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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230278/deletion-of-psychiatric-risk-gene-cacna1c-impairs-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-cell-autonomous-fashion
#1
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
Ca(2+) is a universal signal transducer which fulfills essential functions in cell development and differentiation. CACNA1C, the gene encoding the alpha-1C subunit (i.e., Cav 1.2) of the voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel (LTCC), has been implicated as a risk gene in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. To parse the role of Cav 1.2 channels located on astrocyte-like stem cells and their descendants in the development of new granule neurons, we created Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1c(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice, a transgenic tool that allows cell-type-specific inducible deletion of Cacna1c...
February 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228349/identification-of-prdm-genes-in-human-corneal-endothelium
#2
Kostadin Rolev, G O'Donovan Dominic, Christiana Georgiou, Rajan Madhavan, Alexandra Chittka
Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are essential for maintaining corneal stromal hydration and ensuring its transparency, which is necessary for normal vision. Dysfunction of CECs leads to stromal decompensation, loss of transparency and corneal blindness. Corneal endothelium has low proliferative potential compared to surface epithelial cells leading to poor regeneration of CEC following injury or age related decline in cellular density. The mechanisms which control proliferation and differentiation of neural crest derived CEC progenitors are yet to be clearly elucidated...
February 19, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220575/generation-of-storable-retinal-organoids-and-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-adherent-human-ips-cells-in-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-conditions
#3
Sacha Reichman, Amélie Slembrouck, Giuliana Gagliardi, Antoine Chaffiol, Angélique Terray, Céline Nanteau, Anais Potey, Morgane Belle, Oriane Rabesandratana, Jens Duebel, Gael Orieux, Emeline F Nandrot, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219951/generation-of-thalamic-neurons-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Atsushi Shiraishi, Keiko Muguruma, Yoshiki Sasai
Thalamus is a diencephalic structure that plays crucial roles in relaying and modulating sensory and motor information to the neocortex. The thalamus develops in the dorsal part of the neural tube at the level of the caudal forebrain. However, the molecular mechanisms that are essential for thalamic differentiation are still unknown. Here we have succeeded in the generation of thalamic neurons from mouse ES cells (mESCs) by modifying the default method that induces the most-anterior neural type in self-organizing culture...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212375/epilepsy-associated-gene-nedd4-2-mediates-neuronal-activity-and-seizure-susceptibility-through-ampa-receptors
#5
Jiuhe Zhu, Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Heng-Ye Man, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4-2, Nedd4-2, is an epilepsy-associated gene with at least three missense mutations identified in epileptic patients. Nedd4-2 encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase that has high affinity toward binding and ubiquitinating membrane proteins. It is currently unknown how Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal circuit activity and how its dysfunction leads to seizures or epilepsies. In this study, we provide evidence to show that Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility through ubiquitination of GluA1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor, (AMPAR)...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203609/zeb2-inhibiting-the-inhibitors-in-schwann-cells
#6
Bastian G Brinkmann, Susanne Quintes
Development of Schwann cells is tightly regulated by concerted action of activating and inhibiting factors. Most of the regulatory feedback loops identified to date are transcriptional activators promoting induction of genes coding for integral myelin proteins and lipids. The mechanisms by which inhibitory factors are silenced during Schwann cell maturation are less well understood. We could recently show a pivotal function for the transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) during Schwann cell development and myelination as a transcriptional repressor of maturation inhibitors...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203608/modeling-fragile-x-syndrome-in-neurogenesis-an-unexpected-phenotype-and-a-novel-tool-for-future-therapies
#7
Barbara Bardoni, Maria Capovilla, Enzo Lalli
FMRP is an RNA-binding protein involved in synaptic translation. Its absence causes a form of intellectual disability, the Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Small neuroanatomical abnormalities, present both in human and mouse FMRP-deficient brains, suggest a subtle critical role of this protein in neurogenesis. Stable depletion of FMRP has been obtained in a mouse embryonic stem cell line Fmr1 (shFmr1 ES) that does not display morphological alterations, but an abnormal expression of a subset of genes mainly involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#8
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196319/common-skin-conditions-in-children-congenital-melanocytic-nevi-and-infantile-hemangiomas
#9
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are hamartomas present at birth that are composed of nevomelanocytes and thought to originate from faulty migration of precursor melanocytes in the neural crest. Classification is based on projected adult size of the lesion. CMN size correlates positively with risk of melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis. Management requires a patient-centered approach that weighs the risks and benefits of and alternatives to complete removal. All children with large and giant CMN, regardless of surgical status, should be monitored closely and undergo periodic skin examination...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194179/the-prognostic-role-of-nedd9-and-p38-protein-expression-levels-in-urinary-bladder-transitional-cell-carcinoma
#10
Ola A Harb, Rasha Haggag, Maged M Ali, Shereen El Shorbagy, Abeer M Abdelbary, Lobna A Abdelaziz, Reham A Salim, Khaled M Abdel Wahab
Background. The most common malignant tumor of the urinary bladder is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 9 (NEDD9) is found to be a cell adhesion mediator. P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase is a serine/threonine kinases member which can mediate carcinogenesis through intracellular signaling. Methods. To assess their prognostic role; NEDD9 and p38 protein were evaluated in sections from 50 paraffin blocks of TCC. Results. The high expressions of NEDD9 and p38 protein were significantly associated with grade, stage, distant metastasis (p < 0...
