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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813139/tunable-injectable-hydrogels-based-on-peptide-crosslinked-cyclized-polymer-nanoparticles-for-neural-progenitor-cell-delivery
#1
Tianyu Zhao, Drew L Sellers, Yilong Cheng, Philip J Horner, Suzie H Pun
A PEG-based cyclized vinyl polymer was synthesized via one-step RAFT polymerization and used as a precursor of injectable hydrogels. Dithiol linkers including laminin-derived peptides containing IKVAV and YIGSR sequences and DTT were used for gelation. Fast and adjustable gelation rate was achieved through nucleophile-initiated thiol-Michael reaction under physiological conditions. Low swelling ratio and moderate degradation rate of the formed hydrogels were observed. 3D encapsulation of neural progenitor cells in the synthetic hydrogel showed good cell viability over 8 days...
August 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804501/regulatory-role-of-redox-balance-in-determination-of-neural-precursor-cell-fate
#2
REVIEW
Mohamed Ariff Iqbal, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
In 1990s, reports of discovery of a small group of cells capable of proliferation and contribution to formation of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) reversed a century-old concept on lack of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. These cells are found in all stages of human life and contribute to normal cellular turnover of the CNS. Therefore, the identity of regulating factors that affect their proliferation and differentiation is a highly noteworthy issue for basic scientists and their clinician counterparts for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802492/blue-nevi-and-related-tumors
#3
REVIEW
Artur Zembowicz
The major entities related to blue nevus are common blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, atypical blue nevus, and malignant blue nevus. These lesions share presence of dermal pigmented dendritic melanocytes derived from embryonal precursors to melanocytes, Schwann cells, and glial cells migrating to the skin from the ventral neural crest. Genetically, blue nevi harbor mutations in G-protein-coupled receptor subunits GNAQ and GNA11. Progression to malignant blue nevus is associated with additional mutations and partial gains and losses of chromosomal material...
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793248/replicable-expansion-and-differentiation-of-neural-precursors-from-adult-canine-skin
#4
Thomas Duncan, Aileen Lowe, Kuldip Sidhu, Perminder Sachdev, Trevor Lewis, Ruby C Y Lin, Vladimir Sytnyk, Michael Valenzuela
Repopulation of brain circuits by neural precursors is a potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders; however, choice of cell is critical. Previously, we introduced a two-step culture system that generates a high yield of neural precursors from small samples of adult canine skin. Here, we probe their gene and protein expression profiles in comparison with dermal fibroblasts and brain-derived neural stem cells and characterize their neuronal potential. To date, we have produced >50 skin-derived neural precursor (SKN) lines...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789997/environmentally-relevant-level-of-aflatoxin-b1-elicits-toxic-pro-inflammatory-response-in-murine-cns-derived-cells
#5
Jalil Mehrzad, Amir Mohammad Malvandi, Mohsen Alipour, Saman Hosseinkhani
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a well-known member of aflatoxins (AFs) that is considered among highly stable toxic contaminants of food, worldwide. The impact of AFB1 on neural cells and systems has poorly been understood. To assess the cellular effects of AFB1 on brain, we used murine pure primary astrocytes, sub ventricular zone-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs) and microglia cell line (BV2). Cells were exposed separately to environmentally relevant level (20ng/ml) of AFB1 for 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h in culture...
