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neural precursor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773902/nedd9-promotes-oncogenic-signaling-a-stem-mesenchymal-gene-signature-and-aggressive-ovarian-cancer-growth-in-mice
#1
Rashid Gabbasov, Fang Xiao, Caitlin G Howe, Laura E Bickel, Shane W O'Brien, Daniel Benrubi, Thuy-Vy Do, Yan Zhou, Emmanuelle Nicolas, Kathy Q Cai, Samuel Litwin, Sachiko Seo, Erica A Golemis, Denise C Connolly
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) supports oncogenic signaling in a number of solid and hematologic tumors. Little is known about the role of NEDD9 in ovarian carcinoma (OC), but available data suggest elevated mRNA and protein expression in advanced stage high-grade cancers. We used a transgenic MISIIR-TAg mouse OC model combined with genetic ablation of Nedd9 to investigate its action in the development and progression of OC. A Nedd9-/- genotype delayed tumor growth rate, reduced incidence of ascites, and reduced expression and activation of signaling proteins including SRC, STAT3, E-cadherin, and AURKA...
May 18, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771335/loss-of-fragile-x-protein-fmrp-impairs-homeostatic-synaptic-downscaling-through-tumor-suppressor-p53-and-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-nedd4-2
#2
Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
Synaptic scaling allows neurons to homeostatically readjust synaptic strength upon chronic neural activity perturbations. Although altered synaptic scaling has been implicated to underlie imbalanced brain excitability in neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy, the molecular dysregulation and restoration of synaptic scaling in those diseases have not been demonstrated. Here, we showed that the homeostatic synaptic downscaling is absent in the hippocampal neurons of Fmr1 KO mice, the mouse model of the most common inherited autism, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764857/lineage-guided-notch-dependent-gliogenesis-by-drosophila-multi-potent-progenitors
#3
Qingzhong Ren, Takeshi Awasaki, Yu-Chun Wang, Yu-Fen Huang, Tzumin Lee
Macroglial cells in the central nervous system exhibit regional specialization and carry out region-specific functions. Diverse glial cells arise from specific progenitors in specific spatiotemporal patterns. This raises an interesting possibility that there exist glial precursors with distinct developmental fates, which govern region-specific gliogenesis. Here we mapped the glial progeny produced by the Drosophila type II neuroblasts, which, like vertebrate radial glia cells, yield both neurons and glia via intermediate neural progenitors (INPs)...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760649/brain-region-dependent-rejection-of-neural-precursor-cell-transplants
#4
Nina Fainstein, Tamir Ben-Hur
The concept of CNS as an immune-privileged site has been challenged by the occurrence of immune surveillance and allogeneic graft rejection in the brain. Here we examined whether the immune response to allogeneic neural grafts is determined by the site of implantation in the CNS. Dramatic regional differences were observed between immune responses to allogeneic neural precursor/stem cell (NPC) grafts in the striatum vs. the hippocampus. Striatal grafts were heavily infiltrated with IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells and completely rejected...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758057/ankk1-is-found-in-myogenic-precursors-and-muscle-fibers-subtypes-with-glycolytic-metabolism
#5
Estrella Rubio-Solsona, Salvador Martí, Juan J Vílchez, Francesc Palau, Janet Hoenicka
Ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene has been widely related to neuropsychiatry disorders. The localization of ANKK1 in neural progenitors and its correlation with the cell cycle has suggested its participation in development. However, ANKK1 functions still need to be identified. Here, we have further characterized the ANKK1 localization in vivo and in vitro, by using immunolabeling, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in the myogenic lineage. Histologic investigations in mice and humans revealed that ANKK1 is expressed in precursors of embryonic and adult muscles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754802/intracellular-calcium-mobilization-is-required-for-sonic-hedgehog-signaling
#6
Dana Klatt Shaw, Derrick Gunther, Michael J Jurynec, Alexis A Chagovetz, Erin Ritchie, David Jonah Grunwald
Graded Shh signaling across fields of precursor cells coordinates patterns of gene expression, differentiation, and morphogenetic behavior as precursors form complex structures, such as the nervous system, the limbs, and craniofacial skeleton. Here we discover that intracellular calcium mobilization, a process tightly controlled and readily modulated, regulates the level of Shh-dependent gene expression in responding cells and affects the development of all Shh-dependent cell types in the zebrafish embryo. Reduced expression or modified activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) intracellular calcium release channels shifted the allocation of Shh-dependent cell fates in the somitic muscle and neural tube...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#7
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745900/downregulation-of-ribosome-biogenesis-during-early-forebrain-development
#8
Kevin F Chau, Morgan L Shannon, Ryann M Fame, Erin Fonseca, Hillary Mullan, Matthew B Johnson, Anoop K Sendamarai, Mark W Springel, Benoit Laurent, Maria K Lehtinen
Forebrain precursor cells are dynamic during early brain development, yet the underlying molecular changes remain elusive. We observed major differences in transcriptional signatures of precursor cells from mouse forebrain at embryonic days E8.5 vs. E10.5 (before vs. after neural tube closure). Genes encoding protein biosynthetic machinery were strongly downregulated at E10.5. This was matched by decreases in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, together with age-related changes in proteomic content of the adjacent fluids...
