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spinal cord regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827771/combinatory-repair-strategy-to-promote-axon-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Marc A DePaul, Ching-Yi Lin, Jerry Silver, Yu-Shang Lee
Eight weeks post contusive spinal cord injury, we built a peripheral nerve graft bridge (PNG) through the cystic cavity and treated the graft/host interface with acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). This combinatorial strategy remarkably enhanced integration between host astrocytes and graft Schwann cells, allowing for robust growth, especially of catecholaminergic axons, through the graft and back into the distal spinal cord. In the absence of aFGF+ChABC fewer catecholaminergic axons entered the graft, no axons exited, and Schwann cells and astrocytes failed to integrate...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816099/sex-differences-of-steroid-receptor-coactivator-1-expression-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#2
Jiayu Xiao, Jiqiang Zhang, Yangang Zhao, Wenjie Huang, Zhikai Guo, Bingyin Su, Qiang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The neural functional recovery of female is often better than that of male after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences show that estrogen can attenuate inflammation and promote the neural survival and regeneration after SCI. SRC-1 is an essential initiation factor for the estrogen-regulated target gene transcription and plays a key role in regulating estrogen activity. However, it is not known whether and how SRC-1 mediates the neural regeneration promoted by estrogen after SCI...
August 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814609/tail-regeneration-and-other-phenomena-of-wound-healing-and-tissue-restoration-in-lizards
#3
REVIEW
Kathy Jacyniak, Rebecca P McDonald, Matthew K Vickaryous
Wound healing is a fundamental evolutionary adaptation with two possible outcomes: scar formation or reparative regeneration. Scars participate in re-forming the barrier with the external environment and restoring homeostasis to injured tissues, but are well understood to represent dysfunctional replacements. In contrast, reparative regeneration is a tissue-specific program that near-perfectly replicates that which was lost or damaged. Although regeneration is best known from salamanders (including newts and axolotls) and zebrafish, it is unexpectedly widespread among vertebrates...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801063/chondroitin-sulfates-do-not-impede-axonal-regeneration-in-goldfish-spinal-cord
#4
Akihito Takeda, Soichiro Okada, Kengo Funakoshi
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord...
August 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795616/the-effects-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Konstantin Rosich, Bishoy Hanna, Rami K Ibrahim, Daniel Joseph Hellenbrand, Amgad Hanna
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition affecting 270,000 people in the United States. The use of growth factors is a potential treatment for reducing secondary damage, promoting axon growth and restoring some of the lost function after SCI. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an important growth factor, because it can affect both neurons and support cells. Here, we give an in depth review of the previously published literature where GDNF was used to treat SCI. The effects of GDNF have been shown to decrease lesion size, improve allodynia, and regenerate axons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790168/microrna-211-bdnf-axis-regulates-lps-induced-proliferation-of-normal-human-astrocyte-through-pi3k-akt-pathway
#6
Kexiang Zhang, Song Wu, Zhiyue Li, Jiahui Zhou
Spinal cord injury (SCI) makes a major contribution to disability and death in the worldwide. Reactive astrogliosis, a typical feature after SCI, which undergoes varying molecular and morphological changes, is ubiquitous but poorly understood. Reactive astrogliosis contributes to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a well-established neurotrophic factor, exerts neuroprotective and growth-promoting effects on a variety of neuronal populations after injury...
August 8, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779869/functional-integration-of-complex-mirna-networks-in-central-and-peripheral-lesion-and-axonal-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
M Ghibaudi, M Boido, A Vercelli
New players are emerging in the game of peripheral and central nervous system injury since their physiopathological mechanisms remain partially elusive. These mechanisms are characterized by several molecules whose activation and/or modification following a trauma is often controlled at transcriptional level. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) have been identified as main actors in coordinating important molecular pathways in nerve or spinal cord injury (SCI). miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs whose functionality at network level is now emerging as a new level of complexity...
