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spinal cord regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922061/thermo-sensitive-hydrogels-combined-with-decellularised-matrix-deliver-bfgf-for-the-functional-recovery-of-rats-after-a-spinal-cord-injury
#1
He-Lin Xu, Fu-Rong Tian, Cui-Tao Lu, Jie Xu, Zi-Liang Fan, Jing-Jing Yang, Pian-Pian Chen, Ya-Dong Huang, Jian Xiao, Ying-Zheng Zhao
Because of the short half-life, either systemic or local administration of bFGF shows significant drawbacks to spinal injury. In this study, an acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASC) was encapsulated in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel to overcome these limitations. The ASC was firstly prepared from the spinal cord of healthy rats and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. bFGF could specifically complex with the ASC scaffold via electrostatic or receptor-mediated interactions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921243/comparison-of-rnai-ngr-and-nep1-40-in-acting-on-axonal-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#2
Jing Xu, Jian He, Huang He, Renjun Peng, Jian Xi
This study was intended to compare the therapeutic efficacies of NEP1-40 and SiNgR199 on treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Nogo-A, growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43), microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and amyloid βA4 precursor protein (APP) expressions were determined using western blot and quantitative PCR. Neurite outgrowth detected the growth of neurites, and BDA anterograde tracing was used to label the regenerated axonal. Rats' behavior was assessed with Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB)...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905041/new-xymedon-analogues-for-stimulation-of-posttraumatic-regeneration-of-the-spinal-cord-in-rats
#3
T V Povysheva, V E Semenov, I V Galyametdinova, V S Reznik, K S Knni, P E Kolesnikov, Yu A Chelyshev
Effect of systemic administration of synthetic pyrimidine derivatives, xymedon and compounds 29D and 34D, was studied in rats with experimental dosed contusion spinal cord injury. Xymedon promoted recovery of motor function after injury. Compounds 29D and 34D more effectively restored the parameters of open-field and Rotarod tests in comparison with xymedon. Compound 29D more effectively than xymedon maintained the number of Olig2(+) oligodendrocytes in the corticospinal tract and NG2 cells in all investigated areas of the white matter...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903258/catwalk-gait-analysis-in-a-rat-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Sabine Herold, Prateek Kumar, Klaus Jung, Irina Graf, Henrike Menkhoff, Xenia Schulz, Mathias Bähr, Katharina Hein
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis. The characteristic feature of the MOG-EAE model in Brown Norway rats is consistent involvement of the spinal cord resulting in limb paresis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether early subclinical gait abnormalities are present in this animal model and can be detected by CatWalk XT, a fully automated gait analysis system...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901476/the-change-of-hcn1-hcn2-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-nerve-after-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathy-followed-by-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-therapy
#6
Hui Liu, Jun Zhou, Lianbing Gu, Yunxia Zuo
Neuropathic pain is usually defined as a chronic pain state caused by peripheral or central nerve injury as a result of acute damage or systemic diseases. It remains a difficult disease to treat. Recent studies showed that the frequency of action potentials in nociceptive afferents is affected by the activity of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCN) family. In the current study, we used a neuropathy rat model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve to evaluate the change of expression of HCN1/HCN2 mRNA in peripheral nerve and spinal cord...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893610/slit2-robo1-promotes-synaptogenesis-and-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Yang Li, Yan Gao, Xueqin Xu, Ruoshi Shi, Juying Liu, Wanjun Yao, Changbin Ke
Neuronal network reconstruction is a pivotal determinant for functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), the process of which includes synaptogenesis. Slit2 protein has been identified as a key regulator of axon regeneration and synapse formation in the vertebrate. Meanwhile, RhoA is the converging cascade of inhibitory molecules that interrupt synaptic plasticity in SCI. In the present study, we investigated the interaction among Slit2, Robo1, and RhoA and the potential roles of Slit2 in the pathological process of SCI...
