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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636676/mitochondrion-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-apposition-length-in-zebrafish-embryo-spinal-progenitors-is-unchanged-in-response-to-perturbations-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Morgan Newman, Lena Halter, Anne Lim, Michael Lardelli
Mutations in the human genes PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1), PRESENILIN2 (PSEN2) and AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP) have been identified in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The length of mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum (M-ER) appositions is increased in Psen1-/-/Psen2-/- double knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from AD-affected individuals. Development of an easily accessible, genetically manipulable, in vivo system for studying M-ER appositions would be valuable so we attempted to manipulate M-ER apposition length in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636650/the-formation-of-lipid-droplets-favors-intracellular-mycobacterium-leprae-survival-in-sw-10-non-myelinating-schwann-cells
#2
Song-Hyo Jin, Sung-Kwan An, Seong-Beom Lee
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634550/sortilin-related-receptor-expression-in-human-neural-stem-cells-derived-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-carrying-the-apoe-epsilon-4-allele
#3
Alen Zollo, Zoe Allen, Helle F Rasmussen, Filomena Iannuzzi, Yichen Shi, Agnete Larsen, Thorsten J Maier, Carmela Matrone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly; important risk factors are old age and inheritance of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele. Changes in amyloid precursor protein (APP) binding, trafficking, and sorting may be important AD causative factors. Secretase-mediated APP cleavage produces neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, which form lethal deposits in the brain. In vivo and in vitro studies have implicated sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) as an important factor in APP trafficking and processing...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634230/similarity-in-gene-regulatory-networks-suggests-that-cancer-cells-share-characteristics-of-embryonic-neural-cells
#4
Zan Zhang, Anhua Lei, Liyang Xu, Lu Chen, Yonglong Chen, Xuena Zhang, Yan Gao, Xiaoli Yang, Min Zhang, Ying Cao
Cancer cells are immature cells resulting from cellular reprogramming by gene misregulation, and re-differentiation is expected to reduce malignancy. It is unclear, however, whether cancer cells can undergo terminal differentiation. Here, we show that, inhibition of the epigenetic modification enzymes enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 3, lysine demethylase 1A (LSD1), or DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which all promote cancer development and progression, leads to postmitotic neuron-like differentiation with loss of malignant features in distinct solid cancer cell lines...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627669/recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-following-electroacupuncture-in-rats-through-enhancement-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#5
Junfeng Zhang, Shisheng Li, Yaochi Wu
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been demonstrated to promote the functional recovery of neurons following spinal cord injury (SCI); however, the mechanisms underlying its effects have yet to be elucidated. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been implicated in the regulation of the balance between growth, proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of EA therapy on Wnt/β‑catenin‑regulated gene expression and neuronal recovery in rats with SCI...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627598/curcumin-exerts-its-tumor-suppressive-function-via-inhibition-of-nedd4-oncoprotein-in-glioma-cancer-cells
#6
Xue Wang, Jiaojiao Deng, Jinxia Yuan, Xin Tang, Yuelong Wang, Haifeng Chen, Yi Liu, Liangxue Zhou
Glioblastoma is the most common brain cancer in adults. It represents one of the top ten malignant tumors with an average survival time of nine months despite treatments with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Curcumin is a phytochemical turmeric isolated from root of the Curcuma longa plant. Accumulating evidence have proved that curcumin targets numerous cancer signaling pathways. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4, is frequently overexpressed in various cancers...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624504/proinsulin-protects-against-age-related-cognitive-loss-through-anti-inflammatory-convergent-pathways
#7
Rubén Corpas, Alberto M Hernández-Pinto, David Porquet, Catalina Hernández-Sánchez, Fatima Bosch, Arantxa Ortega-Aznar, Francesc Comellas, Enrique J de la Rosa, Coral Sanfeliu
Brain inflammaging is increasingly considered as contributing to age-related cognitive loss and neurodegeneration. Despite intensive research in multiple models, no clinically effective pharmacological treatment has been found yet. Here, in the mouse model of brain senescence SAMP8, we tested the effects of proinsulin, a promising neuroprotective agent that was previously proven to be effective in mouse models of retinal neurodegeneration. Proinsulin is the precursor of the hormone insulin but also upholds developmental physiological effects, particularly as a survival factor for neural cells...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621417/cell-fate-decisions-during-neural-crest-ontogeny
#8
Chaya Kalcheim, Deepak Kumar
The neural crest (NC) originates in the central nervous system (CNS) primordium. Born as an epithelium, NC progenitors undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that generates cellular movement away from the CNS. Mesenchymal NC progenitors then migrate through stereotypic pathways characteristic of various axial levels until homing to distinct primordia where phenotypic differentiation takes place. Being the source of most of the peripheral nervous system, pigment cells and ectomesenchyme, the embryonic NC is considered to be a multipotent population of precursors...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613240/an-isoform-of-nedd4-2-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-electrophysiological-cardiac-abnormalities
