI, and then collagen scaffold (named NeuroRegen Scaffold [NRS]) and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) were implanted into the resected cavity to repair chronic SCI. The results demonstrated that the locomotor function of rats was not affected by surgical scar resection, indicating its safety in treating chronic SCI...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474579/effects-of-swimming-exercise-on-nerve-regeneration-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-transection-model
#15
Chien-Fu Liao, Tse-Yen Yang, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Chun-Hsu Yao, Tzong-Der Way, Yueh-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Swimming is commonly considered to be an efficient rehabilitation exercise to treat peripheral nerve injury. However, the most effective resistance level and exercise duration is still unclear. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of swimming at various exertion levels in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. METHODS: Sciatic nerve transection rats were randomized into the following four groups based on swimming duration (from the 7th day to the 28th day post-surgery): sedentary control group (SC), S10 group (10 min/3 times/week), S20 group (20 min/3 times/week), and S30 group (30 min/3 times/week) (n = 10 each)...
March 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469665/mechanisms-responsible-for-the-inhibitory-effects-of-epothilone-b-on-scar-formation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Wei Zhao, Yong Chai, Yun Hou, Da-Wei Wang, Jian-Qiang Xing, Cheng Yang, Qing-Min Fang
Scar formation after spinal cord injury is regarded as an obstacle to axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Epothilone B provides moderate microtubule stabilization and is mainly used for anti-tumor therapy. It also reduces scar tissue formation and promotes axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of the microtubule-stabilizing reagent epothilone B in decreasing fibrotic scarring through its action on pericytes after spinal cord injury...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469003/regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-lamrpey
#17
Jessica A Benes, Kylie N House, Frank N Burks, Kris P Conaway, Donald P Julien, Jeffrey P Donley, Michael A Iyamu, Andrew D McClellan
Following rostral spinal cord injury (SCI) in larval lampreys, injured descending brain neurons, particularly reticulospinal (RS) neurons, regenerate their axons, and locomotor behavior recovers in a few weeks. However, axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons is mostly limited to relatively short distances, but the mechanisms for incomplete axonal regeneration are unclear. First, lampreys with rostral SCI exhibited greater axonal regeneration of descending brain neurons, including RS neurons, as well as more rapid recovery of locomotor muscle activity right below the lesion site compared to animals with caudal SCI...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462801/platelet-rich-plasma-effective-treatment-for-repairing-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#18
Reza Salarinia, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Daryoush Hamidi Alamdari, Seyed Javad Hoseini, Asghar Mafinezhad, Mahmoud Hoseini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PRP on the repair of spinal cord injury in rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into three groups with six rats in each group. Then, spinal cord injury was performed under general anesthesia using "weight dropping" method. Control group included rats receiving normal saline, group two received PRP 1 week after injury; group three received PRP 24 h after injury. The motor function was assessed weekly using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale...
April 24, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458693/the-use-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-for-the-regeneration-of-musculoskeletal-and-neural-tissues
#19
REVIEW
Naosuke Kamei, Kivanc Atesok, Mitsuo Ochi
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow and blood can differentiate into endothelial cells and promote neovascularization. In addition, EPCs are a promising cell source for the repair of various types of vascularized tissues and have been used in animal experiments and clinical trials for tissue repair. In this review, we focused on the kinetics of endogenous EPCs during tissue repair and the application of EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs for tissue regeneration in musculoskeletal and neural tissues including the bone, skeletal muscle, ligaments, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452633/post-spinal-cord-injury-astrocyte-mediated-functional-recovery-in-rats-after-intraspinal-injection-of-the-recombinant-adenoviral-vectors-ad5-vegf-and-ad5-ang
#20
Tatyana Povysheva, Maksim Shmarov, Denis Logunov, Boris Naroditsky, Ilya Shulman, Sergey Ogurcov, Pavel Kolesnikov, Rustem Islamov, Yuri Chelyshev
OBJECTIVE The most actively explored therapeutic strategy for overcoming spinal cord injury (SCI) is the delivery of genes encoding molecules that stimulate regeneration. In a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in preliminary clinical trials in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the combined administration of recombinant adenoviral vectors (Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG) encoding the neurotrophic/angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) and angiogenin ( ANG) was found to slow the development of neurological deficits...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
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