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spinal cord regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350947/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-repair-and-regeneration
#1
Christopher S Ahuja, Satoshi Nori, Lindsay Tetreault, Jefferson Wilson, Brian Kwon, James Harrop, David Choi, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI) have devastating consequences for the physical, financial, and psychosocial well-being of patients and their caregivers. Expediently delivering interventions during the early postinjury period can have a tremendous impact on long-term functional recovery. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: This is largely due to the unique pathophysiology of SCI where the initial traumatic insult (primary injury) is followed by a progressive secondary injury cascade characterized by ischemia, proapoptotic signaling, and peripheral inflammatory cell infiltration...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343075/an-update-on-application-of-nanotechnology-and-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Kazem Nejati-Koshki, Yousef Mortazavi, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Sumit Sheoran, Nosratollah Zarghami
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that leads to sudden loss of motor and autonomic function and sensory under the level of the injury. The pathophysiological advancement of SCI is divided into two categories: primary injury and secondary injury. Due to the loss of motor, sensory, or cognitive function, a patient's quality of life is likely reduced and places a great burden on society in order to supply health care costs. Therefore, it is important to develop suitable therapeutic strategies for SCI therapy...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337957/transplantation-of-cultured-olfactory-bulb-cells-prevents-abnormal-sensory-responses-during-recovery-from-dorsal-root-avulsion-in-the-rat
#3
Andrew Collins, Daqing Li, Stephen B McMahon, Geoffrey Raisman, Ying Li
The central branches of the C7 and C8 dorsal roots were avulsed close to their entry point into the spinal cord in adult rats. The forepaw responses to heat and cold stimuli were tested at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after injury. Over this period the paws were sensitive to both stimuli at 1-2 weeks and returned towards normal at 3 weeks. Immunohistology showed no evidence of axonal regeneration into the spinal cord in a control group of rats with avulsion only, implying that adjacent dorsal roots and their corresponding dermatomes were involved in the recovery...
March 23, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334068/the-dyslexia-susceptibility-protein-kiaa0319-inhibits-axon-growth-through-smad2-signaling
#4
Filipa Franquinho, Joana Nogueira-Rodrigues, Joana M Duarte, Sofia S Esteves, Christin Carter-Su, Anthony P Monaco, Zoltán Molnár, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Pedro Brites, Mónica M Sousa
KIAA0319 is a transmembrane protein associated with dyslexia with a presumed role in neuronal migration. Here we show that KIAA0319 expression is not restricted to the brain but also occurs in sensory and spinal cord neurons, increasing from early postnatal stages to adulthood and being downregulated by injury. This suggested that KIAA0319 participates in functions unrelated to neuronal migration. Supporting this hypothesis, overexpression of KIAA0319 repressed axon growth in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglia neurons; the intracellular domain of KIAA0319 was sufficient to elicit this effect...
February 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331065/urothelial-proliferation-and-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
F Aura Kullmann, Dennis R Clayton, Wily G Ruiz, Amanda Wolf-Johnson, Christian Gauthier, Anthony J Kanai, Lori A Birder, Gerard Apodaca
The basal, intermediate, and superficial cell layers of the urothelium undergo rapid and complete recovery following acute injury; however, the effects of chronic injury on urothelial regeneration have not been well defined. To address this discrepancy, we employed a mouse model to explore urothelial changes in response to spinal cord injury (SCI), a condition characterized by life-long bladder dysfunction. One-day post SCI there was a focal loss of umbrella cells, which are large cells that populate the superficial cell layer and normally express uroplakins (UPKs) and KRT20, but not KRT5, KRT14, or TP63...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326790/nerve-cells-decide-to-orient-inside-an-injectable-hydrogel-with-minimal-structural-guidance
#6
Jonas C Rose, María Cámara-Torres, Khosrow Rahimi, Jens Köhler, Martin Möller, Laura De Laporte
Injectable biomaterials provide the advantage of a minimally invasive application but mostly lack the required structural complexity to regenerate aligned tissues. Here, we report a new class of tissue regenerative materials that can be injected and form an anisotropic matrix with controlled dimensions using rod-shaped, magnetoceptive microgel objects. Microgels are doped with small quantities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (0.0046 vol %), allowing alignment by external magnetic fields in the millitesla order...