2017: Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193841/dual-roles-of-akirin2-during-xenopus-neural-development
#11
Xiaoliang Liu, Yingjie Xia, Jixin Tang, Li Ma, Chaocui Li, Pengcheng Ma, Bingyu Mao
To ensure correct spatial and temporal patterning, embryos must maintain pluripotent cell populations and control when cells undergo commitment. The newly identified nucleoprotein Akirin has been shown to modulate the innate immune response through epigenetic regulation and to play important roles in other physiological processes, but its role in neural development remains unknown. Here, we show that Akirin2 is required for neural development in Xenopus and knockdown of Akirin2 expands the expression of the neural progenitor marker Sox2 and inhibits expression of the differentiated neuronal marker N-tubulin...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188219/distinct-effects-of-mir-210-reduction-on-neurogenesis-increased-neuronal-survival-of-inflammation-but-reduced-proliferation-associated-with-mitochondrial-enhancement
#12
Ludmila A Voloboueva, Xiaoyun Sun, Lijun Xu, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Rona G Giffard
Neurogenesis is essential to brain development, and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC). However, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by post-injury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186681/skin-derived-precursors-as-a-source-of-progenitors-for-corneal-endothelial-regeneration
#13
Emi Inagaki, Shin Hatou, Kazunari Higa, Satoru Yoshida, Shinsuke Shibata, Hideyuki Okano, Kazuo Tsubota, Shigeto Shimmura
Corneal blindness is the fourth leading cause of blindness in the world. Current treatment is allogenic corneal transplantation, which is limited by shortage of donors and immunological rejection. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are postnatal stem cells, which are self-renewing, multipotent precursors that can be isolated and expanded from the dermis. Facial skin may therefore be an accessible autologous source of neural crest derived cells. SKPs were isolated from facial skin of Wnt1-Cre/Floxed EGFP mouse. After inducing differentiation with medium containing retinoic acid and GSK 3-β inhibitor, SKPs formed polygonal corneal endothelial-like cells (sTECE)...
February 6, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183997/a-key-malaria-metabolite-modulates-vector-blood-seeking-feeding-and-susceptibility-to-infection
#14
S Noushin Emami, Bo G Lindberg, Susanna Hua, Sharon Hill, Raimondas Mozuraitis, Philipp Lehmann, Göran Birgersson, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson, Rickard Ignell, Ingrid Faye
Malaria infection renders humans more attractive to Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes than uninfected people. The mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that an isoprenoid precursor produced by Plasmodium falciparum, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), affects A. gambiae s.l. blood meal seeking and feeding behaviors, as well as susceptibility to infection. HMBPP acts indirectly by triggering human red blood cells to increase the release of CO2, aldehydes, and monoterpenes, which together enhance vector attraction, and stimulate vector feeding...
February 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183698/constitutively-active-notch1-converts-cranial-neural-crest-derived-frontonasal-mesenchyme-to-perivascular-cells-in-vivo
#15
Sophie R Miller, Surangi N Perera, Clare V H Baker
Perivascular/mural cells originate from either the mesoderm or the cranial neural crest. Regardless of their origin, Notch signalling is necessary for their formation. Furthermore, in both chicken and mouse, constitutive Notch1 activation (via expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain) is sufficient in vivo to convert trunk mesoderm-derived somite cells to perivascular cells, at the expense of skeletal muscle. In experiments originally designed to investigate the effect of premature Notch1 activation on the development of neural crest-derived olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OECs), we used in ovo electroporation to insert a tetracycline-inducible NotchΔE construct (encoding a constitutively active mutant of mouse Notch1) into the genome of chicken cranial neural crest cell precursors, and activated NotchΔE expression by doxycycline injection at embryonic day 4...
