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neural precursor cell

Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
Schwann cell precursors are the first defined stage in the generation of Schwann cells from the neural crest and represent the glial cell of embryonic nerves. Highly pure cultures of these cells can be obtained by enzymatic dissociation of nerves dissected from the limbs of 14- or 12-day-old rat and mouse embryos, respectively. Since Schwann cell precursors, unlike Schwann cells, are acutely dependent on axonal signals for survival, they require addition of trophic factors, typically β-neuregulin-1, for maintenance in cell culture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Morgan L Shannon, Ryann M Fame, Kevin F Chau, Neil Dani, Monica L Calicchio, Gwenaelle S Géléoc, Hart G W Lidov, Sanda Alexandrescu, Maria K Lehtinen
Choroid plexus tumors and ciliary body medulloepithelioma are predominantly pediatric neoplasms. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors has been hindered by their rarity and lack of models that faithfully recapitulate the disease. Here, we find that endogenous c-Myc is down-regulated in the forebrain neuroepithelium, whose neural plate border domains give rise to anterior choroid plexus and ciliary body. To uncover the consequences of persistent MYC (c-Myc) expression, c-Myc expression was forced in multipotent neural precursors (Nestin-Cre:MYC), which produced a fully penetrant model of choroid plexus carcinoma and ciliary body medulloepithelioma...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
James W Checco, Guo Zhang, Wangding Yuan, Ke Yu, Siyuan Yin, Rachel H Roberts-Galbraith, Peter M Yau, Elena V Romanova, Jian Jing, Jonathan V Sweedler
Neuropeptides in several animals undergo an unusual post-translational modification: the isomerization of an amino acid residue from the L-stereoisomer to the D-stereoisomer. The resulting D-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) often displays higher biological activity than its all-L-residue analogue, with the D-residue being critical for function in many cases. However, little is known about the full physiological roles played by DAACPs and few studies have examined the interaction of DAACPs with their cognate receptors...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Dario Presutti, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Giuliana Papoff, Simonetta Santini, Simone Samperna, Cristiana Lalli, Lorena Zentilin, Giovina Ruberti, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), the tumor of the cerebellum, is the most frequent brain cancer in childhood and a major cause of pediatric mortality. Based on gene profiling, four MB subgroups have been identified, i.e., Wnt or Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) types, and subgroup 3 or 4. The Shh-type MB has been shown to arise from the cerebellar precursors of granule neurons (GCPs), where a hyperactivation of the Shh pathway leads to their neoplastic transformation. We have previously shown that the gene Tis21 (PC3/Btg2) inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation and migration of GCPs...
2018: PloS One
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Godwin Sokpor, Eman Abbas, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes
Various regions of the developing brain coordinate their construction so that the correct types and numbers of cells are generated to build a functional network. We previously discovered that wrapping glia in the Drosophila visual system are essential for coordinating retinal and lamina development. We showed that wrapping glia, which ensheath photoreceptor axons, respond to an epidermal growth factor cue from photoreceptors by secreting insulins. Wrapping glial insulins activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of insulin receptor in lamina precursors to induce neuronal differentiation...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Zachary Jonas Hall, Vincent Tropepe
The postembryonic brain exhibits experience-dependent development, in which sensory experience guides normal brain growth. This neuroplasticity is thought to occur primarily through structural and functional changes in pre-existing neurons. Whether neurogenesis also mediates the effects of experience on brain growth is unclear. Here, we characterized the importance of motor experience on postembryonic neurogenesis in larval zebrafish. We found that movement maintains an expanded pool of forebrain neural precursors by promoting progenitor self-renewal over the production of neurons...
March 12, 2018: ELife
Islam M El-Babouly, Esam A E Desoky, Diab El Sayed, Maged M Ali, Ola A Harb, Ahmed Ragab, Ahmed M Sakr, Amr M Fawzi, Nashaat M Salama, Ibrahim I Samaha
OBJECTIVE: To report the sensitivity and specificity of neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD9) protein high expression in predicting BCG response and its effect on recurrence or progression free survivals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 2014 and April 2017, a prospective cohort study was conducted on 105 patients with intermediate or high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Immunohistochemical staining with mouse monoclonal anti-NEDD9 antibody was done...
March 5, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Marie-Amélie Farreny, Eric Agius, Sophie Bel-Vialar, Nathalie Escalas, Nagham Khouri-Farah, Chadi Soukkarieh, Cathy Danesin, Fabienne Pituello, Philippe Cochard, Cathy Soula
BACKGROUND: Most oligodendrocytes of the spinal cord originate from ventral progenitor cells of the pMN domain, characterized by expression of the transcription factor Olig2. A minority of oligodendrocytes is also recognized to emerge from dorsal progenitors during fetal development. The prevailing view is that generation of ventral oligodendrocytes depends on Sonic hedgehog (Shh) while dorsal oligodendrocytes develop under the influence of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). RESULTS: Using the well-established model of the chicken embryo, we show that ventral spinal progenitor cells activate FGF signaling at the onset of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation...