November 23, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890825/the-expression-of-chemorepulsive-guidance-receptors-and-the-regenerative-abilities-of-spinal-projecting-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Jie Chen, Cindy Laramore, Michael I Shifman
Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals leads to permanent loss of function because axons do not regenerate in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, treatments based on neutralizing inhibitory environmental cues, such as the myelin-associated growth inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, or on adding neurotrophic factors, have had limited success in enhancing regeneration. Published studies suggested that multiple axon guidance cues (repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, semaphorins, ephrins, and netrins) persist in adult animals, and that their expression is upregulated after CNS injury...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888137/the-role-of-rhoa-in-retrograde-neuronal-death-and-axon-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Jianli Hu, Guixin Zhang, William Rodemer, Li-Qing Jin, Michael Shifman, Michael E Selzer
Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to interruption of axons and their failure to regenerate. It has been suggested that the small GTPase RhoA may be an intracellular signaling convergence point for several types of growth-inhibiting extracellular molecules. Even if this is true in vitro, it is not clear from studies in mammalian SCI, whether the effects of RhoA manipulations on axon growth in vivo are due to a RhoA-mediated inhibition of true regeneration or only of collateral sprouting from spared axons, since work on SCI generally is performed with partial injury models...
November 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886883/restorative-treatments-for-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Stephanie Chen, Allan D Levi
Spinal cord injury remains an incurable disease with an enormous impact functionally, financially, and emotionally on affected individuals and their families. Current treatment modalities are focused on minimizing secondary injury and maximizing residual function via rehabilitation. In this article, the authors discuss ambitious advancements under investigation aimed at restoring function. These promising experimental treatments focus on neuroprotection with hypothermia and pharmacologic therapies, regeneration via cell transplantation, and rewiring with electrical stimulation...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885987/accelerated-cell-divisions-drive-the-outgrowth-of-the-regenerating-spinal-cord-in-axolotls
#12
Fabian Rost, Aida Rodrigo Albors, Vladimir Mazurov, Lutz Brusch, Andreas Deutsch, Elly M Tanaka, Osvaldo Chara
Axolotls are unique in their ability to regenerate the spinal cord. However, the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that regenerating stem cells in the axolotl spinal cord revert to a molecular state resembling embryonic neuroepithelial cells and functionally acquire rapid proliferative divisions (Rodrigo Albors et al., 2015). Here, we refine the analysis of cell proliferation in space and time and identify a high-proliferation zone in the regenerating spinal cord that shifts posteriorly over time...
November 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885959/bone-marrow-stromal-cell-sheets-may-promote-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-with-suppression-of-glial-scar-formation-after-spinal-cord-transection-injury-in-rats
#13
Akinori Okuda, Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Takamasa Shimizu, Hideki Shigematsu, Eiichiro Iwata, Yasuhiko Morimoto, Keisuke Masuda, Munehisa Koizumi, Manabu Akahane, Mayumi Nishi, Yasuhito Tanaka
OBJECTIVE Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a theoretical potential as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although a scaffold is sometimes used for retaining transplanted cells in damaged tissue, it is also known to induce redundant immunoreactions during the degradation processes. In this study, the authors prepared cell sheets made of BMSCs, which are transplantable without a scaffold, and investigated their effects on axonal regeneration, glial scar formation, and functional recovery in a completely transected SCI model in rats...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880068/human-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hhap-stem-cells-differentiate-to-cardiac-muscle-cells
#14
Natsuko Tohgi, Koya Obara, Masateru Yashiro, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that the nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area. HAP stem cells have been previously shown to differentiate to neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth-muscle cells, melanocytes and cardiac-muscle cells in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models, differentiating to Schwann cells and neurons. In previous studies, we established an efficient protocol for the differentiation of cardiac-muscle cells from mouse HAP stem cells...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878119/the-role-of-microrna-markers-in-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-outcome-prediction-of-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Nikolay L Martirosyan, Alessandro Carotenuto, Arpan A Patel, M Yashar S Kalani, Kaan Yagmurlu, G Michael Lemole, Mark C Preul, Nicholas Theodore
