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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675998/biomaterial-granules-used-for-filling-bone-defects-constitute-3d-scaffolds-porosity-microarchitecture-and-molecular-composition-analyzed-by-microct-and-raman-microspectroscopy
#1
Baptiste Arbez, Jean-Daniel Kün-Darbois, Thierry Convert, Bernard Guillaume, Philippe Mercier, Laurent Hubert, Daniel Chappard
Biomaterials are used in the granular form to fill small bone defects. Granules can be prepared with a grinder from trabecular bone samples or provided as synthetic biomaterials by industry. Granules occupy the 3D-space and create a macroporosity allowing invasion of vascular and bone cells when the inter-granular pores are larger than 300 µm. We compared the 3D-porosity of granule stacks obtained or prepared with nine biomaterials Osteopure® , Lubboc® , Bio-Oss® , CopiOs® , TCP Dental® , TCP Dental HP® , KeraOs® , and TCH® in comparison with that of human trabecular bone...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675967/shrub-range-expansion-alters-diversity-and-distribution-of-soil-fungal-communities-across-an-alpine-elevation-gradient
#2
Courtney G Collins, Jason E Stajich, Sören E Weber, Nuttapon Pombubpa, Jeffrey M Diez
Global climate and land use change are altering plant and soil microbial communities worldwide, particularly in arctic and alpine biomes where warming is accelerated. The widespread expansion of woody shrubs into historically herbaceous alpine plant zones is likely to interact with climate to affect soil microbial community structure and function, however our understanding of alpine soil ecology remains limited. This study aimed to 1) determine whether the diversity and community composition of soil fungi vary across elevation gradients and to 2) assess the impact of woody shrub expansion on these patterns...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675920/long-term-feasibility-and-biocompatibility-of-directly-microsurgically-implanted-intrafascicular-electrodes-in-free-roaming-rabbits
#3
Gehua Zhen, Huanwen Chen, Shin-Yi Tsai, Jian Zhang, Tongyi Chen, Xiaofeng Jia
Novel neural interfaces capable of reliably capturing electrical signals are crucial for the development of prostheses. Longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs) have been proposed as a promising technology, and their feasibility and biocompatibility need to be investigated for long-term implantation. In this study, custom-designed 95%Pt-5%Ir intrafascicular electrodes were implanted into the sciatic nerves of 14 rabbits using our novel direct microsurgical technique. The biocompatibility and their ability to record electrophysiological signals were serially investigated up to 9 months after implantation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675859/fabrication-of-superparamagnetic-nanofibrous-poly-l-lactic-acid-%C3%AE-fe-2-o-3-microspheres-for-cell-carriers
#4
Moyuan Qu, Wenqian Xiao, Jiarong Tian, Song Wang, Hong Li, Xue Liu, Xiaoling Yang, Bo Li, Xiaoling Liao
Nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microspheres are extensively studied to be used as cell carriers in the field of tissue engineering because the unique structure can promote cell proliferation and migration. But as injectable scaffold materials, PLLA microspheres easily run off to the soft tissue space because of the lack of cohesive force. It will affect the treatment efficiency and even cause additional inflammatory response. In order to overcome this disadvantage, superparamagnetic γ-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles assisted with oxidative polymerization of dopamine were used for surface modification of PLLA microspheres in this study...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669028/the-grass-was-greener-repeated-evolution-of-specialized-morphologies-and-habitat-shifts-in-ghost-spiders-following-grassland-expansion-in-south-america
#5
F Sara Ceccarelli, Nicolás Mongiardino Koch, Eduardo M Soto, Mariana L Barone, Miquel A Arnedo, Martín J Ramírez
While grasslands, one of Earth's major biomes, are known for their close evolutionary ties with ungulate grazers, these habitats are also paramount to the origins and diversification of other animals. Within the primarily South American spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Anyphaenidae), several species are found living in the continent's grasslands, with some displaying putative morphological adaptations to dwelling unnoticed in the grass blades. Here, a dated molecular phylogeny provides the backbone for analyses revealing the ecological and morphological processes behind these spiders' grassland adaptations...
