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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327103/1h-13c-and-15n-resonance-assignments-of-nedd8-from-trypanosoma-brucei
#1
Rui Wang, Jiahai Zhang, Shanhui Liao, Xiaoming Tu
Neural precursor cell-expressed, developmently downregulated 8 (NEDD8) is a small ubiquitin-like modifier, which plays important roles in many cellular processes. Although it has been well studied in many eukaryotes, NEDD8 is still uncharacterized in some unicellular parasites, such as Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei). Here we report the resonance assignments of NEDD8 from T. brucei.
January 11, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325091/%C3%AE-secretase-adam10-physically-interacts-with-%C3%AE-secretase-bace1-in-neurons-and-regulates-chl1-proteolysis
#2
Xin Wang, Congcong Wang, Gang Pei
α-secretase and β-secretase are known to compete for amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and thus play a vital role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) mediate the major activities of α-secretase and β-secretase in brain and share various common substrates. However, whether they function separately or together is poorly understood. Here, we show that ADAM10 and BACE1 co-localize in the neurites of mouse primary neurons...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324888/transcription-factor-runx1-is-pro-neurogenic-in-adult-hippocampal-precursor-cells
#3
Hirokazu Fukui, Annette Rünker, Klaus Fabel, Frank Buchholz, Gerd Kempermann
Transcription factor Runx1 (Runt Related Transcription Factor 1), plays an important role in the differentiation of hematopoetic stem cells, angiogenesis and the development of nociceptive neurons. These known functions have in common that they relate to lineage decisions. We thus asked whether such role might also be found for Runx1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a process, in which such decisions have to be regulated lifelong. Runx1 shows a widespread low expression in the adult mouse brain, not particularly prominent in the hippocampus and the resident neural precursor cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322554/transcription-factor-foxc1-is-involved-in-anterior-part-of-cranial-base-formation
#4
Nandar Mya, Toshiko Furutera, Shigeru Okuhara, Tsutomu Kume, Masaki Takechi, Sachiko Iseki
The cranial base is a structure mainly formed through endochondral ossification, and integrated into the craniofacial complex acting as an underlying platform for developing brain. Foxc1 is an indispensable regulator during intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In this study, we found that the spontaneous loss of Foxc1 function mouse (congenital hydrocephalous), Foxc1ch/ch , showed the anterior cranial base defects including unossified presphenoid and lack of middle part of the basisphenoid bone. Consistently, hypoplastic presphenoid primordial cartilage (basal portion of the trabecular cartilage) and lack of the middle part of basisphenoid primordial cartilage (the hypophyseal cartilage) were observed at earlier developmental stage...
January 11, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317485/meis1-coordinates-cerebellar-granule-cell-development-by-regulating-pax6-transcription-bmp-signaling-and-atoh1-degradation
#5
Tomoo Owa, Shinichiro Taya, Satoshi Miyashita, Mariko Yamashita, Toma Adachi, Koyo Yamada, Miwa Yokoyama, Shogo Aida, Tomoki Nishioka, Yukiko U Inoue, Ryo Goitsuka, Takuro Nakamura, Takayoshi Inoue, Kozo Kaibuchi, Mikio Hoshino
Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and granule cells (GCs) represent good models to study neuronal development. Here we report that the transcription factor, Meis1, plays pivotal roles to regulate mouse GC development. We found that Meis1 is expressed in granule cell lineage cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum during development. Targeted disruption of the Meis1 gene specifically in the GC lineage resulted in smaller cerebella with disorganized lobules. Knockdown/knockout experiments for Meis1 as well as in vitro assays show that Meis1 binds to an upstream sequence of Pax6 to enhance its transcription in GCPs/GCs and further suggested that the Meis1-Pax6 cascade regulates morphology of GCPs/GCs during development...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315566/aerobic-exercise-promotes-hippocampal-neurogenesis-through-skeletal-myofibre-derived-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#6
I Vonderwalde, A Kovacs-Litman
The beneficial effects of exercise, including improved cognitive performance, memory, and mood, are well documented and thought to be a result of increased hippocampal neurogenesis through the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) within the dentate gyrus, although the mechanisms by which this occurs is unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306978/vascular-pattern-of-the-dentate-gyrus-is-regulated-by-neural-progenitors
#7
Ana Pombero, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Alicia Estirado, Salvador Martinez
Neurogenesis is a vital process that begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood, though in the latter case, it is restricted to the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, the DG's neurogenic properties are structurally and functionally unique, which may be related to its singular vascular pattern. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share molecular signals and act synergistically, supporting the concept of a neurogenic niche as a functional unit between neural precursors cells and their environment, in which the blood vessels play an important role...