February 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178375/melatonin-restores-hippocampal-neural-precursor-proliferation-and-prevents-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-jet-lag-simulation-in-adult-mice
#16
Deetje Iggena, York Winter, Barbara Steiner
Frequent flyers and shift workers undergo circadian dysrhythmia with adverse impact on body and mind. The circadian rhythm disorder "jet lag" disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial cognition, which represent morphological and functional adult brain plasticity. This raises the question if pro-neurogenic stimuli might prevent those consequences. However, suitable measures to mitigate jet lag induced adverse effects on brain plasticity have been neglected so far. Here, we used adult C57Bl6 mice to investigate the pro-neurogenic stimuli melatonin (8mg/kg i...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153531/a-selective-cb2r-agonist-jwh133-restores-neuronal-circuit-after-germinal-matrix-hemorrhage-in-the-preterm-via-cx3cr1-microglia
#17
Jun Tang, Hongping Miao, Bing Jiang, Qianwei Chen, Liang Tan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Fabao Gao, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Zhi Chen
Microglia play dual roles after germinal matrix hemorrhage, and the neurotrophic phenotype maybe neuroprotective. However, the phenotype transformation and the way by which neuron-microglia dialogue remain unclear. We raise the hypothesis that a cannabinoid receptor2 agonist (JWH133) accelerates the CX3CR1(+) microglia secreting neurotrophic factors and restores damaged neuronal circuit. Here, we report a novel function of JWH133 in transforming the microglia CX3CR1 positive that secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which triggers neuron proliferation and neuronal restoration...
January 30, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152379/selective-transduction-of-astrocytic-and-neuronal-cns-subpopulations-by-lentiviral-vectors-pseudotyped-with-chikungunya-virus-envelope
#18
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Michael Dieringer, Xuan Ying Poh, Julia Sanchez-Garrido, Yunan Gao, Argyro Sgourou, Laura E Simmons, Nicholas D Mazarakis
Lentiviral vectors are gene delivery vehicles that integrate into the host genome of dividing and non-dividing mammalian cells facilitating long-term transgene expression. Lentiviral vector versatility is greatly increased by incorporating heterologous viral envelope proteins onto the vector particles instead of the native envelope, conferring on these pseudotyped vectors a modified tropism and host range specificity. We investigated the pseudotyping efficiency of HIV-1 based lentiviral vectors with alphaviral envelope proteins from the Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV-G) and Sindbis Virus (SINV-G)...
January 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148821/the-notch-pathway-in-the-annelid-platynereis-insights-into-chaetogenesis-and-neurogenesis-processes
#19
Eve Gazave, Quentin I B Lemaître, Guillaume Balavoine
Notch is a key signalling pathway playing multiple and varied functions during development. Notch regulates the selection of cells with a neurogenic fate and maintains a pool of yet uncommitted precursors through lateral inhibition, both in insects and in vertebrates. Here, we explore the functions of Notch in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii (Lophotrochozoa). Conserved components of the pathway are identified and a scenario for their evolution in metazoans is proposed. Unexpectedly, neither Notch nor its ligands are expressed in the neurogenic epithelia of the larva at the time when massive neurogenesis begins...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145605/the-tam-receptor-tyro3-regulates-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Rainer Akkermann, Andrea Aprico, Ashwyn A Perera, Helena Bujalka, Alistair E Cole, Junhua Xiao, Judith Field, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Michele D Binder
Myelin is an essential component of the mammalian nervous system, facilitating rapid conduction of electrical impulses by axons, as well as providing trophic support to neurons. Within the central nervous system, the oligodendrocyte is the specialized neural cell responsible for producing myelin by a process that is thought to be regulated by both activity dependent and independent mechanisms but in incompletely understood ways. We have previously identified that the protein Gas6, a ligand for a family of tyrosine kinase receptors known as the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk) receptors, directly increases oligodendrocyte induced myelination in vitro...
February 1, 2017: Glia
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