March 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324618/thermogelling-chitosan-lactate-hydrogel-improves-functional-recovery-after-a-c2-spinal-cord-hemisection-in-rat
#7
Katarzyna Nawrotek, Tanguy Marqueste, Zofia Modrzejewska, Roman Zarzycki, Agnieszka Rusak, Patrick Decherchi
The present study was designed to provide an appropriate micro-environment for regenerating axotomized neurons and proliferating/migrating cells. Because of its intrinsic permissive properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability, we chose to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a chitosan-based biopolymer. The biomaterial toxicity was measured through in vitro test based on fibroblast cell survival on thermogelling chitosan lactate hydrogel substrate and then polymer was implanted into a C2 hemisection of the rat spinal cord...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317912/the-soft-mechanical-signature-of-glial-scars-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Emad Moeendarbary, Isabell P Weber, Graham K Sheridan, David E Koser, Sara Soleman, Barbara Haenzi, Elizabeth J Bradbury, James Fawcett, Kristian Franze
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) alters the molecular and cellular composition of neural tissue and leads to glial scarring, which inhibits the regrowth of damaged axons. Mammalian glial scars supposedly form a chemical and mechanical barrier to neuronal regeneration. While tremendous effort has been devoted to identifying molecular characteristics of the scar, very little is known about its mechanical properties. Here we characterize spatiotemporal changes of the elastic stiffness of the injured rat neocortex and spinal cord at 1...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316922/miracle-cells-for-natural-dentistry-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Rani Somani, Shipra Jaidka, Neeti Bajaj, Sameksha Arora
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Recently, enormous growth has been seen in the recognition of stem cell-based therapies, which have the potential to ameliorate the life of patients with conditions that span from Parkinson's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. This research has produced new but unexplored possibilities in the regeneration of different organs and tissues. Presently, research is focused on the proficiency of stem cells and their utilization in dentistry, which is gaining interest...
January 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316792/jak-stat-pathway-activation-in-response-to-spinal-cord-injury-in-regenerative-and-non-regenerative-stages-of-xenopus-laevis
#10
Victor S Tapia, Mauricio Herrera-Rojas, Juan Larrain
Xenopus laevis tadpoles can regenerate the spinal cord after injury but this capability is lost during metamorphosis. Comparative studies between pre-metamorphic and metamorphic Xenopus stages can aid towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration. Analysis of a previous transcriptome-wide study suggests that, in response to injury, the JAK-STAT pathway is differentially activated in regenerative and non-regenerative stages. We characterized the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway and found that regenerative tadpoles have an early and transient activation...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298306/il-1%C3%AE-induces-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-upregulates-microrna-372-to-inhibit-spinal-cord-injury-recovery
#11
Wei Zhou, Tongzhou Yuan, Youshui Gao, Peipei Yin, Wei Liu, Chenhao Pan, Yingjie Liu, Xiaowei Yu
Excessive inflammation including IL-1β-initiated signaling is among the earlies reactions that can cause neuronal damage following spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been suggested that microRNAs may participate in stem cell repair to facilitate functional recovery after SCI. Here we showed that in cultured human neural stem cells (hNSC) IL-1β reduced the expressions of both KIF3B (kinesin family member 3B) and NOSIP (nitric oxide synthase interacting protein), two key modulators for restricting inflammation and promoting neuronal regeneration...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297672/identification-of-intrinsic-axon-growth-modulators-for-intact-cns-neurons-after-injury
#12
Kathren L Fink, Francesc López-Giráldez, In-Jung Kim, Stephen M Strittmatter, William B J Cafferty
Functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI) because axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to regenerate. However, modest levels of spontaneous functional recovery are typically observed after trauma and are thought to be mediated by the plasticity of intact circuitry. The mechanisms underlying intact circuit plasticity are not delineated. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptome of sprouting intact neurons from Ngr1 null mice after partial SCI. We identify the lysophosphatidic acid signaling modulators LPPR1 and LPAR1 as intrinsic axon growth modulators for intact corticospinal motor neurons after adjacent injury...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296347/gdnf-schwann-cells-in-hydrogel-scaffolds-promote-regional-axon-regeneration-remyelination-and-functional-improvement-after-spinal-cord-transection-in-rats
#13
Bingkun K Chen, Nicolas N Madigan, Jeffrey S Hakim, Mahrokh Dadsetan, Siobhan S McMahon, Michael J Yaszemski, Anthony J Windebank
Positively-charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF(+) ) is a biodegradable hydrogel used for spinal cord injury repair. We compared scaffolds containing primary Schwann cells (SCs) to scaffolds delivering SCs genetically modified to secrete high concentrations of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Multichannel OPF(+) scaffolds loaded with SCs or GDNF-SCs were implanted into transected rat spinal cords for 4 weeks. GDNF-SCs promoted regeneration of more axons into OPF(+) scaffolds (2773...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280337/nerve-growth-factor-delivery-by-ultrasound-mediated-nanobubble-destruction-as-a-treatment-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#14
Zhaojun Song, Zhigang Wang, Jieliang Shen, Shengxi Xu, Zhenming Hu
