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Lane F Donnelly, Shirley S Cherian, Kimberly B Chua, Sam Thankachan, Laura A Millecker, Alex G Koroll, George S Bisset
BACKGROUND: Because of the increasing complexities of providing imaging for pediatric health care services, a more reliable process to manage the daily delivery of care is necessary. Objective We describe our Daily Readiness Huddle and the effects of the process on problem identification and improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our Daily Readiness Huddle has four elements: metrics review, clinical volume review, daily readiness assessment, and problem accountability...
October 22, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Angélica Rossana Castro de Souza, Daiana Bortoluzzi Baldoni, Jessica Lima, Vitória Porto, Camila Marcuz, Carolina Machado, Rafael Camargo Ferraz, Raquel C Kuhn, Rodrigo J S Jacques, Jerson V C Guedes, Marcio A Mazutti
Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Carolina Moreira Blanco, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Alexandro Guterres da Silva, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Liana Strecht, Maria Ogrzewalska, Elba Regina S de Lemos
Information about tick fauna and monitoring of pathogen prevalences in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in various habitat types can enhance knowledge about the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens in Brazil. This work shows the results of a study of tick parasitism of wild rodents and marsupials collected in seven localities in the southern part of Brazil, within Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. A total of 61 ticks were collected from small mammals, and after identification to the species level, the ticks were individually tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, family Anaplasmataceae, and protozoa of the genus Babesia...
October 15, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Liane Balvedi Poersch-Bortolon, Jorge Fernando Pereira, Antonio Nhani, Hebert Hernán Soto Gonzáles, Gisele Abigail Montan Torres, Luciano Consoli, Rafael Augusto Arenhart, Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro
Drought limits wheat production in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. In order to search for candidate genes associated to the response to water deficit, we analyzed the gene expression profiles, under severe drought stress, in roots and leaves of the cultivar MGS1 Aliança, a well-adapted cultivar to the Cerrado. A set of 4,422 candidate genes was found in roots and leaves. The number of down-regulated transcripts in roots was higher than the up-regulated transcripts, while the opposite occurred in leaves. The number of common transcripts between the two tissues was 1,249, while 2,124 were specific to roots and 1,049 specific to leaves...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Clive J Curley, Eimear B Dolan, Brenton Cavanagh, Janice O'Sullivan, Garry P Duffy, Bruce P Murphy
Localized delivery of stem cells is potentially a promising therapeutic strategy for regenerating damaged myocardium. Many studies focus on limiting the biologic component of cell loss, but few address the contribution of mechanical factors. This study investigates optimal parameters for retaining the largest volume of cell loaded hydrogels post intramyocardial injection, without compromising cell viability. In vitro, hydrogel was injected into porcine hearts using various needle designs. Hydrogel retention and distribution pattern was then determined...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Vendela K Lagerholm, Edson Sandoval-Castellanos, Amélie Vaniscotte, Olga R Potapova, Teresa Tomek, Zbigniew M Bochenski, Paul Shepherd, Nick Barton, Marie-Claire Van Dyck, Rebecca Miller, Jacob Höglund, Nigel G Yoccoz, Love Dalén, John R Stewart
Global warming is predicted to cause substantial habitat rearrangements, with the most severe effects expected to occur in high-latitude biomes. However, one major uncertainty is whether species will be able to shift their ranges to keep pace with climate-driven environmental changes. Many recent studies on mammals have shown that past range contractions have been associated with local extinctions rather than survival by habitat tracking. Here, we have used an interdisciplinary approach that combines ancient DNA techniques, coalescent simulations and species distribution modelling, to investigate how two common cold-adapted bird species, willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and Lagopus muta), respond to long-term climate warming...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Ming-Hsun Wu, Chiung-Nien Chen, Kuen-Yuan Chen, Ming-Chih Ho, Hao-Chih Tai, Yu-Hsin Wang, Argon Chen, King-Jen Chang