#9
Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Hisho Kawamura, Tabito Kino, Lin Chen, Rie Nakashima-Sasaki, Hiroshi Doi, Kengo Azushima, Hiromichi Wakui, Yumi Chiba, Kouichi Tamura
We have previously shown that neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-2 (Nedd4-2) isoforms with a C2 domain are closely related to ubiquitination of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), resulting in salt-sensitive hypertension by Nedd4-2 C2 targeting in mice. The sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 (SCN5A) gene encodes the α subunit of the human cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (I Na), and the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2 (KCNH2) gene encodes rapidly activating delayed rectifier K channels (I Kr)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612959/early-life-decline-in-neurogenesis-markers-and-age-related-changes-of-trkb-splice-variant-expression-in-the-human-subependymal-zone
#10
Christin Weissleder, Mari A Kondo, Chunhui Yang, Samantha J Fung, Debora A Rothmond, Matthew W Wong, Glenda M Halliday, Mary M Herman, Joel E Kleinman, Maree J Webster, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Neurogenesis in the subependymal zone (SEZ) declines across the human lifespan and reduced local neurotrophic support is speculated to be a contributing factor. While tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling is critical for neuronal differentiation, maturation and survival, little is known about subependymal TrkB expression changes during postnatal human life. In this study, we used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation to determine expression of the cell proliferation marker Ki67, the immature neuron marker doublecortin (DCX) and both full-length (TrkB-TK+) and truncated TrkB receptors (TrkB-TK-) in the human SEZ from infancy to middle age (n=26-35, 41 days-43 years)...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611114/notch1-deficiency-in-postnatal-neural-progenitor-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus-leads-to-emotional-and-cognitive-impairment
#11
Shufang Feng, Tianyao Shi, Jiangxia Qiu, Haihong Yang, Yan Wu, Wenxia Zhou, Wei Wang, Haitao Wu
It is well known that Notch1 signaling plays a crucial role in embryonic neural development and adult neurogenesis. The latest evidence shows that Notch1 also plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity in hippocampal mature neurons. So far, deeper insights into the function of Notch1 signaling during the different steps of adult neurogenesis are still lacking, and the mechanisms by which Notch1 dysfunction is associated with brain disorders are also poorly understood. In the current study, we found that Notch1 was highly expressed in the adult-born immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus...
June 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607354/igf-1-mediated-neurogenesis-involves-a-novel-rit1-akt-sox2-cascade
#12
Sajad Mir, Weikang Cai, Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman, Douglas A Andres
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is known to have diverse effects on brain structure and function, including the promotion of stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. However, the intracellular pathways downstream of the IGF-1 receptor that contribute to these diverse physiological actions remain relatively uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that the Ras-related GTPase, RIT1, plays a critical role in IGF-1-dependent neurogenesis. Studies in hippocampal neuronal precursor cells (HNPCs) demonstrate that IGF-1 stimulates a RIT1-dependent increase in Sox2 levels, resulting in pro-neural gene expression and increased cellular proliferation...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599598/uniform-neural-tissue-models-produced-on-synthetic-hydrogels-using-standard-culture-techniques
#13
Christopher Barry, Matthew T Schmitz, Nicholas E Propson, Zhonggang Hou, Jue Zhang, Bao K Nguyen, Jennifer M Bolin, Peng Jiang, Brian E McIntosh, Mitchell D Probasco, Scott Swanson, Ron Stewart, James A Thomson, Michael P Schwartz, William L Murphy
The aim of the present study was to test sample reproducibility for model neural tissues formed on synthetic hydrogels. Human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived precursor cells were cultured on synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels to promote differentiation and self-organization into model neural tissue constructs. Neural progenitor, vascular, and microglial precursor cells were combined on PEG hydrogels to mimic developmental timing, which produced multicomponent neural constructs with 3D neuronal and glial organization, organized vascular networks, and microglia with ramified morphologies...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594400/the-role-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-expressing-the-gpr17-receptor-in-brain-remodeling-after-stroke
#14
Elisabetta Bonfanti, Paolo Gelosa, Marta Fumagalli, Leda Dimou, Francesca Viganò, Elena Tremoli, Mauro Cimino, Luigi Sironi, Maria P Abbracchio
Following stroke-induced neuronal damage, quiescent oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are activated to proliferate and later to differentiate to myelin-producing cells. GPR17, a receptor transiently expressed on early OPCs, has emerged as a target to implement stroke repair through stimulation of OPC maturation. However, being GPR17 completely downregulated in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, its actual role in determining the final fate of OPCs after cerebral ischemia is still uncertain. Here, to univocally define the spatiotemporal changes and final fate of GPR17-expressing OPCs, we induced ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in reporter GPR17iCreER(T2):CAG-eGreen florescent protein (GFP) mice, in which, upon tamoxifen treatment, cells expressing GPR17 become green and traceable for their entire life...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591654/hypoxia-epigenetically-confers-astrocytic-differentiation-potential-on-human-pluripotent-cell-derived-neural-precursor-cells
