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neural precursor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430183/neuroprotectin-d1-upregulates-iduna-expression-and-provides-protection-in-cellular-uncompensated-oxidative-stress-and-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#1
Ludmila Belayev, Pranab K Mukherjee, Veronica Balaszczuk, Jorgelina M Calandria, Andre Obenaus, Larissa Khoutorova, Sung-Ha Hong, Nicolas G Bazan
Ring finger protein 146 (Iduna) facilitates DNA repair and protects against cell death induced by NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity or by cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived lipid mediator, promotes cell survival under uncompensated oxidative stress (UOS). Our data demonstrate that NPD1 potently upregulates Iduna expression and provides remarkable cell protection against UOS. Iduna, which was increased by the lipid mediator, requires the presence of the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) sites...
April 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428068/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-for-several-migrating-cell-types-identifies-cell-migration-regulators
#2
Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Heather Leigh Curtis, Angelike Stathopoulos
Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types...
April 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424582/hypothalamic-neurogenesis-as-an-adaptive-metabolic-mechanism
#3
REVIEW
Antonia Recabal, Teresa Caprile, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
In the adult brain, well-characterized neurogenic niches are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In both regions, neural precursor cells (NPCs) share markers of embryonic radial glia and astroglial cells, and in vitro clonal expansion of these cells leads to neurosphere formation. It has also been more recently demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, a brain structure that integrates peripheral signals to control energy balance and dietary intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423617/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-is-translationally-upregulated-and-facilitates-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Min Weng, Zhu-Lin Luo, Xiao-Ling Wu, Wei-Zheng Zeng
AIM: To determine the regulation and function of the neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) in PDAC and to determine its dependency on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and PI3K/AKT signaling. METHODS: We investigated the expression of NEDD4 and the tumor suppressor PTEN in normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cell line and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines. We further evaluated whether RNAi-mediated depletion of NEDD4 can attenuate PDAC cell proliferation and migration...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415465/photochemical-coating-of-kapton%C3%A2-with-hydrophilic-polymers-for-the-improvement-of-neural-implants
#5
Christoph Hadler, Kirsten Wissel, Gudrun Brandes, Wibke Dempwolf, Günter Reuter, Thomas Lenarz, Henning Menzel
The polyimide Kapton® was coated photochemically with hydrophilic polymers to prevent undesirable cell growth on the polyimide surface. The polymer coatings were generated using photochemically reactive polymers synthesized by a simple and modular strategy. Suitable polymers or previously synthesized copolymer precursors were functionalized with photoactive arylazide groups by a polymer analogous amide coupling reaction with 4-azidobenzoic acid. A photoactive chitosan derivative (chitosan-Az) and photochemically reactive copolymers containing DMAA, DEAA or MTA as primary monomers were synthesized using this method...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409314/regulation-of-asymmetric-cell-division-in-mammalian-neural-stem-and-cancer-precursor-cells
#6
Mathieu Daynac, Claudia K Petritsch
Stem and progenitor cells are characterized by their abilities to self-renew and produce differentiated progeny. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is achieved through control of cell division mode, which can be either asymmetric or symmetric. Failure to properly control cell division mode may result in premature depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool or abnormal growth and impaired differentiation. In many tissues, including the brain, stem cells and progenitor cells undergo asymmetric cell division through the establishment of cell polarity...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400715/doublecortin-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#7
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Key Points Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein.Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, but at a lower level of expression than in neuronal precursor.Doublecortin is not associated with a potential immature neuronal phenotype in Oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during embryogenesis and early stages of post-natal life. OPCs continue to divide throughout adulthood and some eventually differentiate into oligodendrocytes in response to demyelinating lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396626/pattern-of-neurogenesis-and-identification-of-neuronal-progenitor-subtypes-during-pallial-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#8
Nerea Moreno, Agustín González
The complexity of the pallium during evolution has increased dramatically in many different respects. The highest level of complexity is found in mammals, where most of the pallium (cortex) shows a layered organization and neurons are generated during development following an inside-out order, a sequence not observed in other amniotes (birds and reptiles). Species-differences may be related to major neurogenetic events, from the neural progenitors that divide and produce all pallial cells. In mammals, two main types of precursors have been described, primary precursor cells in the ventricular zone (vz; also called radial glial cells or apical progenitors) and secondary precursor cells (called basal or intermediate progenitors) separated from the ventricle surface...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394883/pdgf-signalling-guides-neural-crest-contribution-to-the-haematopoietic-stem-cell-specification-niche
#9
Erich W Damm, Wilson K Clements
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) support maintenance of the haematopoietic and immune systems throughout the life of vertebrates, and are the therapeutic component of bone marrow transplants. Understanding native specification of HSCs, to uncover key signals that might help improve in vitro directed differentiation protocols, has been a long-standing biomedical goal. The current impossibility of specifying true HSCs in vitro suggests that key signals remain unknown. We speculated that such signals might be presented by surrounding 'niche' cells, but no such cells have been defined...
