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spinal cord regeneration

D A Sandercock, A Monteiro, E M Scott, A M Nolan
Background/aims Tail docking neonatal piglets remains a controversial animal welfare issue. Although banned in the UK, it is widely practiced in many countries as a safeguard against tail biting among pigs reared in intensive systems. Concerns exist whether tail docking can induce chronic pain in later life. This preliminary study examined the effects of partial tail amputation on activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a marker of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration and NMDA-glutamate receptor NR2B subunit which participates in the mediation of chronic pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Xi Chen, Yongheng Fan, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Bin Yang, Yannan Zhao, Xianglin Hou, Sufang Han, Jianwu Dai
Objective: To evaluate the effect of the combination of collagen scaffold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the repair of transected spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (sham operation group), T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord was only exposed; group B, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected; group C, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) with corresponding length was transplanted into lesion site; group D, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and LOCS with collagen binding domain (CBD)-BDNF was transplanted into lesion site...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Jiayin Li, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI), especially the complete SCI, usually results in complete paralysis below the level of the injury and seriously affects the patient's quality of life. SCI repair is still a worldwide medical problem. In the last twenty years, Professor DAI Jianwu and his team pioneered complete SCI model by removing spinal tissue with varied lengths in rodents, canine, and non-human primates to verify therapeutic effect of different repair strategies. Moreover, they also started the first clinical study of functional collagen scaffold on patients with acute complete SCI on January 16th, 2015...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Melissa J Walker, Xiao-Ming Xu
Following an initial mechanical insult, traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a secondary wave of injury, resulting in a toxic lesion environment inhibitory to axonal regeneration. This review focuses on the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its application, in combination with other factors and cell transplantations, for repairing the injured spinal cord. As studies of recent decades strongly suggest that combinational treatment approaches hold the greatest therapeutic potential for the central nervous system (CNS) trauma, future directions of combinational therapies will also be discussed...
June 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
Natasha Irrera, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Federica Mannino, Giovanna Vermiglio, Giovanni Pallio, Letteria Minutoli, Gianluca Bagnato, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Emanuela Mazzon, Placido Bramanti, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex clinical and progressive condition characterized by neuronal loss, axonal destruction and demyelination. In the last few years, adenosine receptors have been studied as a target for many diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist, PDRN, in an experimental model of SCI. Moreover, since adenosine receptors stimulation may also activate the Wnt pathway, we wanted to study PDRN effects on Wnt signaling following SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yuval Shapira, Vanessa Sammons, Joanne Forden, Gui Fang Guo, Alexander Kipp, Jill Girgulis, Tanmay Mishra, Jacob Daniel de Villers Alant, Rajiv Midha
BACKGROUND: Brief electrical stimulation (ES) therapy to the nerve may improve outcome in lacerated, repaired nerves. However, most human nerve injuries leave the nerve in continuity with variable and often poor functional recovery from incomplete axon regeneration and reinnervation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of brief ES in an experimental model for neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) injuries in rodents. METHODS: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: NIC injury immediately followed by brief (1 h) ES; NIC injury without ES; sham-operated controls; sciatic nerve transection without repair...
June 11, 2018: Neurosurgery
Lorenzo Alibardi
The formation of the regenerating tail blastema of lizards occurs by the multiplication of stem cells but also some dedifferentiation from adult cells may take place after tail loss by autotomy, as it is suggested in the present study. Using 5BrdU-immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy it is shown that part of the damaged tissues undergo progressive cytological de-differentiation (cell reprogramming). This occurs for muscle, fibrocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and cells derived from the spinal cord during the initial 3-8 days post-autotomy of the tail in the wall lizard Podarcis muralis...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Katherine Brown
Elly Tanaka is a senior scientist at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology in Vienna, Austria. Her lab's research uses the axolotl - which possesses impressive regenerative capacity - to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying limb and spinal cord regeneration. We met Elly in her office in Vienna on the occasion of the recent SY-Stem symposium (see Meeting Review by Porrello and Kirkeby in this issue) to talk about what drew her to regeneration research and the axolotl, the challenges of working in this field, and how she and her colleagues at the Vienna BioCenter are trying to support the new generation of stem cell researchers...
June 8, 2018: Development
Wenzhao Wang, Shi Tang, Hongfei Li, Ronghan Liu, Yanlin Su, Lin Shen, Mingjie Sun, Bin Ning
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent disability to at least 180,000 people per year worldwide. Early regulation of spinal fibroblast proliferation may inhibit fibrotic scar formation, allowing the creation of a favorable environment for neuronal regeneration and thereby enhancing recovery from traumatic SCIs. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of microRNA-21-5p (miR-21a-5p) in regulating spinal fibroblasts after mechanical trauma and to investigate the dysregulation of miR-21a-5p in the pathological process of spinal SCI...
June 5, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Andrew N Stewart, Griffin Kendziorski, Zachary M Deak, Nathanial C Bartosek, Brooke E Rezmer, Kenneth Jenrow, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Transplanting stem cells engineered to overexpress trophic factors can improve motor abilities and facilitate axon regeneration following spinal cord injury. This study compared several transplantation paradigms using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress the multi-neurotrophin, NT-3/D15A (NT-3-MSCs), to determine if different grafting strategies can elicit improved axon regeneration and/or behavioral outcomes following a complete T9 spinal transection. At one week post-transection, NT-3-MSCs were transplanted above, and at several locations below, the lesion site...
