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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#1
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518030/serologic-and-molecular-evidence-of-vaccinia-virus-circulation-among-small-mammals-from-different-biomes-brazil
#2
Júlia B Miranda, Iara A Borges, Samantha P S Campos, Flávia N Vieira, Tatiana M F de Ázara, Fernanda A Marques, Galileu B Costa, Ana Paula M F Luis, Jaqueline S de Oliveira, Paulo César P Ferreira, Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim, Silvio L M da Silva, Álvaro E Eiras, Jônatas S Abrahão, Erna G Kroon, Betânia P Drumond, Adriano P Paglia, Giliane de S Trindade
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a zoonotic agent that causes a disease called bovine vaccinia, which is detected mainly in milking cattle and humans in close contact with these animals. Even though many aspects of VACV infection have been described, much is still unknown about its circulation in the environment and its natural hosts/reservoirs. To investigate the presence of Orthopoxvirus antibodies or VACV DNA, we captured small rodents and marsupials in 3 areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and tested their samples in a laboratory...
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514061/mapping-intermediate-degradation-products-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-in-vitro
#3
Jian Li, Peter Nemes, Ji Guo
There is widespread interest in using absorbable polymers, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), as components in the design and manufacture of new-generation drug eluting stents (DES). PLGA undergoes hydrolysis to progressively degrade through intermediate chemical entities to simple organic acids that are ultimately absorbed by the human body. Understanding the composition and structure of these intermediate degradation products is critical not only to elucidate polymer degradation pathways accurately, but also to assess the safety and performance of absorbable cardiovascular implants...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513985/self-assembled-nanofiber-coatings-for-controlling-cell-responses
#4
Raquel C Barros, Edith Gelens, Erna Bulten, Annemarie Tuin, Menno R de Jong, Roel Kuijer, Theo G van Kooten
Nanofibers are thought to enhance cell adhesion, growth, and function. We demonstrate that the choice of building blocks in self-assembling nanofiber systems can be used to control cell behavior. The use of 2 D-coated, self-assembled nanofibers in controlling lens epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells was investigated, focusing on gene and protein expression related to the fibrotic response. To this end, three nanofibers with different characteristics (morphology, topography, and wettability) were compared with two standard materials frequently used in culturing cells, TCPS, and a collagen type I coating...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510589/establishment-of-a-combination-scoring-method-for-diagnosis-of-ocular-adnexal-lymphoproliferative-disease
#5
Xiao-Li Qu, Yan Hei, Li Kang, Xin-Ji Yang, Yi Wang, Xiao-Zhong Lu, Li-Hua Xiao, Guang Yang
Lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) of the ocular adnexa encompass the majority of orbital diseases and include reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH), atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (ALH), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Lymphoid follicles (LFs) are usually observed during the histological examination of LPDs. Currently, because there is a lack of specific clinical signs and diagnostic immunohistochemical biomarkers, it is difficult for pathologists to distinguish MALToma from ocular RFH and ALH, which makes the clinical management of these conditions difficult...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508595/silver-nanoparticle-deposited-implants-to-treat-osteomyelitis
#6
Samit Kumar Nandi, Anish Shivaram, Susmita Bose, Amit Bandyopadhyay
In this study, electrolytically deposited strongly adherent silver nanoparticles on stainless-steel (SS) implants were used for in situ osteomyelitis treatment. Samples were heat treated to enhance adhesion of silver on 316 L SS. Ex vivo studies were performed to measure silver-release profiles from the 316 L SS screws inserted in equine cadaver bones. No change in the release profiles of silver ions were observed in vitro between the implanted screws and the control. In vivo studies were performed using osteomyelitic rabbit model with 3 mm diameter silver-deposited 316 L SS pins at two different doses of silver: high and low...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508428/characterization-and-quantitation-of-pvp-content-in-a-silicone-hydrogel-contact-lens-produced-by-dual-phase-polymerization-processing
#7
Andrew J Hoteling, William F Nichols, Patricia S Harmon, Shawn M Conlon, Ivan M Nuñez, Joseph Hoff, Orlando M Cabarcos, Robert B Steffen, Daniel J Hook
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been incorporated over the years into numerous hydrogel contact lenses as both a primary matrix component and an internal wetting agent to increase lens wettability. In this study, complementary analytical techniques were used to characterize the PVP wetting agent component of senofilcon A and samfilcon A contact lenses, both in terms of chemical composition and amount present. Photo-differential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and high-resolution/accurate mass (HR/AM) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques confirmed dual phase reaction and curing of the samfilcon A silicone hydrogel material...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508037/arctic-greening-from-warming-promotes-declines-in-caribou-populations
#8