January 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304842/erk-inhibition-promotes-neuroectodermal-precursor-commitment-by-blocking-self-renewal-and-primitive-streak-formation-of-the-epiblast
#8
Yang Yu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xiaoxin Zhang, Yanhua Zhai, Xukun Lu, Haixia Ma, Kai Zhu, Tongbiao Zhao, Jianwei Jiao, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. However, before clinical application, reproducible protocols for pluripotent stem cell differentiation should be established. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling plays a central role for the self-renewal of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), but its role for subsequent germ layer differentiation is still ambiguous. We proposed that ERK could modulate differentiation of the epiblast. METHODS: PD0325901 was used to inhibit ERK activation during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and EpiSCs...
January 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301501/inhibition-of-neddylation-facilitates-cell-migration-through-enhanced-phosphorylation-of-caveolin-1-in-pc3-and-u373mg-cells
#9
Sung Yeon Park, Jong-Wan Park, Gun-Woo Lee, Lan Li, Yang-Sook Chun
BACKGROUND: Protein neddylation is a post-translational modification by a covalent conjugation with the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8). Although this process has been reported to participate in diverse cellular signaling, little is known about its role in cancer cell migration. Given a recent proteomics report showing that NEDD8 is downregulated in prostate cancer tissues versus normal prostate tissues, we tested the possibility that neddylation plays a role in cancer evolution, and then tried to identify target proteins of the neddylation...
January 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299835/a-caenorhabditis-elegans-mass-spectrometric-resource-for-neuropeptidomics
#10
Sven Van Bael, Sven Zels, Kurt Boonen, Isabel Beets, Liliane Schoofs, Liesbet Temmerman
Neuropeptides are important signaling molecules used by nervous systems to mediate and fine-tune neuronal communication. They can function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in neural circuits, or they can be released as neurohormones to target distant cells and tissues. Neuropeptides are typically cleaved from larger precursor proteins by the action of proteases and can be the subject of post-translational modifications. The short, mature neuropeptide sequences often entail the only evolutionarily reasonably conserved regions in these precursor proteins...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295861/splunc1-is-an-allosteric-modulator-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel
#11
Christine Seulki Kim, Saira Ahmad, Tongde Wu, William G Walton, Matthew R Redinbo, Robert Tarran
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease with significantly increased mortality. CF airways exhibit ion transport abnormalities, including hyperactivity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). Short-palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is a multifunctional innate defense protein that is secreted into the airway lumen. We have previously demonstrated that SPLUNC1 binds to and inhibits ENaC to maintain fluid homeostasis in airway epithelia and that this process fails in CF airways. Despite this, how SPLUNC1 actually regulates ENaC is unknown...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295654/integration-of-transplanted-neural-precursors-with-the-injured-spinal-cord
#12
Victoria Marie Spruance, Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Kristiina M Hormigo, Margo L Randelman, Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Vitaliy Marchenko, Michael A Lane
Cervical spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in devastating functional consequences, including respiratory dysfunction. This is largely due to the disruption of phrenic pathways, which control the diaphragm. Recent work has identified spinal interneurons as possible contributors to respiratory neuroplasticity. The present work investigated whether transplantation of developing spinal cord tissue, inherently rich in interneuronal progenitors, could provide a population of new neurons and growth permissive substrate to facilitate plasticity and formation of novel relay circuits to restore input to the partially denervated phrenic motor circuit...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290961/dnmt3b-knock-down-in-enteric-precursors-reveals-a-possible-mechanism-by-which-this-de-novo-methyltransferase-is-involved-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-development-and-the-onset-of-hirschsprung-disease
#13
Ana Torroglosa, Leticia Villalba-Benito, Raquel María Fernández, María José Moya-Jiménez, Guillermo Antiñolo, Salud Borrego
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, OMIM 142623) is a pathology that shows a lack of enteric ganglia along of the distal gastrointestinal tract. This aganglionosis is attributed to an abnormal proliferation, migration, differentiation and/or survival of enteric precursor cells (EPCs) derived from neural crest cells (NCCs) during the enteric nervous system (ENS) embryogenesis. DNMT3b de novo methyltransferase is associated with NCCs development and has been shown to be implicated in ENS formation as well as in HSCR...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288689/skin-derived-precursor-schwann-cell-generated-acellular-matrix-modified-chitosan-silk-scaffolds-for-bridging-rat-sciatic-nerve-gap
#14
Changlai Zhu, Jing Huang, Chengbin Xue, Yaxian Wang, Shengran Wang, Shuangxi Bao, Ruyue Chen, Yuan Li, Yun Gu