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that affects many people worldwide. Treatment focuses on controlling secondary injury cascade and improving regeneration. It has recently been suggested that both the secondary injury cascade and the regenerative process are heavily regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The measurement of specific biomarkers could improve our understanding of the disease processes, and thereby provide clinicians with the opportunity to guide treatment and predict clinical outcomes after SCI...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872763/effects-of-microtubule-stabilization-by-epothilone-b-depend-on-the-type-and-age-of-neurons
#16
Eun-Hae Jang, Aeri Sim, Sun-Kyoung Im, Eun-Mi Hur
Several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of applying microtubule- (MT-) stabilizing agents (MSAs) that cross the blood-brain barrier to promote axon regeneration and prevent axonal dystrophy in rodent models of spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Paradoxically, administration of MSAs, which have been widely prescribed to treat malignancies, is well known to cause debilitating peripheral neuropathy and axon degeneration. Despite the growing interest of applying MSAs to treat the injured or degenerating central nervous system (CNS), consequences of MSA exposure to neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) have not been thoroughly investigated...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870483/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-regenerating-tail-versus-the-scarring-limb-in-lizard-reveals-pathways-leading-to-successful-versus-unsuccessful-organ-regeneration-in-amniotes
#17
Nicola Vitulo, Luisa Dalla Valle, Tatjana Skobo, Giorgio Valle, Lorenzo Alibardi
BACKGROUND: lizards are amniotes regenerating the tail but not the limb and no information on their different gene expression is available. RESULTS: transcriptomes of regenerating tail and limb blastemas show differences in gene expression between the two organs. In tail blastema snoRNAs and Wnt signals appear up-regulated probably in association with the Apical Epidermal Peg (AEP), an epithelial region that sustains tail regeneration but is absent in the limb. A balance between pro-oncogenes and tumor suppressors is likely present in tail blastema allowing a regulated proliferation...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867665/dose-dependent-differential-effect-of-neurotrophic-factors-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regeneration-of-motor-and-sensory-neurons
#18
Daniel Santos, Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Xavier Navarro, Jaume Del Valle
Although peripheral axons can regenerate after nerve transection and repair, functional recovery is usually poor due to inaccurate reinnervation. Neurotrophic factors promote directional guidance to regenerating axons and their selective application may help to improve functional recovery. Hence, we have characterized in organotypic cultures of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia the effect of GDNF, FGF-2, NGF, NT-3, and BDNF at different concentrations on motor and sensory neurite outgrowth. In vitro results show that GDNF and FGF-2 enhanced both motor and sensory neurite outgrowth, NGF and NT-3 were the most selective to enhance sensory neurite outgrowth, and high doses of BDNF selectively enhanced motor neurite outgrowth...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865778/curcumin-inhibits-glial-scar-formation-by-suppressing-astrocyte-induced-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Jichao Yuan, Wei Liu, Haitao Zhu, Yaxing Chen, Xuan Zhang, Lan Li, Weihua Chu, Zexian Wen, Hua Feng, Jiangkai Lin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to glial scar formation by astrocytes, which severely hinders neural regeneration. Curcumin (cur) can inhibit glial scar formation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the current study investigated the phenotypic transformation of astrocytes following cur and siRNA intervention during the processes of inflammation and fibrosis and determined details of the relationship between cur treatment and the glial scar components GFAP and CSPG...
November 16, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857906/current-concept-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Sun Kyu Oh, Sang Ryong Jeon
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic condition associated with significant neurological deficit, social, and financial burdens. Over the past decades, various treatments including medication, surgery, and rehabilitation therapy for SCI have been performed, but there were no definite treatment option to improve neurological function of patients with chronic SCI. Therefore, new treatment trials with stem cells have been studied to regenerate injured spinal cord. Among various types of stem cells, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells is highly expected as candidates for the stem cell therapy...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
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