June 5, 2018: Brain Research
Daria Guseva, Igor Jakovcevski, Andrey Irintchev, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Melitta Schachner
The close homolog of L1 (CHL1) is a cell adhesion molecule involved in regulation of neuronal differentiation and survival, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance during development. In the mature nervous system, CHL1 regulates synaptic activity and plasticity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of CHL1 on peripheral nerve regeneration after trauma. Using the established model of mouse femoral nerve regeneration, CHL1 knock-out mice were investigated in comparison to the wild type littermates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sahba Mobini, Young Hye Song, Michaela W McCrary, Christine E Schmidt
The technologies related to ex vivo models and lab-on-a-chip devices for studying the regeneration of brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve tissues are essential tools for neural tissue engineering and regenerative medicine research. The need for ex vivo systems, lab-on-a-chip technologies and disease models for neural tissue engineering applications are emerging to overcome the shortages and drawbacks of traditional in vitro systems and animal models. Ex vivo models have evolved from traditional 2D cell culture models to 3D tissue-engineered scaffold systems, bioreactors, and recently organoid test beds...
May 11, 2018: Biomaterials
M Strub, L Keller, Y Idoux-Gillet, H Lesot, F Clauss, N Benkirane-Jessel, S Kuchler-Bopp
Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMDCs) into a denervated side of the spinal cord was reported to be a useful option for axonal regeneration. The innervation of teeth is essential for their function and protection but does not occur spontaneously after injury. Cultured reassociations between dissociated embryonic dental mesenchymal and epithelial cells and implantation lead to a vascularized tooth organ regeneration. However, when reassociations were coimplanted with a trigeminal ganglion (TG), innervation did not occur...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Xuan Yang, Shurui Chen, Zhenya Shao, Yuanlong Li, He Wu, Xian Li, Liang Mao, Zipeng Zhou, Liangjie Bai, Xifan Mei, Chang Liu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe neurological trauma that involves complex pathological processes. Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are prevalent during the second injury and can influence the functional recovery of SCI. Specially, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) induces neuronal repair and nerve regeneration, and the deficiency of Apoe impairs spinal cord-blood-barrier and reduces functional recovery after SCI. However, the mechanism by which Apoe mediates signaling pathways of inflammatory response and oxidative stress in SCI remains largely elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Zhuofeng Ding, Jiawei Cao, Yu Shen, Yu Zou, Xin Yang, Wen Zhou, Qulian Guo, Changsheng Huang
Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Arvid Frostell, Per Mattsson, Mikael Svensson
Background: In an effort to translate preclinical success in achieving spinal cord regeneration through peripheral nerve grafts, this study details the design and sizing of a guiding device for precision grafting of peripheral nerves for use in a clinical trial in complete (AIS-A) thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). The device's design and sizing are compared to a simulation of human spinal cord sizes based on the best available data. Methods: Spinal cord segmental sizes were generated by computer simulation based on data from a meta-analysis recently published by our group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Baoyou Fan, Zhijian Wei, Xue Yao, Guidong Shi, Xin Cheng, Xianhu Zhou, Hengxing Zhou, Guangzhi Ning, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
Spinal cord injury (SCI), for which there currently is no cure, is a heavy burden on patient physiology and psychology. The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is complicated. According to our previous work and the advancements in SCI research, 'microenvironment imbalance' is the main cause of the poor regeneration and recovery of SCI. Microenvironment imbalance is defined as an increase in inhibitory factors and decrease in promoting factors for tissues, cells and molecules at different times and spaces...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Amani A Alrehaili, Jae Young Lee, Maha M Bakhuraysah, Min Joung Kim, Pei-Mun Aui, Kylie A Magee, Steven Petratos
Myelin-associated inhibitory factors within the central nervous system (CNS) are considered to be one of the main obstacles for axonal regeneration following disease or injury. The nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) has been well documented to play a key role in limiting axonal regrowth in the injured and diseased mammalian CNS. However, the role of nogo receptor in immune cell activation during CNS inflammation is yet to be mechanistically elucidated. Microglia/macrophages are immune cells that are regarded as pathogenic contributors to inflammatory demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Yi-Fan Li, Tie Li, Da-Wei Zhang, Hui Xue, Dong Chen, Chen Li, Fu-Chun Wang
The present study aimed to evaluate the role of the combination treatment of methylprednisolone (MP) and electroacupuncture (EA) in regeneration of nerve fibers and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Female Wistar rats were used for an SCI model by using a weight-drop hammer at levels T10 (spinal cord segment corresponding to the 10th thoracic vertebra). Four groups received different treatments for the study: SCI control, MP, MP and EA, and Sham. The growth of nerve fibers was examined by counting fluorescein positive nerve fibers...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Pedro M D Moreno, Ana R Ferreira, Daniela Salvador, Maria T Rodrigues, Marília Torrado, Eva D Carvalho, Ulf Tedebark, Mónica M Sousa, Isabel F Amaral, Jesper Wengel, Ana P Pêgo
After spinal cord injury (SCI), nerve regeneration is severely hampered due to the establishment of a highly inhibitory microenvironment at the injury site, through the contribution of multiple factors. The potential of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to modify gene expression at different levels, allowing the regulation of cell survival and cell function, together with the availability of chemically modified nucleic acids with favorable biopharmaceutical properties, make AONs an attractive tool for novel SCI therapy developments...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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