Per Fauchald, Taejin Park, Hans Tømmervik, Ranga Myneni, Vera Helene Hausner
The migratory tundra caribou herds in North America follow decadal population cycles, and browsing from abundant caribou could be expected to counteract the current climate-driven expansion of shrubs in the circumpolar tundra biome. We demonstrate that the sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has provided a strong signal for climate-induced changes on the adjacent caribou summer ranges, outperforming other climate indices in explaining the caribou-plant dynamics. We found no evidence of a negative effect of caribou abundance on vegetation biomass...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503902/electrochemical-and-biocompatibility-examinations-of-high-pressure-torsion-processed-titanium-and-ti-13nb-13zr-alloy
#9
Ivana Dimić, Ivana Cvijović-Alagić, Anton Hohenwarter, Reinhard Pippan, Vesna Kojić, Jelena Bajat, Marko Rakin
The purpose of this study was to estimate the electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility of ultrafine-grained (UFG) commercially pure titanium (CPTi) and Ti-13Nb-13Zr (TNZ) alloy obtained by high-pressure torsion process. Electrochemical behavior of materials in artificial saliva at 37°C was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the obtained results indicated that UFG TNZ alloy showed corrosion current density (jcorr  = 53 ± 5 nA cm(-2) ) which was 2 times lower compared to coarse-grained (CG) TNZ alloy (jcorr  = 110 ± 12 nA cm(-2) ) and higher corrosion resistance, while UFG CPTi and CPTi showed approximately the same corrosion rate (mean jcorr ∼ 38-40 nA cm(-2) )...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503896/antibacterial-efficacy-of-poly-vinyl-alcohol-composite-nanofibers-embedded-with-silver-anchored-silica-nanoparticles
#10
Abdul Wahab Jatoi, Yun Kee Jo, Hoik Lee, Seong-Geun Oh, Dong Soo Hwang, Zeeshan Khatri, Hyung Joon Cha, Ick Soo Kim
Silver has been widely used as an effective antibacterial agent especially for treating burns and wounds. However, release of silver from materials often arouse side effects due to toxicity of silver towards mammalian cells. Argyria and argyrosis are well known problems of acute toxicity of silver towards human body. Immobilization of silver is an effective approach to reduce silver release. Herein, we present poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite nanofibers embedded with silver-anchored silica nanoparticles (SSNs) as a novel antibacterial material...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503805/development-of-a-siyalon-glaze-for-improved-osteoconductivity-of-implantable-medical-devices
#11
Ryan M Bock, Elia Marin, Alfredo Rondinella, Francesco Boschetto, Tetsuya Adachi, Bryan J McEntire, B Sonny Bal, Giuseppe Pezzotti
The application of bioactive coatings onto orthopaedic appliances is commonly performed to compensate for the otherwise bioinert nature of medical devices and to improve their osseointegration. Calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite (HAp), and bioglasses are commercially available for this purpose. Until recently, few other inorganic compounds have been identified with similar biofunctionality. However, silicon nitride (Si3 N4 ) has emerged as a new orthopaedic material whose unique surface chemistry also enhances osteoconductivity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503802/electrospun-polyethersolfone-nanofibrous-membrane-as-novel-platform-for-protein-immobilization-in-microfluidic-systems
#12
Matin Mahmoudifard, Manouchehr Vossoughi, Sara Soudi, Masoud Soleimani
In the present study, the feasibility of electrospun polyethersolfone (PES) nanofibrous membrane as the solid substrate for microfluidic based immunoassays to enhance the density of immobilized antibody on the surface of membrane was assessed. Conversely, the efficacy of antibody immobilization was compared by two different strategies as 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling chemistry and hydrophobic interaction. Compared to conventional immunoassays carried out in plates or gels, microfluidic based immunoassays grant a lot of advantages such as a consumption of little samples and reagents, shorter analysis time, and higher efficiency...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500731/alternative-plasticizer-4-cyclohexene-1-2-dicarboxylic-acid-dinonyl-ester-for-blood-containers-with-protective-effects-on-red-blood-cells-and-improved-cold-resistance
#13
Yuki Morishita, Yusuke Nomura, Chie Fukui, Ayano Fujisawa, Kayo Watanabe, Hideo Fujimaki, Hidefumi Kumada, Kaoru Inoue, Tomomi Morikawa, Miwa Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Kawakami, Hideyuki Sakoda, Tomokazu Mukai, Toshiyasu Yuba, Ken-Ichi Inamura, Akito Tanoue, Ken-Ichi Miyazaki, Ung-Il Chung, Kumiko Ogawa, Midori Yoshida, Yuji Haishima
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical plasticizer used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is eluted from PVC-made blood containers and protects against red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis. However, concerns have arisen regarding the reproductive and developmental risks of DEHP in humans, and the use of alternative plasticizers for medical devices has been recommended worldwide. In this study, we propose that the use of a novel plasticizer, 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester (DL9TH), could help produce more useful and safe blood containers...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499908/identification-of-novel-mammalian-hosts-and-brazilian-biome-geographic-distribution-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-tciii-and-tciv
#14
Juliana Helena S Barros, Samanta Cristina C Xavier, Daniele Bilac, Valdirene Santos Lima, Maria Augusta Dario, Ana Maria Jansen
Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera...
