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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136119/the-bat-as-a-new-model-of-cortical-development
#2
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Jasmin Camacho, Jeanelle Ariza, Hailee Rogers, Kayla Horton-Sparks, Anna Kreutz, Richard Behringer, John J Rasweiler, Stephen C Noctor
The organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex shares fundamental features across species. However, while the radial thickness of grey matter varies within one order of magnitude, the tangential spread of the cortical sheet varies by orders of magnitude across species. A broader sample of model species may provide additional clues for understanding mechanisms that drive cortical expansion. Here, we introduce the bat Carollia perspicillata as a new model species. The brain of C. perspicillata is similar in size to that of mouse but has a cortical neurogenic period at least 5 times longer than mouse, and nearly as long as that of the rhesus macaque, whose brain is 100 times larger...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134703/origin-and-dynamics-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-perinatal-white-matter-injury
#3
REVIEW
Erik van Tilborg, Caroline G M de Theije, Maurik van Hal, Nienke Wagenaar, Linda S de Vries, Manon J Benders, David H Rowitch, Cora H Nijboer
Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology underlying perinatal WMI, it is essential to fully understand the cellular mechanisms contributing to healthy/normal white matter development. OLs are responsible for myelination of axons. During brain development, OLs are generally derived from neuroepithelial zones, where neural stem cells committed to the OL lineage differentiate into OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133394/role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Mukesh K Varshney, José Inzunza, Diana Lupu, Vaidheeswaran Ganapathy, Per Antonson, Joëlle Rüegg, Ivan Nalvarte, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
The ability to propagate mature cells and tissue from pluripotent stem cells offers enormous promise for treating many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Before such cells can be used successfully in neurodegenerative diseases without causing unwanted cell growth and migration, genes regulating growth and migration of neural stem cells need to be well characterized. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is essential for migration of neurons and glial cells in the developing mouse brain. To examine whether ERβ influences differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) into neural lineages, we compared control and ERβ knockout (BERKO) mESCs at defined stages of neural development and examined the effects of an ERβ-selective ligand (LY3201) with a combination of global and targeted gene-expression profiling and the expression of key pluripotency markers...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#5
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124786/schwann-cell-precursors-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jorge B Aquino, Romina Sierra
Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) are frequently regarded as neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) found in contact with axons during nerve formation. Nevertheless, cells with SCPs properties can be found up to the adulthood. They are well characterized with regard to both gene expression profile and cellular behavior -for instance, proliferation, migratory capabilities and survival requirements-. They differ in origin regarding their anatomic location: even though most of them are derived from migratory NCCs, there is also contribution of the boundary cap neural crest cells (bNCCs) to the skin and other tissues...
November 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123467/the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-cxcr7-in-neuronal-regeneration-after-cerebral-ischemia
#7
REVIEW
Xi Cheng, Huibin Wang, Xiuchun Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Zhike Zhou, Xiaopeng Mu, Chuansheng Zhao, Weiyu Teng
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is a chemoattractant produced by bone marrow stromal cell lines. It is recognized as a critical factor in the immune and central nervous systems (CNSs) as well as exerting a role in cancer. SDF-1 activates two G protein-coupled receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7; these are expressed in both developing and mature CNSs and participate in multiple physiological and pathological events, e.g., inflammatory response, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122585/strong-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-the-mouse-ventral-spinal-cord-is-not-required-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-opc-generation-but-is-necessary-for-correct-timing-of-its-generation
#8
Hirokazu Hashimoto, Wen Jiang, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kyeong-Hye Moon, Jinwoong Bok, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the mouse neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted from the floor plate (FP) and the notochord (NC) regulates ventral patterning of the neural tube, and later is essential for the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). During early development, the NC is adjacent to the neural tube and induces ventral domains in it, including the FP. In the later stage of development, during gliogenesis in the spinal cord, the pMN domain receives strong Shh signaling input. While this is considered to be essential for the generation of OPCs, the actual role of this strong input in OPC generation remains unclear...
November 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116659/type-1-astrocyte-like-stem-cells-harboring-cacna1d-gene-deletion-exhibit-reduced-proliferation-and-decreased-neuronal-fate-choice
#9
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
In the central nervous system, CaV 1.2 and CaV 1. 3 constitute the main L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) coupling membrane depolarization to gene transcription. We have previously demonstrated that inducible disruption of Cav1.2 in type-1 astrocyte-like stem cells of the adult dentate gyrus (DG) impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in a cell-autonomous fashion. To address the role of Cav1.3 channels (encoded by the Cacna1d gene), we here generated Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1d(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice which facilitate inducible deletion of Cacna1d in tandem with induction of EGFP expression in type-1 cells, allowing tracking of recombined cells and their descendants...