May 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743351/survival-of-syngeneic-and-allogeneic-ipsc-derived-neural-precursors-after-spinal-grafting-in-minipigs
#9
Jan Strnadel, Cassiano Carromeu, Cedric Bardy, Michael Navarro, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Andreas N Glud, Silvia Marsala, Jozef Kafka, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tomohisa Kato, Takahiro Tadokoro, Michael P Hefferan, Kota Kamizato, Tetsuya Yoshizumi, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Chak-Sum Ho, Taba Kheradmand, PeiXi Chen, Dasa Bohaciakova, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Andrew J Todd, Shawn P Driscoll, Thomas D Glenn, Samuel L Pfaff, Jiri Klima, Joseph Ciacci, Eric Curtis, Fred H Gage, Jack Bui, Kazuhiko Yamada, Alysson R Muotri, Martin Marsala
The use of autologous (or syngeneic) cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great promise for future clinical use in a wide range of diseases and injuries. It is expected that cell replacement therapies using autologous cells would forego the need for immunosuppression, otherwise required in allogeneic transplantations. However, recent studies have shown the unexpected immune rejection of undifferentiated autologous mouse iPSCs after transplantation. Whether similar immunogenic properties are maintained in iPSC-derived lineage-committed cells (such as neural precursors) is relatively unknown...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740308/cyclosporin-a-mediated-activation-of-endogenous-neural-precursor-cells-promotes-cognitive-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#10
Labeeba Nusrat, Jessica M Livingston-Thomas, Vaakiny Raguthevan, Kelsey Adams, Ilan Vonderwalde, Dale Corbett, Cindi M Morshead
Cognitive dysfunction following stroke significantly impacts quality of life and functional independance; yet, despite the prevalence and negative impact of cognitive deficits, post-stroke interventions almost exclusively target motor impairments. As a result, current treatment options are limited in their ability to promote post-stroke cognitive recovery. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been previously shown to improve post-stroke functional recovery of sensorimotor deficits. Interestingly, CsA is a commonly used immunosuppressant and also acts directly on endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the neurogenic regions of the brain (the periventricular region and the dentate gyrus)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735606/allele-specific-control-of-replication-timing-and-genome-organization-during-development
#11
Juan Carlos Rivera-Mulia, Andrew Dimond, Daniel Vera, Claudia Trevilla-Garcia, Takayo Sasaki, Jared Zimmerman, Catherine Dupont, Joost Gribnau, Peter Fraser, David M Gilbert
DNA replication occurs in a defined temporal order known as the replication-timing (RT) program. RT is regulated during development in discrete chromosomal units, coordinated with transcriptional activity and 3D genome organization. Here, we derived distinct cell types from F1 hybrid musculus X castaneus mouse crosses and exploited the high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density to characterize allelic differences in RT (Repli-seq), genome organization (Hi-C and promoter-capture Hi-C), gene expression (total nuclear RNA-seq) and chromatin accessibility (ATAC-seq)...
May 7, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733650/synthesis-of-alstoscholarisines-a-e-monoterpene-indole-alkaloids-with-modulating-effects-on-neural-stem-cells
#12
Jeremy D Mason, Steven M Weinreb
A divergent synthetic strategy has been developed for stereoselective total syntheses of alstoscholarisines A-E, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids which are modulators of adult neuronal stem cells. A pivotal step includes an intermolecular Michael addition of an indole-2-acetic acid methyl ester enolate to an alpha,beta-unsaturated-N-sulfonyllactam to form the C15, C16 bond of the alkaloids. Other features of the strategy involve a selective partial reduction of an intermediate N-sulfonyllactam, followed by cyclization to a bridged aminal system which serves as a key precursor for all five of the alkaloids, as well as the use of an allyl group as a masked aldehyde equivalent...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731677/aucubin-promotes-differentiation-of-neural-precursor-cells-into-gabaergic-neurons
#13
Miyeoun Song, Hyomin Kim, Sujin Park, Hyockman Kwon, Insil Joung, Yunhee Kim Kwon
Aucubin is a small compound naturally found in traditional medicinal herbs with primarily anti-inflammatory and protective effects. In the nervous system, aucubin is reported to be neuroprotective by enhancing neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptotic cell death in cultures and disease models. Our previous data, however, suggest that aucubin facilitates neurite elongation in cultured hippocampal neurons and axonal regrowth in regenerating sciatic nerves. Here, we investigated whether aucubin facilitates the differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into specific types of neurons...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729231/calcium-influx-differentially-regulates-migration-velocity-and-directedness-in-response-to-electric-field-application
#14
R Babona-Pilipos, N Liu, A Pritchard-Oh, A Mok, D Badawi, M R Popovic, C M Morshead
Neural precursor cells (NPCs) respond to externally applied direct current electrical fields (DCEFs) by undergoing rapid and directed migration toward the cathode in a process known as galvanotaxis. It is unknown if the underlying mechanisms of galvanotactic migration is common to non-electrosensitive cells and if so, how NPCs and other galvanotactic cells sense and transduce electrical fields into cellular motility. In this study, we show that distinct aspects of NPC galvanotactic migration: motility (quantified through |velocity|) and directedness, are differentially regulated by calcium...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720483/all-in-the-family-proneural-bhlh-genes-and-neuronal-diversity
#15
REVIEW
Nicholas E Baker, Nadean L Brown
Proneural basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins are required for neuronal determination and the differentiation of most neural precursor cells. These transcription factors are expressed in vastly divergent organisms, ranging from sponges to primates. Here, we review proneural bHLH gene evolution and function in the Drosophila and vertebrate nervous systems, arguing that the Drosophila gene atonal provides a useful platform for understanding proneural gene structure and regulation. We also discuss how functional equivalency experiments using distinct proneural genes can reveal how proneural gene duplication and divergence are interwoven with neuronal complexity...