May 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495750/the-extent-of-forest-in-dryland-biomes
#15
Jean-François Bastin, Nora Berrahmouni, Alan Grainger, Danae Maniatis, Danilo Mollicone, Rebecca Moore, Chiara Patriarca, Nicolas Picard, Ben Sparrow, Elena Maria Abraham, Kamel Aloui, Ayhan Atesoglu, Fabio Attore, Çağlar Bassüllü, Adia Bey, Monica Garzuglia, Luis G García-Montero, Nikée Groot, Greg Guerin, Lars Laestadius, Andrew J Lowe, Bako Mamane, Giulio Marchi, Paul Patterson, Marcelo Rezende, Stefano Ricci, Ignacio Salcedo, Alfonso Sanchez-Paus Diaz, Fred Stolle, Venera Surappaeva, Rene Castro
Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth's land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high temporal resolution, which are available through the Google Earth platform. We show that in 2015, 1327 million hectares of drylands had more than 10% tree-cover, and 1079 million hectares comprised forest...
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494418/zingiber-officinale-and-6-gingerol-alleviate-liver-and-kidney-dysfunctions-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-mercuric-chloride-in-male-rats-a-protective-approach
#16
Deepmala Joshi, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Sateesh Belemkar, Vaibhav A Dixit
Mercury toxicity is an emerging problem in the world as its concentration is rising continuously due to increased industrial, medicinal and domestic uses. Exposure to mercury represents a serious challenge to humans and other living biomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of natural products as Zingiber officinale extract and its active compound (6-gingerol) against mercuric chloride-induced hepatorenal toxicity and oxidative stress in male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150±10g, n=6 per group) were administered HgCl2 (12μmol/kg, ip; once only) the treatment of Zingiber officinale Rosc...
May 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493368/microbial-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-dryland-ecosystems-mechanisms-microbiome-and-mitigation
#17
Hang-Wei Hu, Pankaj Trivedi, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Globally, drylands represent the largest terrestrial biome and are projected to expand by 23% by the end of this century. Drylands are characterized by extremely low levels of water and nutrients and exhibit highly heterogeneous distribution in plants and biocrusts which make microbial processes shaping the dryland functioning rather unique compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with ozone depletion potential. Despite of the pivotal influences of microbial communities on the production and consumption of N2 O, we have limited knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms underpinning N2 O emissions from drylands, which are estimated to account for 30% of total gaseous nitrogen emissions on Earth...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489861/prognostic-value-of-lncrna-sox2ot-for-chinese-cancer-patients-a-meta-analysis
#18
Xuran Jing, Jieru Lin, Hongwei Wang, Liyuan Tian, Runhua Tian, Yunyuan Zhang, Xian Chen, Jinyu Zhang
SOX2OT has been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer and maybe serve as a prognostic marker for cancer patients. However, most individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes and controversial results. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was conducted to analyze available data to reveal the potential clinical application of SOX2OT on cancer prognosis, tumor progression, distance metastasis and lymph node metastasis. Up to February 20, 2017, literature collections were conducted by comprehensive searching electronic databases, including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, BioMed Central, Springer, ScienceDirect, ISI Web of Knowledge, together with three Chinese databases: China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), Weipu and Wanfang...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488335/climate-change-and-human-colonization-triggered-habitat-loss-and-fragmentation-in-madagascar
#19
Jordi Salmona, Rasmus Heller, Erwan Quéméré, Lounès Chikhi
The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hotspots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4-5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates that cohabited with humans is yet unresolved. The prevailing narrative holds that Madagascar was covered with forest before human arrival, and that the expansion of grasslands was the result of human driven deforestation...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485068/wear-resistance-of-poly-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-phosphorylcholine-grafted-carbon-fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketone-liners-against-metal-and-ceramic-femoral-heads
#20
Shihori Yamane, Masayuki Kyomoto, Toru Moro, Masami Hashimoto, Yoshio Takatori, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara
Younger, active patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) have increasing needs for wider range of motion and improved stability of the joint. Therefore, bearing materials having not only higher wear resistance but also mechanical strength are required. Carbon fiber-reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) (CFR-PEEK) is known as a super engineering plastic that has great mechanical strength. In this study, we focused on poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted CFR-PEEK and investigated the effects of PMPC grafting and the femoral heads materials on the wear properties of CFR-PEEK liners...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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