Hypoechogenicity has been described qualitatively and is potentially subject to intra- and inter-observer variability. The aim of this study was to clarify whether quantitative echoic indexes (EIs) are useful for the detection of malignant thyroid nodules. Overall, 333 participants with 411 nodules were included in the final analysis. Quantification of echogenicity was performed using commercial software (AmCAD-UT; AmCad BioMed, Taiwan). The coordinates of three defined regions, the nodule, thyroid parenchyma, and strap muscle regions, were recorded in the database separately for subsequent analysis...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jostein Gohli, Kjetil L Voje
BACKGROUND: Bergmann's rule proposes that animals in cold habitats will be larger than those in warm habitats. This prediction has been tested thoroughly at the intraspecific level, but few studies have investigated the hypothesis with interspecific data using phylogenetic comparative approaches. Many clades of mammals have representatives in numerous distinct biomes, making this order highly suitable for a large-scale interspecific assessment of Bergmann's rule. Here, we evaluate Bergmann's rule within 22 mammalian families-with a dataset that include ~35 % of all described species-using a phylogenetic comparative approach...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Renxun Chen, Nerida Cole, Debarun Dutta, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were immobilized on glass surfaces via two linkers, 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) or 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide (FNA). The resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the surfaces was determined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains by fluorescence microscopy. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilization was confirmed by XPS showing significant increases (p < 0...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Nobuhiro Nagai, Satoru Iwata, Hirokazu Kaji, Kaori Sampei, Yuki Katsukura, Hideyuki Onami, Matsuhiko Nishizawa, Toru Nakazawa, Yukihiko Mashima, Toshiaki Abe
It has been suggested that unoprostone isopropyl (UNO) has potent neuroprotective activity in the retina. The effect of sustained transscleral UNO delivery to the posterior segment of the eye on photoreceptor degeneration was evaluated. UNO was loaded into a device made of poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate by polydimethylsiloxane mold-based UV-curing. The amount of UNO diffusing from these devices was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The polymeric devices that released UNO at 1.8 μg/day were implanted on the sclerae of S334ter rats at postnatal 21 days, and electroretinograms (ERGs) were compared with those of topical application and placebo devices...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Ana Georgina Cobián Güemes, Merry Youle, Vito Adrian Cantú, Ben Felts, James Nulton, Forest Rohwer
Viruses are the most abundant and the most diverse life form. In this meta-analysis we estimate that there are 4.80×10(31) phages on Earth. Further, 97% of viruses are in soil and sediment-two underinvestigated biomes that combined account for only ∼2.5% of publicly available viral metagenomes. The majority of the most abundant viral sequences from all biomes are novel. Our analysis drawing on all publicly available viral metagenomes observed a mere 257,698 viral genotypes on Earth-an unrealistically low number-which attests to the current paucity of viral metagenomic data...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Jingjing Liang, Thomas W Crowther, Nicolas Picard, Susan Wiser, Mo Zhou, Giorgio Alberti, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, A David McGuire, Fabio Bozzato, Hans Pretzsch, Sergio de-Miguel, Alain Paquette, Bruno Hérault, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Christopher B Barrett, Henry B Glick, Geerten M Hengeveld, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Sebastian Pfautsch, Helder Viana, Alexander C Vibrans, Christian Ammer, Peter Schall, David Verbyla, Nadja Tchebakova, Markus Fischer, James V Watson, Han Y H Chen, Xiangdong Lei, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Huicui Lu, Damiano Gianelle, Elena I Parfenova, Christian Salas, Eungul Lee, Boknam Lee, Hyun Seok Kim, Helge Bruelheide, David A Coomes, Daniel Piotto, Terry Sunderland, Bernhard Schmid, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Bonaventure Sonké, Rebecca Tavani, Jun Zhu, Susanne Brandl, Jordi Vayreda, Fumiaki Kitahara, Eric B Searle, Victor J Neldner, Michael R Ngugi, Christopher Baraloto, Lorenzo Frizzera, Radomir Bałazy, Jacek Oleksyn, Tomasz Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Olivier Bouriaud, Filippo Bussotti, Leena Finér, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Tommaso Jucker, Fernando Valladares, Andrzej M Jagodzinski, Pablo L Peri, Christelle Gonmadje, William Marthy, Timothy O'Brien, Emanuel H Martin, Andrew R Marshall, Francesco Rovero, Robert Bitariho, Pascal A Niklaus, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Nurdin Chamuya, Renato Valencia, Frédéric Mortier, Verginia Wortel, Nestor L Engone-Obiang, Leandro V Ferreira, David E Odeke, Rodolfo M Vasquez, Simon L Lewis, Peter B Reich
The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide...