November 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114585/the-influence-of-retinoic-acid-on-the-human-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-by-rna-sequencing
#10
Sun Young Kim, Eve E Kelland, Ji Hong Kim, Brett T Lund, Xiao Chang, Kai Wang, Leslie P Weiner
Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, has been found to influence regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). There may be an effect of RA in the recovery/repair in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. We hypothesized that RA is a regulator of the further differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) - cells key to the remyelination process in MS. We conducted studies utilizing RNA-sequencing in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and OPCs so as to understand the role of transcriptional regulators during transition from both ESCs to NSCs and NSCs to OPCs...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099484/lin28b-and-mir-142-3p-regulate-neuronal-differentiation-by-modulating-staufen1-expression
#11
Younseo Oh, Jungyun Park, Jin-Il Kim, Mi-Yoon Chang, Sang-Hun Lee, Youl-Hee Cho, Jungwook Hwang
Staufen1 (STAU1) and Lin28B are RNA-binding proteins that are involved in neuronal differentiation as a function of post-transcriptional regulation. STAU1 triggers post-transcriptional regulation, including mRNA export, mRNA relocation, translation and mRNA decay. Lin28B also has multiple functions in miRNA biogenesis and the regulation of translation. Here, we examined the connection between STAU1 and Lin28B and found that Lin28B regulates the abundance of STAU1 mRNA via miRNA maturation. Decreases in the expression of both STAU1 and Lin28B were observed during neuronal differentiation...
November 3, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081737/seven-in-absentia-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-central-regulators-of-neural-cell-fate-and-neuronal-polarity
#12
REVIEW
Taren Ong, David J Solecki
During neural development, neural precursors transition from a proliferative state within their germinal niches to a migratory state as they relocate to their final laminar positions. Transitions across these states are coupled with dynamic alterations in cellular polarity. This key feature can be seen throughout the developing vertebrate brain, in which neural stem cells give rise to multipolar or unpolarized transit-amplifying progenitors. These transit-amplifying progenitors then expand to give rise to mature neuronal lineages that become polarized as they initiate radial migration to their final laminar positions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081002/minocycline-directly-enhances-the-self-renewal-of-adult-neural-precursor-cells
#13
Anri Kuroda, Takahiro Fuchigami, Satoshi Fuke, Natsu Koyama, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Seiji Hitoshi
Minocycline not only has antibacterial action but also produces a variety of pharmacological effects. It has drawn considerable attention as a therapeutic agent for symptoms caused by inflammation in many neurological disorders, leading to several clinical trials. Although some of these effects are mediated through its function of suppressing microglial activation, it is not clear whether minocycline acts on other cell types in the adult brain. In this study, we utilized a colony-forming neurosphere assay, in which neural stem cells (NSCs) clonally proliferate to form floating colonies, called neurospheres...
October 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080429/consequences-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Derek J Platt, Jonathan J Miner
The 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas led to the discovery that ZIKV causes congenital abnormalities including microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and eye disease that can result in blindness. Studies in animal models and human organoid cultures, together with human epidemiological studies, have shown that ZIKV crosses the placenta and subsequently replicates within fetal tissues including the developing brain. Preferential infection of neural cell precursors causes damage to the developing fetal brain...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078401/development-of-functional-ectopic-compound-eyes-in-scarabaeid-beetles-by-knockdown-of-orthodenticle
#15
Eduardo E Zattara, Anna L M Macagno, Hannah A Busey, Armin P Moczek
Complex traits like limbs, brains, or eyes form through coordinated integration of diverse cell fates across developmental space and time, yet understanding how complexity and integration emerge from uniform, undifferentiated precursor tissues remains limited. Here, we use ectopic eye formation as a paradigm to investigate the emergence and integration of novel complex structures following massive ontogenetic perturbation. We show that down-regulation via RNAi of a single head patterning gene-orthodenticle-induces ectopic structures externally resembling compound eyes at the middorsal adult head of both basal and derived scarabaeid beetle species (Onthophagini and Oniticellini)...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078343/dual-origin-of-enteric-neurons-in-vagal-schwann-cell-precursors-and-the-sympathetic-neural-crest
