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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238076/climatic-suitability-isolation-by-distance-and-river-resistance-explain-genetic-variation-in-a-brazilian-whiptail-lizard
#1
Eliana Faria Oliveira, Pablo Ariel Martinez, Vinícius Avelar São-Pedro, Marcelo Gehara, Frank Thomas Burbrink, Daniel Oliveira Mesquita, Adrian Antonio Garda, Guarino Rinaldi Colli, Gabriel Correa Costa
Spatial patterns of genetic variation can help understand how environmental factors either permit or restrict gene flow and create opportunities for regional adaptations. Organisms from harsh environments such as the Brazilian semiarid Caatinga biome may reveal how severe climate conditions may affect patterns of genetic variation. Herein we combine information from mitochondrial DNA with physical and environmental features to study the association between different aspects of the Caatinga landscape and spatial genetic variation in the whiptail lizard Ameivula ocellifera...
December 14, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236930/anophelines-species-and-the-receptivity-and-vulnerability-to-malaria-transmission-in-the-pantanal-wetlands-central-brazil
#2
Mariana Marinho-E-Silva, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento
BACKGROUND Studies on malaria vectors in the Pantanal biome, Central Brazil, were conducted more than half a century ago. OBJECTIVES To update anopheline records and assess receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. METHODS Five-day anopheline collections were conducted bimonthly in Salobra, Mato Grosso do Sul state, for one year. Indoors, mosquitoes were collected from their resting places, while in open fields, they were captured using protected human-baited and horse-baited traps near the house and at the Miranda River margin, respectively...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236857/post-fire-regeneration-in-seasonally-dry-tropical-forest-fragments-in-southeastern-brazil
#3
Mayke B Costa, Luis Fernando T DE Menezes, Marcelo T Nascimento
Seasonally dry tropical forest is one of the highly threatened biome. However, studies on the effect of fire on these tree communities are still scarce. In this context, a floristic and structural survey in three forest areas in the southeast of Brazil that were affected by fire between 14 and 25 years ago was performed with the objective of evaluating post-fire regeneration. In each site, five systematically placed plots (25 m x 25 m each) were established. The more recently burnt site had significantly lower values of richness and diversity than the other two sites...
December 11, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236856/bird-diversity-along-a-gradient-of-fragmented-habitats-of-the-cerrado
#4
Shayana DE Jesus, Wagner A Pedro, Arthur A Bispo
Understanding the factors that affect biodiversity is of central interest to ecology, and essential to species conservation and ecosystems management. We sampled bird communities in 17 forest fragments in the Cerrado biome, the Central-West region of Brazil. We aimed to know the communities structure pattern and the influence of geographical distance and environmental variables on them, along a gradient of fragmented habitats at both local and landscape scales. Eight structural variables of the fragments served as an environmental distance measurement at the local scale while five metrics served as an environmental distance measurement at the landscape scale...
December 11, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235209/contrasting-above-and-belowground-organic-matter-decomposition-and-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-in-response-to-warming-in-high-arctic-tundra
#5
Daan Blok, Samuel Faucherre, Imre Banyasz, Riikka Rinnan, Anders Michelsen, Bo Elberling
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates...
December 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234134/anatomical-evidence-for-scent-guided-foraging-in-the-turkey-vulture
#6
Nathan P Grigg, Justin M Krilow, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Douglas R Wylie, Gary R Graves, Andrew N Iwaniuk
The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) is a widespread, scavenging species in the Western Hemisphere that locates carrion by smell. Scent guided foraging is associated with an expansion of the olfactory bulbs of the brain in vertebrates, but no such neuroanatomical data exists for vultures. We provide the first measurements of turkey vulture brains, including the size of their olfactory bulbs and numbers of mitral cells, which provide the primary output of the olfactory bulbs. Comparative analyses show that the turkey vulture has olfactory bulbs that are 4× larger and contain twice as many mitral cells as those of the sympatric black vulture (Coragyps atratus), despite having brains that are 20% smaller...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230024/forest-extent-and-deforestation-in-tropical-africa-since-1900
#7
Julie C Aleman, Marta A Jarzyna, A Carla Staver
Accurate estimates of historical forest extent and associated deforestation rates are crucial for quantifying tropical carbon cycles and formulating conservation policy. In Africa, data-driven estimates of historical closed-canopy forest extent and deforestation at the continental scale are lacking, and existing modelled estimates diverge substantially. Here, we synthesize available palaeo-proxies and historical maps to reconstruct forest extent in tropical Africa around 1900, when European colonization accelerated markedly, and compare these historical estimates with modern forest extent to estimate deforestation...