#15
Tetsuro Yasui, Naohiro Uezono, Hideyuki Nakashima, Hirofumi Noguchi, Taito Matsuda, Tomoko Noda-Andoh, Hideyuki Okano, Kinichi Nakashima
Human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells display a high propensity for neuronal differentiation, but they require long-term culturing to differentiate efficiently into astrocytes. The mechanisms underlying this biased fate specification of hNPCs remain elusive. Here, we show that hypoxia confers astrocytic differentiation potential on hNPCs through epigenetic gene regulation, and that this was achieved by cooperation between hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and Notch signaling, accompanied by a reduction of DNA methylation level in the promoter region of a typical astrocyte-specific gene, Glial fibrillary acidic protein...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587927/the-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-the-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cacnb4-regulates-the-rate-of-cell-proliferation-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#16
Mohamad Rima, Marwa Daghsni, Stephan De Waard, Nathalie Gaborit, Ziad Fajloun, Michel Ronjat, Yasuo Mori, Juan L Brusés, Michel De Waard
The β subunits of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) are cytosolic proteins that interact with the VGCC pore -forming subunit and participate in the trafficking of the channel to the cell membrane and in ion influx regulation. β subunits also exert functions independently of their binding to VGCC by translocation to the cell nucleus including the control of gene expression. Mutations of the neuronal Cacnb4 (β4) subunit are linked to human neuropsychiatric disorders including epilepsy and intellectual disabilities...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585199/adipose-tissue-function-and-expandability-as-determinants-of-lipotoxicity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Stefania Carobbio, Vanessa Pellegrinelli, Antonio Vidal-Puig
The adipose tissue organ is organised as distinct anatomical depots located all along the body axis and it is constituted of three different types of adipocytes : white, beige and brown which are integrated with vascular, immune, neural and extracellular stroma cells. These distinct adipocytes serve different specialised functions. The main function of white adipocytes is to ensure healthy storage of excess nutrients/energy and its rapid mobilisation to supply the demand of energy imposed by physiological cues in other organs, whereas brown and beige adipocytes are designed for heat production through uncoupling lipid oxidation from energy production...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578938/overexpression-of-nedd9-promotes-cell-invasion-and-metastasis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Senjun Zhou, Ming Xu, Jiliang Shen, Xiaolong Liu, Mingming Chen, Xiujun Cai
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9), is a focal adhesion scaffold protein which has been associated with metastasis in several cancers. Recent study found that NEDD9 expression was upregulated in HCC. However, the precise function of NEDD9 in HCC is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that high NEDD9 expression was associated with the invasiveness of HCC in clinical samples. Moreover, by gain-and-loss function studies, we revealed that silencing of NEDD9 expression inhibited cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion, while upregulated expression of NEDD9 promoted invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo...
May 31, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578678/changes-in-the-neuropeptide-content-of-biomphalaria-ganglia-nervous-system-following-schistosoma-infection
#19
Tianfang Wang, Min Zhao, Di Liang, Utpal Bose, Satwant Kaur, Donald P McManus, Scott F Cummins
BACKGROUND: Molluscs, including snails, are prone to parasite infection, which can lead to massive physiological and behavioural changes, yet many of the molecular components involved remain unresolved. Central to this point is the neural system that in snails consists of several ganglia that regulate the animals' physiology and behaviour patterns. The availability of a genomic resource for the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provides a mean towards the high throughput analysis of changes in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with Schistosoma miracidia...
June 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575744/decreased-neural-precursor-cell-pool-in-nadph-oxidase-2-deficiency-from-mouse-brain-to-neural-differentiation-of-patient-derived-ipsc
#20
Zeynab Nayernia, Marilena Colaianna, Natalia Robledinos-Antón, Eveline Gutzwiller, Frédérique Sloan-Béna, Elisavet Stathaki, Yousef Hibaoui, Antonio Cuadrado, Jürgen Hescheler, Marie-José Stasia, Tomo Saric, Vincent Jaquet, Karl-Heinz Krause
There is emerging evidence for the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of stem cells and cellular differentiation. Absence of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase NOX2 in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, predominantly manifests as immune deficiency, but has also been associated with decreased cognition. Here, we investigate the role of NOX enzymes in neuronal homeostasis in adult mouse brain and in neural cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). High levels of NOX2 were found in mouse adult neurogenic regions...
April 24, 2017: Redox Biology
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