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neural precursor cell

Guang Yang, Gonzalo I Cancino, Siraj K Zahr, Axel Guskjolen, Anastassia Voronova, Denis Gallagher, Paul W Frankland, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller
Maternal diabetes is known to adversely influence brain development in offspring. Here, we provide evidence that this involves the circulating metabolite methylglyoxal, which is increased in diabetes, and its detoxifying enzyme, glyoxalase 1 (Glo1), which when mutated is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, when Glo1 levels were decreased in embryonic mouse cortical neural precursor cells (NPCs), this led to premature neurogenesis and NPC depletion embryonically and long-term alterations in cortical neurons postnatally...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Bo Chen, Xiaoyuan Deng, Bin Wang, Hongliang Liu
Propofol can induce acute neuronal apoptosis, neuronal loss or long-term cognitive impairment when exposed in neonatal rodents, but the mechanisms by which propofol induces developmental neurotoxicity are unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that propofol can increase the TNF-α level in the developing brain, but there is a lack of direct evidence to show whether TNF-α is partially or fully involved in propofol-induced neurotoxicity. The present study shows that propofol exposure in neonatal rats induces an increase of TNF-α in the cerebral spinal fluid, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
V Pibiri, A Ravarino, C Gerosa, M C Pintus, V Fanos, G Faa
The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Marco Bacigaluppi, Gianluca Luigi Russo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Silvia Rossi, Stefano Sandrone, Erica Butti, Roberta De Ceglia, Andrea Bergamaschi, Caterina Motta, Mattia Gallizioli, Valeria Studer, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Giancarlo Comi, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Luca Muzio, Claudia Villani, Roberto William Invernizzi, Dirk Matthias Hermann, Diego Centonze, Gianvito Martino
: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, but effective therapies are currently widely lacking. Recovery from stroke is very much dependent on the possibility to develop treatments able to both halt the neurodegenerative process as well as to foster adaptive tissue plasticity. Here we show that ischemic mice treated with neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation had on neurophysiological analysis, early after treatment, reduced presynaptic release of glutamate within the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST), and an enhanced NMDA-mediated excitatory transmission in the contralesional CST...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nolan B Skop, Frances Calderon, Cheul H Cho, Chirag D Gandhi, Steven W Levison
Tissue engineering using stem cells is widely used to repair damaged tissues in diverse biological systems; however, this approach has met with less success in regenerating the central nervous system (CNS). In this study we optimized and characterized the surface chemistry of chitosan-based scaffolds for CNS repair. To maintain radial glial cell (RGC) character of primitive neural precursors, fibronectin was adsorbed to chitosan. The chitosan was further modified by covalently linking heparin using genipin, which then served as a linker to immobilize fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), creating a multifunctional film...
October 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Li Hui Wu, Xiao Ting Shao, Jun Xia Guo, Hui Sun, Qi Chen, Jing Pan, Qian Qian Cai, Yi Wei Dong, Zhong Yi Chen, Xiao Mei Yan, Min Peng, Nanbert Zhong, Xing Zhong Wu
Sialic acid modification is a kind of post-translational modification. To investigate the regulation effect of sialic acid on neural differentiation, we used CycloManN propanyl perac (CycloManN pro), a metabolic precursor of sialic acid, to treat PC12 cells. We noted that CycloManN pro indeed robustly promoted global sialylation detected by MAL II lectin blot in PC12 cells. Simultaneously, we interestingly found that the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells was significantly promoted by the CycloManN pro treatment...
October 10, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
José de Jesús Guerrero-García, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Ana Laura Márquez-Aguirre, Argelia Esperanza Rojas-Mayorquín, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the Central Nervous System that has been associated with several environmental factors, such as diet and obesity. The possible link between MS and obesity has become more interesting in recent years since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue. Once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increased disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress and treatment response, but, also, obesity in early life is highly relevant as a susceptibility factor and causally related risk for late MS development...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Kwan-Long Mung, Yat-Ping Tsui, Evelyn Wing-Yin Tai, Ying-Shing Chan, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Graham Ka-Hon Shea
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive as a source of neural progenitors for ex vivo generation of neurons and glia. Limited numbers of this subpopulation, however, hinder translation into autologous cell-based therapy. Here, we demonstrate rapid and efficient conditioning with hypoxia to enrich for these neural progenitor cells prior to further expansion in neurosphere culture. METHOD: Adherent cultures of BMSCs (rat/human) were subjected to 1 % oxygen for 24 h and then subcultured as neurospheres with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor supplementation...