August 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776186/home-sweet-home-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-throughout-development-and-after-injury
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca M Ruddy, Cindi M Morshead
Neural stem cells and their progeny reside in two distinct neurogenic niches within the mammalian brain: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus. The interplay between the neural stem cells and the niche in which they reside can have significant effects on cell kinetics and neurogenesis. A comprehensive understanding of the changes to the niche that occur through postnatal development and aging, as well as following injury, is relevant for developing therapeutics and interventions to promote neural repair...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770113/potential-roles-of-exosomal-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-application-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Jian-Jiao Chen, Bin Zhao, Jie Zhao, Shao Li
Exosomes are bilipid layer-enclosed vesicles derived from endosomes and are released from neural cells. They contain a diversity of proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that are delivered to neighboring cells and/or are transported to distant sites. miRNAs released from exosomes appear to be associated with multiple neurodegenerative conditions linking to Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is marked by hyperphosphorylated tau proteins and accumulation of Aβ plaques. Exciting findings reveal that miRNAs released from exosomes modulate the expression and function of amyloid precursor proteins (APP) and tau proteins...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761086/serotonin-hormonally-regulates-lacrimal-gland-secretory-function-via-the-serotonin-type-3a-receptor
#8
Toshihiro Imada, Shigeru Nakamura, Ryuji Hisamura, Yusuke Izuta, Kai Jin, Masataka Ito, Naoki Kitamura, Kenji F Tanaka, Masaru Mimura, Izumi Shibuya, Kazuo Tsubota
Tears are extracellular fluid secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG). Tears consist of a dynamic tri-layered film composed of secretions from the LG, Meibomian gland, and conjunctival goblet cells. The LG secretes the aqueous component of the tear, the Meibomian gland secretes the lipid component, and conjunctival goblet cells secrete mucin. The regulation of LG activity via the autonomic nervous system has been recognized as fundamental to maintaining aqueous tear flow. Here, we describe the role of a hormone, peripheral serotonin, in tear secretion...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760868/polysialylation-at-early-stages-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-promotes-myelin-repair
#9
Sebastian Werneburg, Hazel L S Fuchs, Iris Albers, Hannelore Burkhardt, Viktoria Gudi, Thomas Skripuletz, Martin Stangel, Rita Gerardy-Schahn, Herbert Hildebrandt
Polysialic acid is a glycan modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM produced by the polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4. Polysialic acid has been detected in multiple sclerosis plaques but its beneficial or adverse role in remyelination is elusive. Here, we show that, despite a developmental delay, myelination at the onset and during cuprizone-induced demyelination was unaffected in male Ncam1(-/-) or St8sia2(-/-) mice. However, remyelination, restoration of oligodendrocyte densities and motor recovery after cessation of cuprizone treatment were compromised...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756311/neurogenesis-impairment-an-early-developmental-defect-in-down-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Sandra Guidi, Renata Bartesaghi
Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by brain hypotrophy and intellectual disability starting from early life stages. Accumulating evidence shows that the phenotypic features of the DS brain can be traced back to the fetal period since the DS brain exhibits proliferation potency reduction starting from the critical time window of fetal neurogenesis. This defect is worsened by the fact that neural progenitor cells exhibit reduced acquisition of a neuronal phenotype and an increase in the acquisition of an astrocytic phenotype...
July 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753576/isoxazole-compound-ml327-blocks-myc-expression-and-tumor-formation-in-neuroblastoma
#11
Eric J Rellinger, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Jingbo Qiao, Brian T Craig, Hanbing An, Jing Zhu, Hernán Correa, Alex G Waterson, Craig W Lindsley, R Daniel Beauchamp, Dai H Chung
Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumors in children and arise from the embryonic neural crest. MYCN-amplification is a feature of ~30% of neuroblastoma tumors and portends a poor prognosis. Neural crest precursors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to gain migratory potential and populate the sympathoadrenal axis. Neuroblastomas are posited to arise due to a blockade of neural crest differentiation. We have recently reported effects of a novel MET inducing compound ML327 (N-(3-(2-hydroxynicotinamido) propyl)-5-phenylisoxazole-3-carboxamide) in colon cancer cells...
July 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751784/rapid-generation-of-opc-like-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Dae-Sung Kim, Se Jung Jung, Jae Souk Lee, Bo Young Lim, Hyun Ah Kim, Jeong-Eun Yoo, Dong-Wook Kim, Joong Woo Leem
Remyelination via the transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been considered as a strategy to improve the locomotor deficits caused by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, enormous efforts have been made to derive OPCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), and significant progress in the transplantation of such cells in SCI animal models has been reported. The current methods generally require a long period of time (>2 months) to obtain transplantable OPCs, which hampers their clinical utility for patients with SCI...
July 28, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745938/inhibition-of-nedd4-inhibits-cell-growth-and-invasion-and-induces-cell-apoptosis-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#13
Wu Wen, Jingying Li, Longwang Wang, Yifei Xing, Xuechao Li, Hailong Ruan, Xiaoqing Xi, Jianhua Xiong, Renrui Kuang
The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4 (NEDD4) plays a pivotal oncogenic role in various types of human cancers. However, the function of NEDD4 in bladder cancer has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we aim to explore whether NEDD4 governs cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer cells. Our results showed that downregulation of NEDD4 suppressed cell proliferation in bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we found that inhibition of NEDD4 significantly induced cell apoptosis...