October 14, 2016: Science
Luciana Cristina Vitorino, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Levi Carina Terribile, Rosane G Collevatti
BACKGROUND: We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Viviane R DE Sousa, Márcia S Couri
Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Marcos O Valduga, Rafael D Zenni, Jean R S Vitule
Non-native tree plantations represent 7% of the world's forests and 1.24% of the Brazilian vegetation. Planted areas are expected to increase in the near future; thus, it is important to systematize existing knowledge on the ecological effects of plantations to aid forest management and biodiversity conservation. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the ecological literature associated with planted Pinus and Eucalyptus species in Brazil. We compared publication metrics with geographical distribution of species, ecosystems, biomes, studied taxa, and ecological impacts...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça Favacho, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Natalia Serra Mendes, Otávio Luiz Fidelis Junior, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
: Bartonella spp. comprise an ecologically successful group of microorganisms that infects erythrocytes and have adapted to different hosts, which include a wide range of mammals, besides humans. Rodents are reservoirs of about two thirds of Bartonella spp. described to date; and some of them have been implicated as causative agents of human diseases. In our study, we performed the molecular and phylogenetic analyses of Bartonella spp. infecting wild rodents from five different Brazilian biomes...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Greg A Barron-Gafford, Rebecca L Minor, Nathan A Allen, Alex D Cronin, Adria E Brooks, Mitchell A Pavao-Zuckerman
While photovoltaic (PV) renewable energy production has surged, concerns remain about whether or not PV power plants induce a "heat island" (PVHI) effect, much like the increase in ambient temperatures relative to wildlands generates an Urban Heat Island effect in cities. Transitions to PV plants alter the way that incoming energy is reflected back to the atmosphere or absorbed, stored, and reradiated because PV plants change the albedo, vegetation, and structure of the terrain. Prior work on the PVHI has been mostly theoretical or based upon simulated models...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew L Skowno, Mark W Thompson, Jens Hiestermann, Brad Ripley, Adam G West, William J Bond
Increases in woody plant cover in savanna-grassland environments have been reported on globally for over 50 years and are generally perceived as a threat to rangeland productivity and biodiversity. Despite this few attempts have been made to estimate the extent of woodland increase at a national scale, principally due to technical constraints such as availability of appropriate remote sensing products. In this study we aim to measure the extent to which woodlands have replaced grasslands in South Africa's grassy biomes...
October 12, 2016: Global Change Biology
Ralf Smeets, Christine Knabe, Andreas Kolk, Michael Rheinnecker, Alexander Gröbe, Max Heiland, Rolf Zehbe, Manuela Sachse, Christian Große-Siestrup, Michael Wöltje, Henning Hanken
This study assesses the biocompatibility of novel silk protein membranes with and without modification, and evaluates their effect on facilitating bone formation and defect repair in guided bone regeneration. Two calvarian bone defects 12 mm in diameter were created in each of a total of 38 rabbits. Four different types of membranes, (silk-, hydroxyapatite-modified silk-, β-TCP-modified silk- and commonly clinically used collagen-membranes) were implanted to cover one of the two defects in each animal. Histologic analysis did not show any adverse tissue reactions in any of the defect sites indicating good biocompatibility of all silk protein membranes...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Hideyuki Maruki, Masato Sato, Toshiaki Takezawa, Yoshiki Tani, Munetaka Yokoyama, Takumi Takahashi, Eriko Toyoda, Eri Okada, Shigehisa Aoki, Joji Mochida, Yoshiharu Kato
We studied the ability of collagen vitrigel material to repair cartilage in vivo when used alone or with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). We measured the time course and quantity of TGF-β1 released from the collagen vitrigel in vitro to quantify the controlled release of TGF-β1. Over 14 days, 0.91 ng of TGF-β was released from the collagen vitrigel. Osteochondral defects were made in the femoral trochlear groove in 36 Japanese white rabbits, which were divided into three groups: untreated group (group A), collagen vitrigel-implanted group (group B), and TGF-β1-incorporated collagen vitrigel-implanted group (group C)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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