#16
Isabel Espinosa-Medina, Ben Jevans, Franck Boismoreau, Zoubida Chettouh, Hideki Enomoto, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier, Alan J Burns, Jean-François Brunet
Most of the enteric nervous system derives from the "vagal" neural crest, lying at the level of somites 1-7, which invades the digestive tract rostro-caudally from the foregut to the hindgut. Little is known about the initial phase of this colonization, which brings enteric precursors into the foregut. Here we show that the "vagal crest" subsumes two populations of enteric precursors with contrasted origins, initial modes of migration, and destinations. Crest cells adjacent to somites 1 and 2 produce Schwann cell precursors that colonize the vagus nerve, which in turn guides them into the esophagus and stomach...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075188/high-yield-of-adult-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells-obtained-from-meningeal-biopsy
#17
Sissi Dolci, Annachiara Pino, Valeria Berton, Pau Gonzalez, Alice Braga, Marta Fumagalli, Elisabetta Bonfanti, Giorgio Malpeli, Francesca Pari, Stefania Zorzin, Clelia Amoroso, Denny Moscon, Francisco J Rodriguez, Guido Fumagalli, Francesco Bifari, Ilaria Decimo
Oligodendrocyte loss can lead to cognitive and motor deficits. Current remyelinating therapeutic strategies imply either modulation of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors or transplantation of in vitro expanded oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy, however, still lacks identification of an adequate source of oligodendrocyte present in adulthood and able to efficiently produce transplantable cells. Recently, a neural stem cell-like population has been identified in meninges. We developed a protocol to obtain high yield of oligodendrocyte lineage cells from one single biopsy of adult rat meningeal tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074393/dcf1-subcellular-localization-and-its-function-in-mitochondria
#18
Yanlu Chen, Ruili Feng, Guanghong Luo, Jianjian Guo, Yajiang Wang, Yangyang Sun, Lili Zheng, Tieqiao Wen
Dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) is a transmembrane protein that plays important roles in regulating neural stem cell differentiation and dendritic spine formation. Apart from its cytoplasmic functions, DCF1 plays a role in autophagy during the regulation of amyloid precursor proteins. However, the subcellular localization of DCF1 remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, DCF1 tagged with green fluorescent protein was transiently expression in HelaS3 and HEK293T cells. The results showed that DCF1 was widely expressed in different organelles, including the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes and lysosomes...
October 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068322/adult-skin-derived-precursor-schwann-cell-grafts-form-growths-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-of-fischer-rats
#19
Zacnicte May, Ranjan Kumar, Tobias Führmann, Roger Tam, Katarina Vulic, Juan Forero, Ana M Lucas-Osma, Keith Fenrich, Peggy Assinck, Michael J Lee, Aaron Moulson, Molly S Shoichet, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Jeff Biernaskie, Karim Fouad
In this study, GFP+ skin-derived precursor Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) from adult rats were grafted into the injured spinal cord of immunosuppressed rats. Our goal was to improve grafted cell survival in the injured spinal cord, which is typically low. Cells were grafted in hyaluronan-methylcellulose hydrogel (HAMC) or hyaluronan-methylcellulose modified with laminin- and fibronectin-derived peptide sequences (eHAMC). The criteria for selection of hyaluronan was for its shear-thinning properties, making the hydrogel easy to inject, methylcellulose for its inverse thermal gelation, helping to keep grafted cells in situ, and fibronectin and laminin to improve cell attachment and, thus, prevent cell death due to dissociation from substrate molecules (i...
October 25, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061525/characterization-of-a-new-inducible-transgenic-mouse-model-with-gfp-expression-in-melanocytes-and-their-precursors
#20
Sandeep S Joshi, Bishal Tandukar, Maira Castaneda, Shunlin Jiang, Ganesh Diwakar, Ronna P Hertzano, Thomas J Hornyak
Melanocytes are neural crest-derived cells that are responsible for mammalian hair follicle (HF) pigmentation. The Dct-LacZ transgenic mouse is extensively used to study melanocyte biology but lacks conditionally-inducible labelling and fluorescent labelling, enabling specific, viable isolation of melanocytes using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here, we have generated a Tet-off bitransgenic mouse model, Dct-H2BGFP, containing Dct-tTA and TRE-H2BGFP transgenes. Characterization of Dct-H2BGFP mice confirmed a pattern of Dct-H2BGFP expression in melanoblasts, melanocyte stem cells (McSCs), and terminally differentiated melanocytes similar to the expression pattern of previously published mouse models Dct-LacZ and iDct-GFP...
October 20, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
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