December 11, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226584/wool-derived-keratin-hydrogel-enhances-implant-osseointegration-in-cancellous-bone
#8
Warwick J Duncan, Philippa F C Greer, Min-Ho Lee, Carolina Loch, Jennifer H A Gay
AIM: This study investigated whether a keratin hydrogel derived from wool enhances ossointegration of dental implants, using a cancellous bone model in sheep. METHOD: Ten female sheep received one dental implant per hind leg in the distal femoral condyles. Test implants were coated with 1 mL of keratin hydrogel containing sulphonated keratin and hydroxyapatite; control implants remained uncoated; implants were not functionally loaded axially. Biomechanical stability was tested with resonance frequency analysis (RFA) at placement and euthanasia...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226582/proof-of-concept-testing-of-a-positive-reference-material-for-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-skin-irritation-testing
#9
Yusuke Nomura, Michelle Lee, Chie Fukui, Kayo Watanabe, Daniel Olsen, Audrey Turley, Yuki Morishita, Tsuyoshi Kawakami, Toshiyasu Yuba, Hideo Fujimaki, Kaoru Inoue, Midori Yoshida, Kumiko Ogawa, Yuji Haishima
In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226556/solvent-or-thermal-extraction-of-ethylene-oxide-from-polymeric-materials-medical-device-considerations
#10
Anne D Lucas, Christopher Forrey, David M Saylor, Katherine Vorvolakos
Ethylene oxide (EO) gas is commonly used to sterilize medical devices. Bioavailable residual EO, however, presents a significant toxicity risk to patients. Residual EO is assessed using international standards describing extraction conditions for different medical device applications. We examine a series of polymers and explore different extraction conditions to determine residual EO. Materials were sterilized with EO and exhaustively extracted in water, in one of three organic solvents, or in air using thermal desorption...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226553/design-and-properties-of-a-novel-radiopaque-injectable-apatitic-calcium-phosphate-cement-suitable-for-image-guided-implantation
#11
Myriam Le Ferrec, Charlotte Mellier, Florian Boukhechba, Thomas Le Corroller, Daphné Guenoun, Franck Fayon, Valérie Montouillout, Christelle Despas, Alain Walcarius, Dominique Massiot, François-Xavier Lefèvre, Caroline Robic, Jean-Claude Scimeca, Jean-Michel Bouler, Bruno Bujoli
An injectable purely apatitic calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was successfully combined to a water-soluble radiopaque agent (i.e., Xenetix® ), to result in an optimized composition that was found to be as satisfactory as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations used for vertebroplasty, in terms of radiopacity, texture and injectability. For that purpose, the Xenetix dosage in the cement paste was optimized by injection of the radiopaque CPC in human cadaveric vertebrae under classical PMMA vertebroplasty conditions, performed by interventional radiologists familiar with this surgical procedure...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222064/evolution-in-the-amphi-atlantic-tropical-genus-guibourtia-fabaceae-detarioideae-combining-ngs-phylogeny-and-morphology
#12
Félicien Tosso, Olivier J Hardy, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Esra Kaymak, Jérémy Migliore
Tropical rain forests support a remarkable diversity of tree species, questioning how and when this diversity arose. The genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), characterized by two South American and 13 African tree species growing in various tropical biomes, is an interesting model to address the role of biogeographic processes and adaptation to contrasted environments on species diversification. Combining whole plastid genome sequencing and morphological characters analysis, we studied the timing of speciation and diversification processes in Guibourtia through molecular dating and ancestral habitats reconstruction...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219244/-click-on-plga-peg-and-hyaluronic-acid-gaining-access-to-anti-leishmanial-pentamidine-bioconjugates
#13
Angela Scala, Anna Piperno, Nicola Micale, Placido G Mineo, Antonio Abbadessa, Roberta Risoluti, Germano Castelli, Federica Bruno, Fabrizio Vitale, Antonio Cascio, Giovanni Grassi
Pentamidine (Pent), an antiparasitic drug used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, has been modified with terminal azide groups and conjugated to two different polymer backbones (PLGA-PEG [PP] copolymer and hyaluronic acid [HA]) armed with alkyne end-groups. The conjugation has been performed by Copper Catalyzed Azido Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) using CuSO4 /sodium ascorbate as metal source. The novel PP-Pent and HA-Pent bioconjugates are proposed, respectively, as non-targeted and targeted drug delivery systems against Leishmania infections...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218870/loss-of-function-of-neuroplasticity-related-genes-confers-risk-for-human-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#14
Milo R Smith, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Li Li, Rong Chen, Hirofumi Morishita, Joel T Dudley