April 10, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392360/matrine-promotes-nt3-expression-in-cns-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#10
Ming-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Jian Zhang, Jian Kang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Long Chen, Nan Liu, Shu-Qing Liu, Wen-Di Ma, Guang-Xian Zhang, Lin Zhu
Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) is a potent neurotrophic factor for promoting remyelination and recovery of neuronal function; upregulation of its expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is thus of major therapeutic importance for neurological deficits. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flavescent, has been recently reported to effectively ameliorate clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by secreting antiinflammatory cytokines...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386027/self-organized-notch-dynamics-generate-stereotyped-sensory-organ-patterns-in-drosophila
#11
Francis Corson, Lydie Couturier, Hervé Rouault, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
The emergence of spatial patterns in developing multicellular organisms relies on positional cues and cell-cell communication. Drosophila sensory organs have informed a paradigm where these operate in two distinct steps: prepattern factors drive localized proneural activity, then Notch-mediated lateral inhibition singles out neural precursors. Here we show that self-organization through Notch signaling also organizes the proneural stripes that resolve into rows of sensory bristles on the fly thorax. Patterning, initiated by a gradient of Delta ligand expression, progresses through inhibitory signaling between and within stripes...
April 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383056/involvement-of-epithelial-na-channel-in-the-elevated-myogenic-response-in-posterior-cerebral-arteries-from-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Soo-Kyoung Choi, Soo-In Yeon, Youngin Kwon, Seonhee Byeon, Young-Ho Lee
Hypertension is characterized by increased peripheral vascular resistance which is related with elevated myogenic response. Recent findings have indicated that epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in mechanotransduction of the myogenic response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ENaC in the elevated myogenic response of posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Sixteen to eighteen weeks old male wistar kyoto rats (WKYs) and SHRs were used in this study...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382744/exercise-and-bdnf-reduce-a%C3%AE-production-by-enhancing-%C3%AE-secretase-processing-of-app
#13
Saket M Nigam, Shaohua Xu, Joanna S Kritikou, Krisztina Marosi, Lennart Brodin, Mark P Mattson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by aggregation of toxic forms of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Treatment strategies have largely been focused on inhibiting the enzymes (β- and γ-secretases) that liberate Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). While evidence suggests that individuals who exercise regularly are at reduced risk for AD and studies of animal models demonstrate that running can ameliorate brain Aβ pathology and associated cognitive deficits, the underlying mechanisms are unknown...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377365/-research-progress-of-skin-derived-precursor-cells
#14
Ruo-Si Chen, Yong Miao, Zhi-Qi Hu
As a novel population of neural crest-origin precursor cells, skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) can be isolated from both embryonic and adult dermis. These cells have important values for research and potential clinical application in wound healing, organ regeneration and disease treatment for advantages in the abundance of cell sources, accessibility, potential of multipotent differentiation, and absence of ethical concerns. Here we review the developmental and anatomical origins of SKPs and their potential application in regenerative medicine...