May 2, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718910/brca1-and-brca2-tumor-suppressors-in-neural-crest-cells-are-essential-for-craniofacial-bone-development
#16
Kohei Kitami, Megumi Kitami, Masaru Kaku, Bin Wang, Yoshihiro Komatsu
Craniofacial abnormalities, including facial skeletal defects, comprise approximately one-third of all birth defects in humans. Since most bones in the face derive from cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs), which are multipotent stem cells, craniofacial bone disorders are largely attributed to defects in CNCCs. However, it remains unclear how the niche of CNCCs is coordinated by multiple gene regulatory networks essential for craniofacial bone development. Here we report that tumor suppressors breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) are required for craniofacial bone development in mice...
May 2, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704264/nf-y-dependent-regulation-of-glutamate-receptor-4-expression-and-cell-survival-in-cells-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage
#17
Ghazala Begum, Masahiro Otsu, Usman Ahmed, Zubair Ahmed, Adam Stevens, Daniel Fulton
Glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4) is highly expressed by neural cells sensitive to excitotoxicity, and is the predominant subunit expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) during a key period of vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore, transcriptional networks downstream of excitotoxic GluA4 activation represent a promising area for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we identify the CCAAT binding transcription factor NF-Yb as a novel transcriptional regulator of Gria4 (GluA4 gene), and a controller of excitotoxic death in the oligodendroglial lineage...
April 27, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698617/wide-coverage-of-the-body-surface-by-melanocyte-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#18
REVIEW
Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yuuki Shikaya, Yoshiko Takahashi
Skin pigmentation is a powerful defense against ultraviolet irradiation. Particularly in humans, the body surface needs to be widely covered by protective pigmentation, and melanocytes, a major lineage of neural crest derivatives, have evolved several maneuvers to transfer melanin pigment to the skin. Recent studies with embryonic melanocytes of chickens and mice have revealed sequential events mediated by melanocytes to maximize the skin coverage by pigmentation. These processes include the migration of melanocyte precursors in the embryo, the microscopic uniform spacing of individual melanocytes, and melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes...
April 23, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692815/n-cadherin-upregulation-promotes-the-neurogenic-differentiation-of-menstrual-blood-derived-endometrial-stem-cells
#19
Yanli Liu, Fen Yang, Shengying Liang, Qing Liu, Sulei Fu, Zhenyu Wang, Ciqing Yang, Juntang Lin
Peripheral nerve injuries are typically caused by either trauma or medical disorders, and recently, stem cell-based therapies have provided a promising treatment approach. Menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSCs) are considered an ideal therapeutic option for peripheral nerve repair due to a noninvasive collection procedure and their high proliferation rate and immunological tolerance. Here, we successfully isolated MenSCs and examined their biological characteristics including their morphology, multipotency, and immunophenotype...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692269/clinical-observation-of-electroencephalographic-changes-and-risk-of-convulsion-occurrence-in-children-receiving-neural-precursor-cell-transplantation
#20
Suqing Qu, Weipeng Liu, Hui Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Yinxiang Yang, Fang Liu, Aruna Sharma, Hari Sharma, Zuo Luan
PURPOSE: This study was intended to observe electroencephalographic (EEG) changes and convulsion attacks in children receiving neural precursor cell transplantation, and to explore the possibility of electrophysiological changes and risk of convulsion occurrence after cell transplantation. METHOD: Included in this study were 227 children who received neural precursor cell transplantation in our hospital between March 2008 and July 2012. No history of convulsion attacks was elicited before cell transplantation...
April 24, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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