High and increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders place enormous personal and economic burdens on society. Given the growing realization that the roots of neurodevelopmental disorders often lie in early childhood, there is an urgent need to identify childhood risk factors. Neurodevelopment is marked by periods of heightened experience-dependent neuroplasticity wherein neural circuitry is optimized by the environment. If these critical periods are disrupted, development of normal brain function can be permanently altered, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218858/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-commercial-calcium-phosphate-cement-hydroset%C3%A2
#15
Niall W Kent, Gordon Blunn, Natalia Karpukhina, Graham Davis, Roberta Ferro de Godoy, Rory M Wilson, Melanie Coathup, Lyris Onwordi, Wen Yu Quak, Robert Hill
The commercial calcium phosphate cement, HydroSet™, was investigated in vitro, studying phase formation, compressive strength and setting time, followed by an ovine in vivo study to measure osseointegration, bone apposition and bone-to-graft contact. The X-ray diffraction and 31 P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) results showed the initial formation of octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite at one hour. Over 7 days the octacalcium phosphate transformed to apatite, which was the only crystalline phase of the cement at 28 days...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218857/the-combined-effect-of-thermal-and-chemotherapy-on-hela-cells-using-magnetically-actuated-smart-textured-fibrous-system
#16
Pranav Tiwari, Sakshi Agarwal, Sachchidanand Srivastava, Shilpee Jain
Thermal therapy combined with chemotherapy is one of the advanced and efficient methods to eradicate cancer. In this work, we fabricated magnetically actuated smart textured (MAST) fibrous systems and studied their candidacy for cancer treatment. The polycaprolactone-Fe3 O4 based MAST fibers were fabricated using electrospinning technique. These MAST fibrous systems contained carbogenic quantum dots as a tracking agent and doxorubicin hydrochloride anticancer drug. Additionally, as fabricated MAST fibrous systems were able to deliver anticancer drug and heat energy simultaneously to kill HeLa cells in a 10 min period in vitro...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218856/preparation-of-fluoride-loaded-microcapsules-for-anticariogenic-bacterial-growth-using-a-coaxial-ultrasonic-atomizer
#17
Hae-Won Choi, Seung-Hoon Um, Sang-Hoon Rhee
A new method to deliver fluoride using biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcapsules to suppress cariogenic bacterial growth during orthodontic treatment was investigated. A coaxial ultrasonic atomizer was used to encapsulate KF solution into microcapsules. The orthodontic adhesive resin disk containing fluoride loaded microcapsules (DFLM) was prepared by LED light curing. The microstructure of microcapsules, successful loading of KF, fracture strength, and shear bonding strength were assessed by FE-SEM, confocal laser scanning microscope, and general purpose testing machine, respectively...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215789/who-owns-the-brazilian-carbon
#18
Flavio L M Freitas, Oskar Englund, Gerd Sparovek, Göran Berndes, Vinicius Guidotti, Luís F G Pinto, Ulla Mörtberg
Brazil is one of the major contributors to land-use change emissions, mostly driven by agricultural expansion for food, feed and bioenergy feedstock. Policies to avoid deforestation related to private commitments, economic incentives, and other support schemes are expected to improve the effectiveness of current command and control mechanisms increasingly. However, until recently, land tenure was unknown for much of the Brazilian territory, which has undermined the governance of native vegetation and challenged support and incentive mechanisms for avoiding deforestation...
December 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214075/air-bubble-technique-for-fundus-visualization-during-vitrectomy-in-aphakia
#19
Mahmoud Mohamed Farouk, Takeshi Naito, Mohammed Elagouz, Hatem Ammar, Alahmady Hamad Alsmman, Engy Mohamed Mostafa
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of air bubble technique for vitrectomy in aphakia. Study Design: Prospective interventional uncontrolled case series. Methods: This study included 53 eyes of 53 patients who are phakic and indicated for phacovitrectomy (7 eyes, group 1), aphakic and indicated for vitrectomy (22 eyes, group 2), or underwent unplanned vitrectomy for immediate management of a phacoemulsification surgery complicated by rupture posterior capsule with dropped nucleus, fragments, or IOL (24 eyes, group 3)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212051/land-use-and-climate-change-impacts-on-runoff-and-soil-erosion-at-the-hillslope-scale-in-the-brazilian-cerrado
#20
Jamil A A Anache, Dennis C Flanagan, Anurag Srivastava, Edson C Wendland
Land use and climate change can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) model for different land uses under subtropical conditions in the Cerrado biome; predict runoff and soil erosion for these different land uses; and simulate runoff and soil erosion considering climate change...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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