July 26, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743797/sonic-hedgehog-from-both-nerves-and-epithelium-is-a-key-trophic-factor-for-taste-bud-maintenance
#14
David Castillo-Azofeifa, Justin T Losacco, Ernesto Salcedo, Erin J Golden, Thomas E Finger, Linda A Barlow
The integrity of taste buds is intimately dependent on an intact gustatory innervation, yet the molecular nature of this dependency is unknown. Here we show differentiation of new taste bud cells, but not progenitor proliferation, is interrupted in mice treated with a Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor (HPI), and that gustatory nerves are a source of Shh for taste bud renewal. Additionally, epithelial taste precursor cells express Shh transiently, and are a local supply of Hh ligand supporting taste cell renewal...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743044/electrophysiological-and-gene-expression-characterization-of-the-ontogeny-of-nestin-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#15
Anupama Dey, Parisa Farzanehfar, Elena V Gazina, Tim D Aumann
The birth of new neurons, or neurogenesis, in the adult midbrain is important for progressing dopamine cell-replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Most studies suggest newborn cells remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia within the adult midbrain. However, some studies suggest nestin+neural precursor cells (NPCs) have a propensity to generate new neurons here. We sought to confirm this by administering tamoxifen to adult NesCreER(T2)/R26eYFP transgenic mice, which permanently labelled adult nestin-expressing cells and their progeny with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP)...
July 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741412/directly-induced-neural-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-using-3d-culture-system-of-conductive-microwell-with-electrical-stimulation
#16
Dong Nyung Heo, Nana Acquah, Junghoon Kim, Se-Jun Lee, Nathan J Castro, Lijie Grace Zhang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into neural precursor cells which can be used for nerve regeneration. However, their inherently low neurogenic differentiation efficiency limits further clinical applications. This study was designed to promote neurogenic differentiation efficacy of ADSCs via integrating conductive hydrogel-based microwells with electrical stimulation (ES). We hypothesize that ADSCs will differentiate more efficiently into neural precursor cells when electrically stimulated in conductive hydrogel microwells...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740121/overexpression-of-dnmt3b-target-genes-during-enteric-nervous-system-development-contribute-to-the-onset-of-hirschsprung-disease
#17
Leticia Villalba-Benito, Ana Torroglosa, Raquel María Fernández, Macarena Ruíz-Ferrer, María José Moya-Jiménez, Guillermo Antiñolo, Salud Borrego
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is attributed to a failure of neural crest cells (NCCs) to migrate, proliferate, differentiate and/or survive in the bowel wall during embryonic Enteric Nervous System (ENS) development. ENS formation is the result from a specific gene expression pattern regulated by epigenetic events, such DNA methylation by the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), among other mechanisms. Specifically, DNMT3b de novo methyltransferase is associated with NCCs development and has been shown to be implicated in ENS formation and in HSCR...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#18
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736165/intra-lineage-fate-decisions-involve-activation-of-notch-receptors-basal-to-the-midbody-in-drosophila-sensory-organ-precursor-cells
#19
Mateusz Trylinski, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Notch receptors regulate cell fate decisions during embryogenesis and throughout adult life. In many cell lineages, binary fate decisions are mediated by directional Notch signaling between the two sister cells produced by cell division. How Notch signaling is restricted to sister cells after division to regulate intra-lineage decision is poorly understood. More generally, where ligand-dependent activation of Notch occurs at the cell surface is not known, as methods to detect receptor activation in vivo are lacking...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736034/salvianolic-acid-b-promotes-microglial-m2-polarization-and-rescues-neurogenesis-in-stress-exposed-mice
#20
Jinqiang Zhang, Xiaofang Xie, Mingming Tang, Jing Zhang, Boyang Zhang, Qiuying Zhao, Yue Han, Wan Yan, Cheng Peng, Zili You
Although accumulating evidence suggests that activated microglia are associated with deficits in neurogenesis and contribute to the physiopathology of major depressive disorder, the role of microglia in treating depression remains poorly understood. Our previous study showed that salvianolic acid (SalB) has the regulation of neuroinflammatory responses and antidepressant-like effects. Here, we hypothesized that SalB's therapeutic effects occur because it modulates microglial phenotypes that are associated with neurogenesis...
July 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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