March 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373075/recovery-from-experimental-parkinsonism-by-intrastriatal-application-of-erythropoietin-or-epo-releasing-neural-precursors
#15
Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Cristina Viaggi, Elisa Latorre, Zuzana Gombalova, Andrea Raspa, Massimiliano Mazza, Francesca Vaglini, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Alfredo Gorio
An extensive literature has shown a powerful neuroprotective action of Erythropoietin (EPO) both in vivo and in vitro. This study shows that EPO, whether ectopically administered or released by neural precursors, does reverse MPTP-induced parkinsonism in mice. Unilateral stereotaxic injection of 2.5 × 10(5) erythropoietin-releasing neural precursor cells (Er-NPCs) rescued degenerating striatal dopaminergic neurons and promoted behavioral recovery as shown by three independent behavioral tests. These effects were replicated through direct intrastriatal administration of recombinant human EPO...
April 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369080/facial-shape-differences-between-rats-selected-for-tame-and-aggressive-behaviors
#16
Nandini Singh, Frank W Albert, Irina Plyusnina, Lyudmila Trut, Svante Pӓӓbo, Katerina Harvati
Domestication has been consistently accompanied by a suite of traits called the domestication syndrome. These include increased docility, changes in coat coloration, prolonged juvenile behaviors, modified function of adrenal glands and reduced craniofacial dimensions. Wilkins et al recently proposed that the mechanistic factor underlying traits that encompass the domestication syndrome was altered neural crest cell (NCC) development. NCC form the precursors to a large number of tissue types including pigment cells, adrenal glands, teeth and the bones of the face...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363865/high-affinity-binding-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-to-calmodulin-structural-and-functional-implications
#17
Isaac Corbacho, María Berrocal, Katalin Török, Ana M Mata, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino
Amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) are a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their neurotoxicity develop with cytosolic calcium dysregulation. On the other hand, calmodulin (CaM), a protein which plays a major multifunctional role in neuronal calcium signaling, has been shown to be involved in the regulation of non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid β precursor protein (APP). Using fluorescent 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene derivatives of CaM, Badan-CaM, and human amyloid β(1-42) HiLyte™-Fluor555, we show in this work that Aβ binds with high affinity to CaM through the neurotoxic Aβ25-35 domain...
March 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363755/an-investigation-of-gene-expression-in-single-cells-derived-from-nestin-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain-in-vivo
#18
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Generation of new dopamine (DA) neurons in the adult midbrain is a controversial issue in development of better treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous research suggests Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) have a propensity to differentiate into neurons here, including DA neurons. In the present study we sought confirmation of this by studying gene expression in single Nestin-expressing cells and their progeny/ontogeny within the adult mouse midbrain. Cells were identified by administering a pulse of Tamoxifen to adult Nestin-CreER(T2)×R26eYFP transgenic mice...
March 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361918/single-cell-rna-sequencing-identifies-distinct-mouse-medial-ganglionic-eminence-cell-types
#19
Ying-Jiun J Chen, Brad A Friedman, Connie Ha, Steffen Durinck, Jinfeng Liu, John L Rubenstein, Somasekar Seshagiri, Zora Modrusan
Many subtypes of cortical interneurons (CINs) are found in adult mouse cortices, but the mechanism generating their diversity remains elusive. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the mouse embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the major birthplace for CINs, and on MGE-like cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Two distinct cell types were identified as proliferating neural progenitors and immature neurons, both of which comprised sub-populations. Although lineage development of MGE progenitors was reconstructed and immature neurons were characterized as GABAergic, cells that might correspond to precursors of different CINs were not identified...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360834/an-aberrant-phosphorylation-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-tyrosine-regulates-its-trafficking-and-the-binding-to-the-clathrin-endocytic-complex-in-neural-stem-cells-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#20
Ebbe T Poulsen, Filomena Iannuzzi, Helle F Rasmussen, Thorsten J Maier, Jan J Enghild, Arne L Jørgensen, Carmela Matrone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is likely caused by defective amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking and processing in neurons leading to amyloid plaques containing the amyloid-β (Aβ) APP peptide byproducts. Understanding how APP is targeted to selected destinations inside neurons and identifying the mechanisms responsible for the generation of Aβ are thus the keys for the advancement of new therapies. We previously developed a mouse model with a mutation at tyrosine (Tyr) 682 in the C-terminus of APP...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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