March 8, 2018: Neural Development
Christine Brütting, Harini Narasimhan, Frank Hoffmann, Malte E Kornhuber, Martin S Staege, Alexander Emmer
Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been found to be associated with different diseases, e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS). Most human ERVs integrated in our genome are not competent to replicate and these sequences are presumably silent. However, transcription of human ERVs can be reactivated, e.g., by hypoxia. Interestingly, MS has been linked to hypoxia since decades. As some patterns of demyelination are similar to white matter ischemia, hypoxic damage is discussed. Therefore, we are interested in the association between hypoxia and ERVs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fangjie Shao, Chong Liu
High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
M D Tang-Schomer, W B Wu, D L Kaplan, M J Bookland
In vitro culture of primary neurons are widely adapted with embryonic but not mature brain tissue. Here, we extended a previously developed bioengineered 3D embryonic brain tissue model to resected normal patient brain tissue in an attempt to regenerate human neurons in vitro. Single cells and small sized (diameter < 100 μm) spheroids from dissociated brain tissue were seeded into 3D silk fibroin-based scaffolds, with or without collagen or Matrigel, and compared with 2D cultures and scaffold-free suspension cultures...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Yo-Han Kim, Hanju Yoo, A-Reum Hong, Minseo Kwon, Sang-Wook Kang, Kyunggon Kim, Youngsup Song
The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in a variety of physiologic processes. Although its activity appears to be largely correlated with its phosphorylation status, cAMP-mediated dephosphorylation and the subsequent nuclear migration of the CREB-regulated transcription factors (CRTCs) are required to stimulate CREB transcriptional activity. Among the 3 identified mammalian homologs of CRTCs, CRTC3 has been shown to be expressed predominantly in adipose tissues in response to catecholamine signals that regulate lipid metabolism...
March 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neural interface technology provides direct sampling and analysis of electrical and chemical events in the brain in order to better understand neuronal function and treat neurodegenerative disease. However, intracortical electrodes experience inflammatory reactions that reduce long-term stability and functionality and are understood to be facilitated by activated microglia and astrocytes. Emerging studies have identified another cell type that participates in the formation of a high-impedance glial scar following brain injury; the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Gui-Qing Lin, Xiao-Fei He, Feng-Yin Liang, Yang Guo, Gavin Sunnassee, Jian Chen, Xiao-Min Cao, Yi-Yi Chen, Guang-Jin Pan, Zhong Pei, Sheng Tan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to date one of the major critical conditions causing death and disability worldwide. Exogenous neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs/NPCs) hold great promise for improving neurological dysfunction, but their functional properties in vivo remain unknown. Human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) carrying one fluorescent reporter gene (DsRed) can be observed directly in vivo using two-photon laser-scanning microscope. Therefore, we evaluated the neural integration and potential therapeutic effect of hNPCs on mice with TBI...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Laura Gómez-Virgilio, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Carmen Sánchez-Torres, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Marco Antonio Meraz-Ríos
Neurogenesis plays a significant role during adulthood, and the observation that neural stem cells reside in the central nervous system and the olfactory epithelium has attracted attention due to their importance in neuronal regeneration. In addition, soluble factors (SFs) release by neural stem cells may modulate the neurogenic process. Thus, in this study, we identified the SFs released by olfactory human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs-OE). These cells express Ki67, nestin, and βIII-tubulin, indicating their neural lineage...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Mirja N Shaikh, Francisco J Tejedor
The Down syndrome and microcephaly related gene Mnb/Dyrk1A encodes an evolutionary conserved protein kinase subfamily that plays important roles in neurodevelopment. minibrain (mnb) mutants of Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) exhibit reduced adult brains due to neuronal deficits generated during larval development. These deficits are the consequence of the apoptotic cell death of numerous neuronal precursors that fail to properly exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We have recently found that in both the Dm larval brain and the embryonic vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), a transient expression of Mnb/Dyrk1A promotes the cell cycle exit of newborn neuronal precursors by upregulating the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1 (called Dacapo in Dm)...
March 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
Yujing Zhang, Dan Xu, Hong Qi, Yin Yuan, Hong Liu, Shanglong Yao, Shiying Yuan, Jiancheng Zhang
Enriched environment (EE) has been shown to promote post-stroke neurogenesis and functional recovery. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remains poorly understood. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion, after which mice were housed in either standard environment (SE) or EE. We found that post-ischemic EE exhibited reduced protein level of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/p65 in cytoplasm and increased its expression correspondingly in nucleus at 28 days post-ischemia (dpi)...
February 23, 2018: Brain Research
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