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spinal cord regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203046/neuroinflammation-as-fuel-for-axonal-regeneration-in-the-injured-vertebrate-central-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Ilse Bollaerts, Jessie Van Houcke, Lien Andries, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly, as repair after lesions or neurodegenerative disease usually fails because of the limited capacity of CNS regeneration. The causes underlying this limited regenerative potential are multifactorial, but one critical aspect is neuroinflammation. Although classically considered as harmful, it is now becoming increasingly clear that inflammation can also promote regeneration, if the appropriate context is provided...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199834/early-administration-of-gabapentinoids-improves-motor-recovery-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Freda M Warner, Jacquelyn J Cragg, Catherine R Jutzeler, Frank Röhrich, Norbert Weidner, Marion Saur, Doris D Maier, Christian Schuld, Armin Curt, John K Kramer
The anticonvulsant pregabalin promotes neural regeneration in a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). We have also previously observed that anticonvulsants improve motor outcomes following human SCI. The present study examined the optimal timing and type of anticonvulsants administered in a large, prospective, multi-center, cohort study in acute SCI. Mixed-effects regression techniques were used to model total motor scores at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury. We found that early (not late) administration of anticonvulsants significantly improved motor recovery (6...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197547/neural-progenitor-cells-promote-axonal-growth-and-alter-axonal-mrna-localization-in-adult-neurons
#4
Tanuja T Merianda, Ying Jin, Ashley L Kalinski, Pabitra K Sahoo, Itzhak Fischer, Jeffery L Twiss
The inhibitory environment of the spinal cord and the intrinsic properties of neurons prevent regeneration of axons following CNS injury. However, both ascending and descending axons of the injured spinal cord have been shown to regenerate into grafts of embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Previous studies have shown that grafts composed of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) and neural-restricted progenitors (NRPs) can provide a permissive microenvironment for axon growth. We have used cocultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons together with NPCs, which have shown significant enhancement of axon growth by embryonic rat GRP and GRPs/NRPs, both in coculture conditions and when DRGs are exposed to conditioned medium from the NPC cultures...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197342/the-function-of-fgfr1-signalling-in-the-spinal-cord-therapeutic-approaches-using-fgfr1-ligands-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Barbara Haenzi, Lawrence D F Moon
Extensive research is ongoing that concentrates on finding therapies to enhance CNS regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to cure paralysis. This review sheds light on the role of the FGFR pathway in the injured spinal cord and discusses various therapies that use FGFR activating ligands to promote regeneration after SCI. We discuss studies that use peripheral nerve grafts or Schwann cell grafts in combination with FGF1 or FGF2 supplementation. Most of these studies show evidence that these therapies successfully enhance axon regeneration into the graft...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185909/customized-biomaterials-to-augment-chondrocyte-gene-therapy
#6
Nizeet I Aguilar, Stephen Trippel, Shuiliang Shi, Lawrence J Bonassar
: A persistent challenge in enhancing gene therapy is the transient availability of the target gene product. This is particularly true in tissue engineering applications. The transient exposure of cells to the product could be insufficient to promote tissue regeneration. Here we report the development of a new material engineered to have a high affinity for a therapeutic gene product. We focus on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) for its highly anabolic effects on many tissues such as spinal cord, heart, brain and cartilage...