August 2, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777065/possible-role-of-antioxidative-capacity-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-treatment-in-morphological-and-neurobehavioral-recovery-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury
#8
Waleed M Renno, Ludmil Benov, Khalid M Khan
OBJECTIVE This study examined the capacity of the major polyphenolic green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to suppress oxidative stress and stimulate the recovery and prompt the regeneration of sciatic nerve after crush injury. METHODS Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: 1) Naïve, 2) Sham (sham injury, surgical control group), 3) Crush (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with saline), and 4) Crush+EGCG (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with intraperitoneally administered EGCG, 50 mg/kg)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771534/neural-stem-cell-mediated-recovery-is-enhanced-by-chondroitinase-abc-pretreatment-in-chronic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Hidenori Suzuki, Christopher S Ahuja, Ryan P Salewski, Lijun Li, Kajana Satkunendrarajah, Narihito Nagoshi, Shinsuke Shibata, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) affect millions of people worldwide; the majority of whom are in the chronic phase of their injury. Unfortunately, most current treatments target the acute/subacute injury phase as the microenvironment of chronically injured cord consists of a well-established glial scar with inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) which acts as a potent barrier to regeneration. It has been shown that CSPGs can be degraded in vivo by intrathecal Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to produce a more permissive environment for regeneration by endogenous cells or transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subacute phase of injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766845/neural-stem-cell-therapy-aiming-at-better-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Yicheng Zhu, Naohiro Uezono, Tetsuro Yasui, Kinichi Nakashima
Injury to the spinal cord causes transection of axon fibers and neural cell death, resulting in disruption of the neural network and severe functional loss. Reconstruction of the damaged neural circuits was once considered to be hopeless as the adult mammalian central nervous system has very poor ability to regenerate. For this reason, there is currently no effective therapeutic treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, with recent developments in stem cell research and cell culture technology, regenerative therapy using neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has rapidly been developed, and this therapeutic strategy makes it possible to rebuild the destroyed neural circuits...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761436/polyethylene-glycol-as-a-promising-synthetic-material-for-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Xian-Bin Kong, Qiu-Yan Tang, Xu-Yi Chen, Yue Tu, Shi-Zhong Sun, Zhong-Lei Sun
Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761434/brain-injury-in-combination-with-tacrolimus-promotes-the-regeneration-of-injured-peripheral-nerves
#12
Xin-Ze He, Jian-Jun Ma, Hao-Qi Wang, Tie-Min Hu, Bo Sun, Yun-Feng Gao, Shi-Bo Liu, Wei Wang, Pei Wang
Both brain injury and tacrolimus have been reported to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, before transection of rat sciatic nerve, moderate brain contusion was (or was not) induced. After sciatic nerve injury, tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant, was (or was not) intraperitoneally administered. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, Masson's trichrome, hematoxylin-eosin, and toluidine blue staining results revealed that brain injury or tacrolimus alone or their combination alleviated gastrocnemius muscle atrophy and sciatic nerve fiber impairment on the experimental side, simultaneously improved sciatic nerve function, and increased gastrocnemius muscle wet weight on the experimental side...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761419/interfacing-peripheral-nerve-with-macro-sieve-electrodes-following-spinal-cord-injury
#13
REVIEW
Nathan K Birenbaum, Matthew R MacEwan, Wilson Z Ray
Macro-sieve electrodes were implanted in the sciatic nerve of five adult male Lewis rats following spinal cord injury to assess the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface regenerated peripheral nerve fibers post-spinal cord injury. Each spinal cord injury was performed via right lateral hemisection of the cord at the T9-10 site. Five months post-implantation, the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface the regenerated nerve was assessed by stimulating through the macro-sieve electrode and recording both electromyography signals and evoked muscle force from distal musculature...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760862/myelinogenic-plasticity-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#14
P Assinck, G J Duncan, J R Plemel, M J Lee, J S Stratton, S B Manesh, J Liu, L M Ramer, S H Kang, D E Bergles, J Biernaskie, W Tetzlaff
Spontaneous remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the extent of myelin repair and identity of the cells responsible remain incompletely understood and contentious. We assessed the cellular origin of new myelin by fate mapping PDGFRα+, Olig2+, and P0+ cells following contusion SCI in mice. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs; PDGFRα+) produced oligodendrocytes responsible for de novo ensheathment of ∼30% of myelinated spinal axons at injury epicenter three months after SCI, demonstrating that these resident cells are a major contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756859/improvement-of-activity-and-stability-of-chondroitinase-abc-i-by-introducing-an-aromatic-cluster-at-the-surface-of-protein
#15
Mohammad Esmaeil Shahaboddin, Khosro Khajeh, Monireh Maleki, Abolfazl Golestani
Chondroitinase ABC I (ChABC I) has been shown to depolymerize a variety of glycosaminoglycan substrates and promote regeneration of damaged spinal cord. However, to date, intrathecal delivery methods have been suboptimal largely due to enzyme instability which necessitates repeated administration to the injured loci. Among the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine has been shown to be more effective in creation of stable clusters and further stabilize of the proteins. Bioinformatics approaches have been used to examine the effect of an extra aromatic cluster at the surface of ChABC I...