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can cause severe disability or death. Treatment options include surgical intervention, drug therapy, and stem cell transplantation. However, the efficacy of these methods for functional recovery remains unsatisfactory. PURPOSE: This study was conducted to explore the effect of ultrasound (US)-mediated destruction of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanobubbles (NBs) expressing nerve growth factor (NGF) (NGF/PLGA NBs) on nerve regeneration in rats following SCI...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273811/targeting-neurotrophins-to-specific-populations-of-neurons-ngf-bdnf-and-nt-3-and-their-relevance-for-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Kathleen M Keefe, Imran S Sheikh, George M Smith
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that regulate neuronal survival, synaptic function, and neurotransmitter release, and elicit the plasticity and growth of axons within the adult central and peripheral nervous system. Since the 1950s, these factors have been extensively studied in traumatic injury models. Here we review several members of the classical family of neurotrophins, the receptors they bind to, and their contribution to axonal regeneration and sprouting of sensory and motor pathways after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270793/expression-of-semaphorins-neuropilins-vegf-and-tenascins-in-rat-and-human-primary-sensory-neurons-after-a-dorsal-root-injury
#16
Tomas Lindholm, Mårten Risling, Thomas Carlstedt, Henrik Hammarberg, Wilhelm Wallquist, Staffan Cullheim, Mattias K Sköld
Dorsal root injury is a situation not expected to be followed by a strong regenerative growth, or growth of the injured axon into the central nervous system of the spinal cord, if the central axon of the dorsal root is injured but of strong regeneration if subjected to injury to the peripherally projecting axons. The clinical consequence of axonal injury is loss of sensation and may also lead to neuropathic pain. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution of mRNAs for the neural guidance molecules semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F), and semaphorin 4F (SEMA4F), their receptors neuropilin 1 (NP1) and neuropilin 2 (NP2) but also for the neuropilin ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Tenascin J1, an extracellular matrix molecule involved in axonal guidance, in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after a unilateral dorsal rhizotomy (DRT) or sciatic nerve transcetion (SNT)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264437/transplantation-of-embryonic-spinal-cord-derived-cells-helps-to-prevent-muscle-atrophy-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#17
Carolin Ruven, Wen Li, Heng Li, Wai-Man Wong, Wutian Wu
Injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent in serious traumas and spinal cord injuries. In addition to surgical approaches, other interventions, such as cell transplantation, should be considered to keep the muscles in good condition until the axons regenerate. In this study, E14.5 rat embryonic spinal cord fetal cells and cultured neural progenitor cells from different spinal cord segments were injected into transected musculocutaneous nerve of 200-300 g female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and atrophy in biceps brachii was assessed...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262732/transplantation-of-huc-mscs-seeded-collagen-scaffolds-reduces-scar-formation-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-canines-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Xing Li, Jun Tan, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Sufang Han, Dingyang Liu, Wen Yin, Jing Li, Juan Li, Siyi Wanggou, Bing Chen, Caiping Ren, Xingjun Jiang, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to locomotor deficits, and the repair of chronic SCI is considered one of the most challenging clinical problems. Although extensive studies have evaluated treatments for acute SCI in small animals, comparatively fewer studies have been conducted on large-animal SCI in the chronic phase, which is more clinically relevant. Here, we used a collagen-based biomaterial, named the NeuroRegen scaffold, loaded with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in a canine chronic SCI model...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261421/spinal-cord-injury-and-related-clinical-trials
#19
REVIEW
Young-Hoon Kim, Kee-Yong Ha, Sang-Il Kim
Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been considered an incurable condition and it often causes devastating sequelae. In terms of the pathophysiology of SCI, reducing secondary damage is the key to its treatment. Various researches and clinical trials have been performed, and some of them showed promising results; however, there is still no gold standard treatment with sufficient evidence. Two therapeutic concepts for SCI are neuroprotective and neuroregenerative strategies. The neuroprotective strategy modulates the pathomechanism of SCI...
March 2017: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261102/genetic-and-pharmacological-inhibition-of-p38%C3%AE-improves-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Hiroki Umezawa, Yusuke Naito, Kensuke Tanaka, Kento Yoshioka, Kenichi Suzuki, Tatsuhiko Sudo, Masahiko Hagihara, Masahiko Hatano, Koichiro Tatsumi, Yoshitoshi Kasuya
One of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38α plays a crucial role in various inflammatory diseases and apoptosis of various types of cells. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological roles of p38α in spinal cord injury (SCI), using a mouse model. Lateral hemisection at T9 of the SC was performed in wild type (WT) and p38α(+/-) mice (p38α(-/-) showed embryonic lethality). p38α(+/-) mice showed a better functional recovery from SCI-associated paralyzed hindlimbs compared to WT mice at 7 days post-injury (dpi), which remained until 28 dpi (an end time point of monitoring the behavior)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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