February 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185615/clinical-study-of-neuroregen-scaffold-combined-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Yannan Zhao, Fengwu Tang, Guang Han, Nuo Wang, Na Yin, Bing Chen, Xianfeng Jiang, Chen Yun, Wanjun Han, Changyu Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Regeneration of damaged neurons and recovery of sensation and motor function after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging. We previously developed a collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, to promote axonal growth along collagen fibers and inhibit glial scar formation after SCI. When functionalized with multiple biomolecules, this scaffold promoted neurological regeneration and functional recovery in animals with SCI. In this study, eight patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled to examine the safety and efficacy of implanting NeuroRegen scaffold with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181797/a-thermosensitive-heparin-poloxamer-hydrogel-bridge-afgf-to-treat-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Qingqing Wang, Yan He, Yingzheng Zhao, Huixu Xie, Qian Lin, Zili He, Xiaoyan Wang, Jiawei Li, Hongyu Zhang, Chenggui Wang, Fanghua Gong, Xiaokun Li, Huazi Xu, Qingsong Ye, Jian Xiao
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) exerts a protective effect on spinal cord injury (SCI) but is limited by the lack of physicochemical stability andthe ability to cross the blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB). As promising biomaterials, hydrogels contain substantial amounts of water and a 3D porous structureand are commonly used to load and deliver growth factors. Heparin can not only enhance growth factor loading onto hydrogels but also can stabilize the structure and control the release behavior. Herein, a novel aFGF-loaded thermosensitive heparin-poloxamer (aFGF-HP) hydrogel was developed and applied to provide protection and regeneration after SCI...
February 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169354/three-dimensional-aligned-nanofibers-hydrogel-scaffold-for-controlled-non-viral-drug-gene-delivery-to-direct-axon-regeneration-in-spinal-cord-injury-treatment
#9
Lan Huong Nguyen, Mingyong Gao, Junquan Lin, Wutian Wu, Jun Wang, Sing Yian Chew
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) often lead to persistent neurological dysfunction due to failure in axon regeneration. Unfortunately, currently established treatments, such as direct drug administration, do not effectively treat SCI due to rapid drug clearance from our bodies. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional aligned nanofibers-hydrogel scaffold as a bio-functionalized platform to provide sustained non-viral delivery of proteins and nucleic acid therapeutics (small non-coding RNAs), along with synergistic contact guidance for nerve injury treatment...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165815/effective-improvement-of-the-neuroprotective-activity-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-synergistic-effect-of-glucocorticoid-with-biodegradable-amphipathic-nanomicelles
#10
YueLong Wang, Min Wu, Lei Gu, XiaoLing Li, Jun He, LiangXue Zhou, Aiping Tong, Juan Shi, HongYan Zhu, JianGuo Xu, Gang Guo
Dexamethasone acetate (DA) produces neuroprotective effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation by reducing cytokine release and expression. However, its clinical application is limited by its hydrophobicity, low biocompatibility and numerous side effects when using large dosage. Therefore, improving DA's water solubility, biocompatibility and reducing its side effects are important goals that will improve its clinical utility. The objective of this study is to use a biodegradable polymer as the delivery vehicle for DA to achieve the synergism between inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inflammation effects of the hydrophobic-loaded drugs and the amphipathic delivery vehicle...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160063/enhanced-axonal-regeneration-by-transplanted-wnt3a-secreting-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Dong Kwang Seo, Jeong Hoon Kim, Joongkee Min, Hyung Ho Yoon, Eun-Sil Shin, Seong Who Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon
BACKGROUND: While pure mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) is known to be safe, its efficacy is insufficient. Therefore, gene-modified stem cells are being developed to enhance the effect of pure MSCs. We investigated the effect of stem cell therapy through the transfection of a Wnt3a-producing gene that stimulates axonal regeneration. METHOD: MSCs obtained from the human umbilical cord blood (hMSCs) were multiplied, cultivated, and transfected with the pLenti-Wnt3a-GFP viral vector to produce Wnt3a-secreting hMSCs...
February 3, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153469/evaluation-of-motor-neuron-differentiation-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#12
Behnam Yousefi, Davood Sanooghi, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Nourahmad Latifi
Many people suffer from spinal cord injuries annually. These deficits usually threaten the quality of life of patients. As a postpartum medically waste product, human Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) is a rich source of stem cells with self- renewal properties and neural differentiation capacity which made it useful in regenerative medicine. Since there is no report on potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into motor neurons, we set out to evaluate the differentiation properties of these cells into motor neuron-like cells through administration of Retinoic Acid(RA), Sonic Hedgehog(Shh) and BDNF using a three- step in vitro procedure...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123426/development-of-a-3d-matrix-for-modeling-mammalian-spinal-cord-injury-in-vitro
#13
Juan Felipe Diaz Quiroz, Yuping Li, Conrado Aparicio, Karen Echeverri
Spinal cord injury affects millions of people around the world, however, limited therapies are available to improve the quality of life of these patients. Spinal cord injury is usually modeled in rats and mice using contusion or complete transection models and this has led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular complexities of the injury. However, it has not to date led to development of successful novel therapies, this is in part due to the complexity of the injury and the difficulty of deciphering the exact roles and interactions of different cells within this complex environment...