April 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668996/brepertoire-a-user-friendly-web-server-for-analysing-antibody-repertoire-data
#6
Christian Margreitter, Hui-Chun Lu, Catherine Townsend, Alexander Stewart, Deborah K Dunn-Walters, Franca Fraternali
Antibody repertoire analysis by high throughput sequencing is now widely used, but a persisting challenge is enabling immunologists to explore their data to discover discriminating repertoire features for their own particular investigations. Computational methods are necessary for large-scale evaluation of antibody properties. We have developed BRepertoire, a suite of user-friendly web-based software tools for large-scale statistical analyses of repertoire data. The software is able to use data preprocessed by IMGT, and performs statistical and comparative analyses with versatile plotting options...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666316/patterns-of-plant-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-concentration-in-relation-to-productivity-in-china-s-terrestrial-ecosystems
#7
Zhiyao Tang, Wenting Xu, Guoyi Zhou, Yongfei Bai, Jiaxiang Li, Xuli Tang, Dima Chen, Qing Liu, Wenhong Ma, Gaoming Xiong, Honglin He, Nianpeng He, Yanpei Guo, Qiang Guo, Jiangling Zhu, Wenxuan Han, Huifeng Hu, Jingyun Fang, Zongqiang Xie
Plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content regulate productivity and carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of the allocation of N and P content in plant tissues and the relationship between nutrient content and photosynthetic capacity are critical to predicting future ecosystem C sequestration under global change. In this study, by investigating the nutrient concentrations of plant leaves, stems, and roots across China's terrestrial biomes, we document large-scale patterns of community-level concentrations of C, N, and P...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666315/plant-diversity-enhances-productivity-and-soil-carbon-storage
#8
Shiping Chen, Wantong Wang, Wenting Xu, Yang Wang, Hongwei Wan, Dima Chen, Zhiyao Tang, Xuli Tang, Guoyi Zhou, Zongqiang Xie, Daowei Zhou, Zhouping Shangguan, Jianhui Huang, Jin-Sheng He, Yanfen Wang, Jiandong Sheng, Lisong Tang, Xinrong Li, Ming Dong, Yan Wu, Qiufeng Wang, Zhiheng Wang, Jianguo Wu, F Stuart Chapin, Yongfei Bai
Despite evidence from experimental grasslands that plant diversity increases biomass production and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, it remains unclear whether this is true in natural ecosystems, especially under climatic variations and human disturbances. Based on field observations from 6,098 forest, shrubland, and grassland sites across China and predictions from an integrative model combining multiple theories, we systematically examined the direct effects of climate, soils, and human impacts on SOC storage versus the indirect effects mediated by species richness (SR), aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and belowground biomass (BB)...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665544/impacts-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-on-stream-hydrochemistry-in-the-cerrado-and-amazon-biomes
#9
Rodolfo L B Nóbrega, Alphonce C Guzha, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S S Amorim, Eduardo G Couto, Harold J Hughes, Hermann F Jungkunst, Gerhard Gerold
Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665215/dominant-regions-and-drivers-of-the-variability-of-the-global-land-carbon-sink-across-timescales
#10
Xuanze Zhang, Ying-Ping Wang, Shushi Peng, Peter J Rayner, Philippe Ciais, Jeremy D Silver, Shilong Piao, Zaichun Zhu, Xingjie Lu, Xiaogu Zheng
Net biome productivity (NBP) dominates the observed large variation of atmospheric CO2 annual increase over the last five decades. However, the dominant regions controlling inter-annual to multi-decadal variability of global NBP are still controversial (semi-arid regions vs. temperate or tropical forests). By developing a theory for partitioning the variance of NBP into the contributions of net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh ) at different timescales, and using both observation-based atmospheric CO2 inversion product and the outputs of 10 process-based terrestrial ecosystem models forced by 110-year observational climate, we tried to reconcile the controversy by showing that semi-arid lands dominate the variability of global NBP at inter-annual (<10 years) and tropical forests dominate at multi-decadal scales (>30 years)...