October 7, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Zoe H Larsen, Praveen Chander, Jason A Joyner, Crina M Floruta, Tess L Demeter, Jason P Weick
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in animal models results in excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) imbalance in neocortex due to alterations in the GABAergic interneuron (IN) differentiation and migration. Thus, E/I imbalance is a potential cause for intellectual disability in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), but whether ethanol (EtOH) changes glutamatergic and GABAergic IN specification during human development remains unknown. Here, we created a human cellular model of PAE/FASD and tested the hypothesis that EtOH exposure during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (hPSNs) would cause the aberrant production of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, resulting in E/I imbalance...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Peng Li, Tingting Sun, Qingzhong Yuan, Guozheng Pan, Jian Zhang, Diwen Sun
BACKGROUND: Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9), a member of Crk-associated substrate family, is involved in cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. E-cadherin is a key event in the cellular invasion during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among NEDD9 expression, E-cadherin expression, and survival in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Lauren N Russell, Kyle J Lampe
Millions of people suffer from damage or disease to the nervous system that results in a loss of myelin, such as through a spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. Diminished myelin levels lead to further cell death in which unmyelinated neurons die. In the central nervous system, a loss of myelin is especially detrimental because of its poor ability to regenerate. Cell therapies such as stem or precursor cell injection have been investigated as stem cells are able to grow and differentiate into the damaged cells; however, stem cell injection alone has been unsuccessful in many areas of neural regeneration...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yi Young Kim, Ivan Roubal, Youn Soo Lee, Jin Seok Kim, Michael Hoang, Nathan Mathiyakom, Yong Kim
Adverse effect of alcohol on neural function has been well documented. Especially, the teratogenic effect of alcohol on neurodevelopment during embryogenesis has been demonstrated in various models, which could be a pathologic basis for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). While the developmental defects from alcohol abuse during gestation have been described, the specific mechanisms by which alcohol mediates these injuries have yet to be determined. Recent studies have shown that alcohol has significant effect on molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation including genes involved in neural development...
2016: PloS One
Tyler Square, David Jandzik, Maria Cattell, Andrew Hansen, Daniel Meulemans Medeiros
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are highly patterned embryonic cells that migrate along stereotyped routes to give rise to a diverse array of adult tissues and cell types. Modern NCCs are thought to have evolved from migratory neural precursors with limited developmental potential and patterning. How this occurred is poorly understood. Endothelin signaling regulates several aspects of NCC development, including their migration, differentiation, and patterning. In jawed vertebrates, Endothelin signaling involves multiple functionally distinct ligands (Edns) and receptors (Ednrs) expressed in various NCC subpopulations...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shiwei Wang, Marta Bolós, Rosemary Clark, Carlie L Cullen, Katherine A Southam, Lisa Foa, Tracey C Dickson, Kaylene M Young
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls...
September 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Shauna L Houlihan, Alison A Lanctot, Yan Guo, Yuanyi Feng
Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs' neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs...
September 24, 2016: ELife
Jin Dai, Peter G Van Wie, Leonard Yenwong Fai, Donghern Kim, Lei Wang, Pratheeshkumar Poyil, Jia Luo, Zhuo Zhang
Apigenin is a natural flavonoid which possesses multiple anti-cancer properties such as anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein of the Cas family which has been shown to correlate with cancer metastasis and progression. The present study investigates the role of NEDD9 in apigenin-inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 and SW480 cells...
September 20, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ben Steventon, Roberto Mayor, Andrea Streit
Cranial placodes contribute to sensory structures including the inner ear, the lens and olfactory epithelium and the neurons of the cranial sensory ganglia. At neurula stages, placode precursors are interspersed in the ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate before segregating into distinct placodes by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we perform live imaging to follow placode progenitors as they aggregate to form the lens and otic placodes. We find that while placode progenitors move with the same speed as their non-placodal neighbours, they exhibit increased persistence and directionality and these properties are required to assemble morphological placodes...
September 22, 2016: Biology Open
Youngmin Han, Kyoung-Tae Kim
OBJECTIVE: Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Limin Jiang, Jingjun Zhang, Ping Xuan, Quan Zou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a set of short (21-24 nt) noncoding RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in cells. In the past few years, research on miRNA-related problems has become a hot field of bioinformatics because of miRNAs' essential biological function. miRNA-related bioinformatics analysis is beneficial in several aspects, including the functions of miRNAs and other genes, the regulatory network between miRNAs and their target mRNAs, and even biological evolution. Distinguishing miRNA precursors from other hairpin-like sequences is important and is an essential procedure in detecting novel microRNAs...
2016: BioMed Research International
Luca Braccioli, Cobi J Heijnen, Paul J Coffer, Cora H Nijboer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy causes mortality and severe morbidity in neonates. Treatments with a therapeutic window >6 h are currently not available. Here, we explored whether delayed transplantation of allogenic neural stem cells (NSCs) at 10 d after HI could be a tool to repair HI brain injury and improve behavioral impairments. METHODS: HI was induced in 9-d-old mice. Animals received NSCs or vehicle intracranially in the hippocampus at 10 d post-HI...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
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