Extracellular/acellular matrix has been attracted much research interests for its unique biological characteristics, and ACM modified neural scaffolds shows the remarkable role of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, skin-derived precursors pre-differentiated into Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) were used as parent cells to generate acellular(ACM) for constructing a ACM-modified neural scaffold. SKP-SCs were co-cultured with chitosan nerve guidance conduits (NGC) and silk fibroin filamentous fillers, followed by decellularization to stimulate ACM deposition...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285739/sonic-hedgehog-regulation-of-the-neural-precursor-cell-fate-during-chicken-optic-tectum-development
#15
Ciqing Yang, Xiaoying Li, Qiuling Li, Han Li, Liang Qiao, Zhikun Guo, Juntang Lin
During nervous system development, neurons project axons over long distances to reach the appropriate targets for correct neural circuit formation. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein and plays a key role in regulating vertebrate embryogenesis, especially in central nervous system (CNS) patterning, including neuronal migration and axonal projection in the brain and spinal cord. In the developing ventral midbrain, Shh is sufficient to specify a striped pattern of cell fates. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the Shh regulation of the neural precursor cell fate during the optic tectum development...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281841/developmental-emergence-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-as-revealed-by-single-cell-transcriptional-profiling
#16
Scott A Yuzwa, Michael J Borrett, Brendan T Innes, Anastassia Voronova, Troy Ketela, David R Kaplan, Gary D Bader, Freda D Miller
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) derive from embryonic precursors, but little is known about how or when this occurs. We have addressed this issue using single-cell RNA sequencing at multiple developmental time points to analyze the embryonic murine cortex, one source of adult forebrain NSCs. We computationally identify all major cortical cell types, including the embryonic radial precursors (RPs) that generate adult NSCs. We define the initial emergence of RPs from neuroepithelial stem cells at E11.5. We show that, by E13...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278716/2-o-carba-oleoyl-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-induces-glial-proliferation-through-the-activation-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor
#17
Shingo Nakajima, Mari Gotoh, Keiko Fukasawa, Hiromu Murofushi, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) are one of the lipid mediators regulating cell proliferation and differentiation through the activation of LPA receptors. An LPA receptor-mediated signal is important for the development of the central nervous system, while it has been demonstrated that LPA caused microglial activation and astroglial dysfunction. Previously, we have reported that cPA and carba analog of cPA, 2-O-carba-cPA (2ccPA), protected neural damage caused by transient ischemia...
December 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274879/glial-cell-responses-in-a-murine-multifactorial-perinatal-brain-injury-model
#18
Miriam Domowicz, Natasha L Wadlington, Judith G Henry, Kasandra Diaz, Miranda J Munoz, Nancy B Schwartz
The impact of traumatic brain injury during the perinatal period, which coincides with glial cell (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) maturation was assessed to determine whether a second insult, e.g., increased inflammation due to remote bacterial exposure, exacerbates the initial injury's effects, possibly eliciting longer-term brain damage. Thus, a murine multifactorial injury model incorporating both mechanisms consisting of perinatal penetrating traumatic brain injury, with or without intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an analog of remote pathogen exposure has been developed...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259265/mast-cells-increase-adult-neural-precursor-proliferation-and-differentiation-but-this-potential-is-not-realized-in-vivo-under-physiological-conditions
#19
J M Wasielewska, L Grönnert, N Rund, L Donix, R Rust, A M Sykes, A Hoppe, A Roers, G Kempermann, T L Walker
There is growing evidence that both peripheral and resident immune cells play an important part in regulating adult neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis, although the contribution of the various immune cell types is still unclear. Mast cells, a population of immune cells known for their role in the allergic response, have been implicated in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Mast cell-deficient c-kitW-sh/W-sh mice have previously been shown to exhibit significantly decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis and associated learning and memory deficits...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249016/therapeutic-activity-of-plant-derived-alkaloid-conophylline-on-metabolic-syndrome-and-neurodegenerative-disease-models
#20
REVIEW
Kazuo Umezawa, Itaru Kojima, Siro Simizu, Yinzhi Lin, Hitomi Fukatsu, Naoki Koide, Yukiomi Nakade, Masashi Yoneda
Increasing metabolic syndromes including type-2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and steatohepatitis are serious problems in most countries in the world. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases are increasing in many countries. However, therapy for these diseases is not sufficient yet. Thus, effective chemotherapy for these diseases is being expected. Conophylline is an alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Ervatamia microphylla and related plants. It was found to induce beta-cell differentiation in the precursor pancreatic cells...
December 16, 2017: Human Cell
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