October 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754612/differentiation-potential-of-human-cd133-positive-hematopoietic-stem-cells-into-motor-neuron-like-cells-in-vitro
#16
Sepideh Alavi Moghaddam, Behnam Yousefi, Davood Sanooghi, Faezeh Faghihi, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Nikoo Bana, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Paria Pooyan, Babak Arjmand
Spinal cord injuries and motor neuron-related disorders impact on life of many patients around the world. Since pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches were not efficient to regenerate these types of defects; stem cell therapy as a good strategy to restore the lost cells has become the focus of interest among the scientists. Umbilical cord blood CD133(+) hematopoietic stem cells (UCB- CD133(+) HSCs) with self- renewal property and neural lineage differentiation capacity are ethically approved cell candidate for use in regenerative medicine...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751457/2-arachidonoylglycerol-reduces-proteoglycans-and-enhances-remyelination-in-a-progressive-model-of-demyelination
#17
A Feliu, Bonilla I Del Río, F J Carrillo-Salinas, G Hernández-Torres, L Mestre, N Puente, S Ortega-Gutiérrez, M L López-Rodríguez, P Grandes, M Mecha, C Guaza
The failure to undergo remyelination is a critical impediment to recovery in multiple sclerosis (MS). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) accumulate at demyelinating lesions creating a non-permissive environment that impairs axon regeneration and remyelination. Here, we reveal a new role for 2-arachinonoylglycerol (2-AG), the major CNS endocannabinoid, in the modulation of CSPG deposition in a progressive model of MS, the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749199/hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#18
Yasuyuki Amoh, Robert M Hoffman
Various types of stem cells reside in the skin, including keratinocyte progenitor cells, melanocyte progenitor cells, and skin-derived precursors (SKPs), and nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells, located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. HAP stem cells are positive forthe stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggestingtheir relatively undifferentiated state and therefore, HAP stem cells may be the most primitive stem cells in the skin...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743881/wnt-signaling-controls-pro-regenerative-collagen-xii-in-functional-spinal-cord-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#19
Daniel Wehner, Themistoklis M Tsarouchas, Andria Michael, Christa Haase, Gilbert Weidinger, Michell M Reimer, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker
The inhibitory extracellular matrix in a spinal lesion site is a major impediment to axonal regeneration in mammals. In contrast, the extracellular matrix in zebrafish allows substantial axon re-growth, leading to recovery of movement. However, little is known about regulation and composition of the growth-promoting extracellular matrix. Here we demonstrate that activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in fibroblast-like cells in the lesion site is pivotal for axon re-growth and functional recovery. Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces expression of col12a1a/b and deposition of Collagen XII, which is necessary for axons to actively navigate the non-neural lesion site environment...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735026/regulated-viral-bdnf-delivery-in-combination-with-schwann-cells-promotes-axonal-regeneration-through-capillary-alginate-hydrogels-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Shengwen Liu, Beatrice Sandner, Thomas Schackel, LaShae Nicholson, Abdelwahed Chtarto, Liliane Tenenbaum, Radhika Puttagunta, Rainer Müller, Norbert Weidner, Armin Blesch
Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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