April 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663665/investigation-of-nano-sized-debris-released-from-cocrmo-secondary-interfaces-in-total-hip-replacements-digestion-of-the-flakes
#11
Alina M Crainic, Mauro Callisti, Martin R Palmer, Richard B Cook
The in vivo release of wear debris and corrosion products from the metallic interfaces of total hip replacements is associated with a wide spectrum of adverse body reactions and systemic manifestations. The origin of debris and the electrochemical conditions at the sites of material loss both play a role in determining the physicochemical characteristics of the particles, and thus influence their in vivo reactivity. Debris retrieved from revised CoCrMo tapers and cement-stem interfaces consists of heterogeneous flakes that comprise mechanically mixed metal particles, corrosion products and organic material...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663651/engineered-natural-and-synthetic-polymer-surfaces-induce-nuclear-deformation-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#12
Ezgi Antmen, Menekse Ermis, Utkan Demirci, Vasif Hasirci
Cell-substrate interactions involve constant probing of microenvironment by cells. One of the responses of cells to environmental cues is to change the conformation of their cytoplasm and nucleus. We hypothesized that surface chemistry and topography could be engineered to make these differences significant enough. When designing the substrates that would accentuate these differences, we prepared surfaces carrying cell adhesive biological cues arranged in specific patterns. Collagen type I and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were used to represent substrates with biological cues and those without, and these materials were decorated with four square prism micropillars with different dimensions...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663650/content-of-distinct-metals-in-periprosthetic-tissues-and-pseudosynovial-joint-fluid-in-patients-with-total-joint-arthroplasty
#13
Martin Kuba, Jiří Gallo, Tomáš Pluháček, Martin Hobza, David Milde
This prospective study examined the content of metals released from total joint arthroplasty into joint fluid, whole blood and periprosthetic tissues. We determined the levels of Ti, V, Nb, Co, Cr, and Mo, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in samples from patients who underwent reoperation of total hip or knee arthroplasty. All of the patients (n = 117) included in the study had either metal on polyethylene or ceramic on polyethylene-bearing pairs. First, our results conclusively showed that the majority of released metals were deposited in periprosthetic tissues...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663644/biomimetic-sulfated-polyethylene-glycol-hydrogel-inhibits-proteoglycan-loss-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-expression-pattern-in-an-osteoarthritis-in-vitro-model
#14
Shabnam Hemmati-Sadeghi, Pradip Dey, Jochen Ringe, Rainer Haag, Michael Sittinger, Tilo Dehne
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of an anti-inflammatory polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel for osteoarthritis (OA) management in an OA in vitro model. Freshly isolated porcine chondrocytes were maintained in high-density cultures to form cartilage-like three-dimensional micromasses. Recombinant porcine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce OA-like changes. Normal and OA-like micromasses were treated with dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based PEG hydrogel. Live/dead staining showed that all micromasses remained vital and presented similar morphological characteristics...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663638/healing-bone-lesion-defects-using-injectable-caso-4-capo-4-tcp-bone-graft-substitute-compared-to-cancellous-allograft-bone-chips-in-a-canine-model
#15
Deborah J Hall, Thomas M Turner, Robert M Urban
CaSO4 /CaPO4 -TCP bone graft substitute has been shown to be effective for treatment of bone lesion defects, but its mechanical, histological, and radiographic characteristics have not been studied in direct comparison with a conventional treatment such as cancellous allograft bone. Thirteen canines had a critical-size axial defect created bilaterally into the proximal humerus. CaSO4 /CaPO4 -TCP bone graft substitute (PRO-DENSE™, Wright Medical Technology) was injected into the defect in one humerus, and an equal volume of freeze-dried cancellous allograft bone chips was placed in the contralateral defect...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658830/-you-ll-always-stay-right-understanding-vaginal-products-and-the-motivations-for-use-among-adolescent-and-young-women-in-rural-kzn
#16
Hilton Humphries, Celia Mehou-Loko, Sithembile Phakathi, Makhosazana Mdladla, Lauren Fynn, Lucia Knight, Quarraisha Abdool Karim
The use of vaginal products may increase the risk of HIV infection by affecting the vaginal biome. Understanding what vaginal products young women are using, and why, is key to assessing the complexity of sexual health and risk. This study reports on findings from research with adolescent and young women in rural KwaZulu-Natal about the vaginal products they use and motivations for using them. The study identified over 26 products that young women used to enhance their sexual experience and found some young women spent time preparing and sourcing vaginal products in order to pleasure and retain partners...