November 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123416/electrospun-fibers-a-guiding-scaffold-for-research-and-regeneration-of-the-spinal-cord
#14
Nicholas J Schaub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120511/collagen-heparin-sulfate-scaffolds-fabricated-by-a-3d-bioprinter-improved-mechanical-properties-and-neurological-function-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#15
Chong Chen, Ming-Liang Zhao, Ren-Kun Zhang, Gang Lu, Chang-Yu Zhao, Feng Fu, Hong-Tao Sun, Sai Zhang, Yue Tu, Xiao-Hong Li
Effective treatments promoting axonal regeneration and functional recovery for spinal cord injury (SCI) are still in the early stages of development. Most approaches have been focused on providing supportive substrates for guiding neurons and overcoming the physical and chemical barriers to healing that arise after SCI. Although collagen has become a promising natural substrate with good compatibility, its low mechanical properties restrict its potential applications. The mechanical properties mainly rely on the composition and pore structure of scaffolds...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117332/animal-models-of-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
M Sharif-Alhoseini, M Khormali, M Rezaei, M Safdarian, A Hajighadery, M M Khalatbari, M Safdarian, S Meknatkhah, M Rezvan, M Chalangari, P Derakhshan, V Rahimi-Movaghar
STUDY DESIGN: PRISMA-guided systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive framework of the current animal models for investigating spinal cord injury (SCI) and categorize them based on the aims, patterns and levels of injury, and outcome measurements as well as animal species. SETTING: Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: An electronic search of the Medline database for literature describing animal models of SCI was performed on 1 January 2016 using the following keywords: 'spinal cord injuries' and 'animal models'...
January 24, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112873/transplantation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-clonal-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduces-ffibrotic-sscar-fformation-in-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#17
Moonhang Kim, Kil Hwan Kim, Sun U Song, Tac Ghee Yi, Seung Hwan Yoon, So Ra Park, Byung Hyune Choi
This study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic effect on tissue repair and scar formation of human bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells (hcMSCs) homogeneously isolated by using a subfractionation culturing method, in comparison with the non-clonal MSCs (hMSCs), in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. The SCI was made using a vascular clip at the T9 level. Cells were transplanted into the lesion site 3 days after injury. A functional test was performed over 4 weeks employing a BBB score. Rats were killed for histological analysis at 3 days, 1 week and 4 weeks after injury...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111162/hud-mediated-distinct-bdnf-regulatory-pathways-promote-regeneration-after-nerve-injury
#18
Maria Domenica Sanna, Carla Ghelardini, Nicoletta Galeotti
Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)synthesis is an important mechanism of peripheralnerveregenerationafterinjury.However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. This study examines the role of BDNF in the spared nerve injury (SNI) mice model. Protein expression and cellular localization were investigated in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord by western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments respectively. BDNF protein was markedly increased 3 and 7 days post-injury in the spinal cord and DRG...
January 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104107/erythropoietin-and-nonhematopoietic-effects
#19
REVIEW
Alireza Nekoui, Gilbert Blaise
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main regulator of red blood cell production. Since the 1990s, EPO has been used for the treatment of anemia associated with end-stage renal failure and chemotherapy. The erythropoietin receptors were found on other organs such as the brain, spinal cord, heart and skin. In addition, it has been shown that many tissues produce and locally release EPO in response to hypoxic, biochemical and physical stress. In cellular, animal and clinical studies, EPO protects tissues from ischemia and reperfusion injury, has antiapoptotic effects and improves regeneration after injury...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#20
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
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