April 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656599/novel-cost-effective-cu-doped-calcium-silicate-nanoparticles-for-bone-fracture-intervention-inherent-bioactivity-and-in-vivo-performance
#17
Mostafa Mabrouk, Shaimaa A ElShebiney, Sayed H Kenawy, Gehan T El-Bassyouni, Esmat Ma Hamzawy
Copper (Cu)-doped calcium silicate nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet precipitation method as economical bone fracture filler. The aim was to improve the overall physicochemical properties, bioactivity, and biological performance of the bone fracture filler prepared herein. The synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP), SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-rays (EDX), and FTIR...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656592/the-applicability-of-furfuryl-gelatin-as-a-novel-bioink-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#18
Shweta AnilKumar, Shane C Allen, Nishat Tasnim, Tahmina Akter, Shinhye Park, Alok Kumar, Munmun Chattopadhyay, Yoshihiro Ito, Laura J Suggs, Binata Joddar
Three-dimensional bioprinting is an innovative technique in tissue engineering, to create layer-by-layer structures, required for mimicking body tissues. However, synthetic bioinks do not generally possess high printability and biocompatibility at the same time. So, there is an urgent need for naturally derived bioinks that can exhibit such optimized properties. We used furfuryl-gelatin as a novel, visible-light crosslinkable bioink for fabricating cell-laden structures with high viability. Hyaluronic acid was added as a viscosity enhancer and either Rose Bengal or Riboflavin was used as a visible-light crosslinker...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656542/evaluation-of-permeability-and-fluid-wicking-in-woven-fiber-bone-scaffolds
#19
Jordon Gilmore, Freda Yin, Karen J L Burg
Research characterizing transport of nutrients and waste in tissue engineering scaffolds has led to the study of scaffold properties that contribute to permeability and porosity of the scaffold. Both permeability and porosity contribute to the transport properties of the scaffold; however, permeability relates to the degree to which pores are interconnected within the scaffold. This work evaluated permeability for woven polymer fiber scaffolds by modulating the following scaffold parameters: material combination, weave configuration, and fiber geometry...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656513/acidic-and-alkaline-chemicals-influence-on-a-tricalcium-silicate-based-dental-biomaterial
#20
Prasanna Neelakantan, Todd Berger, Carolyn Primus, Hagay Shemesh, Paul R Wesselink
Bioactive hydraulic tricalcium silicate materials are commonly used in several dental procedures. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is one such material, which is used in a variety of clinical applications, the most recent of which is root canal sealing material, during which, the MTA potentially comes in contact with remnants of the chemical agents used for disinfecting root canals. The effects of commonly used root canal irrigating solutions on MTA have not been investigated in depth, thus far. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of five common chemical agents used in root canal preparation (sodium hypochlorite/NaOCl, ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid/EDTA, mixture of sodium hypochlorite and etidronic acid/NaOCl + EA, mixture of EDTA and Chlorhexidine/QMix, or saline) on a commercial tricalcium silicate (MTA Plus)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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