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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915321/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-preparations-in-the-treatment-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-balancing-risks-and-benefits
#1
Deepak Chawla, Brian A Darlow
NEED AND PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The standard of management of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is laser ablation of the peripheral retina. Intra-vitreal injection of anti- vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies has emerged as an alternative modality of treatment of ROP. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on benefits and risks of using anti-VEGF antibodies for management of ROP. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials were searched for studies evaluating role of anti-VEGF agents in ROP...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914743/sequential-immunization-with-consensus-influenza-hemagglutinins-raises-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies-against-various-heterologous-ha-strains
#2
Hui Zhou, Yang Huang, Songhua Yuan, Yuanyuan Li, Shuyan Wu, Jianqing Xu, Rui Huang
Seasonal and emerging epidemics caused by influenza virus remain as a public health concern and an economic burden. The weak immunogenicity of conserved epitopes on hemagglutinin that induces broad protective immune responses is the main obstacle to the development of universal vaccines. In the present report, we designed the cross-subtypic sequential vaccination strategy and evaluated its neutralizing antibody (nAb) activity by pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The results clearly indicated that compared with traditional vaccines strategy, the cross-subtypic sequential immunization could significantly induce a broad serum cross-reactive nAb response in mice as well as against homologous strains, and provide protection from heterologous virus PR8 (H1N1) challenge...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914740/predicting-the-relative-impacts-of-maternal-and-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-target-product-profiles-a-consensus-modelling-approach
#3
Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Timothy Kinyanjui, Moses Kiti, Sylvia Taylor, Jean-François Toussaint, Sompob Saralamba, Thierry Van Effelterre, D James Nokes, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral cause of infant and childhood lower respiratory tract disease worldwide. Defining the optimal target product profile (TPP) is complicated due to a wide range of possible vaccine properties, modalities and an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of natural immunity. We report consensus population level impact projections based on two mathematical models applied to a low income setting. METHOD: Two structurally distinct age-specific deterministic compartmental models reflecting uncertainty associated with the natural history of infection and the mechanism by which immunity is acquired and lost were constructed...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914064/computational-tools-for-aiding-rational-antibody-design
#4
Konrad Krawczyk, James Dunbar, Charlotte M Deane
Antibodies are a group of proteins responsible for mediating immune reactions in vertebrates. They are able to bind a variety of structural motifs on noxious molecules tagging them for elimination from the organism. As a result of their versatile binding properties, antibodies are currently one of the most important classes of biopharmaceuticals. In this chapter, we discuss how knowledge-based computational methods can aid experimentalists in the development of potent antibodies. When using common experimental methods for antibody development, we often know the sequence of an antibody that binds to our molecule, antigen, of interest...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914052/applications-of-normal-mode-analysis-methods-in-computational-protein-design
#5
Vincent Frappier, Matthieu Chartier, Rafael Najmanovich
Recent advances in coarse-grained normal mode analysis methods make possible the large-scale prediction of the effect of mutations on protein stability and dynamics as well as the generation of biologically relevant conformational ensembles. Given the interplay between flexibility and enzymatic activity, the combined analysis of stability and dynamics using the Elastic Network Contact Model (ENCoM) method has ample applications in protein engineering in industrial and medical applications such as in computational antibody design...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913951/stereolithography-based-3d-printed-pillar-plates-that-minimizes-fluid-transfers-during-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assays
#6
Justin D McCallen, Alison Schaefer, Phoebe Lee, Loretta Hing, Samuel K Lai
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most popular and indispensable tools in molecular biology. Despite numerous advances in ELISA methods that markedly improve the sensitivity and throughput of detection, a hallmark of all ELISA continues to be repeated pipetting of fluids that is not only cumbersome but can easily introduce errors or contaminations. Robotics, despite obvious advantages, remains expensive. Here, we designed and produced cheap "pillar plates" using stereolithography-based 3D printing that can be readily inserted into conventional 96- and 384- well plates and serve as the substrate for ELISA...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913516/immunoregulatory-networks-in-sickle-cell-alloimmunization
#7
Karina Yazdanbakhsh
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are critical for treatment and prevention of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD), and most SCD patients will receive 1 or more transfusions by age 20. However, SCD alloimmunization remains a serious complication of transfusions that can lead to life-threatening acute and delayed transfusion reactions. Alloimmunization rates are higher in SCD patients most likely due to RBC antigenic differences between largely white donors vs mainly African-American recipients and frequency of transfusions...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912771/a-dna-vaccine-encoding-the-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-genotype-ivb-glycoprotein-confers-protection-in-muskellunge-esox-masquinongy-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-and-lake-trout-salvelinus-namaycush
#8
Isaac F Standish, Elena V Millard, Travis O Brenden, Mohamed Faisal
BACKGROUND: The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most serious fish pathogens. In 2003, a novel sublineage (genotype IVb) of this deadly virus emerged in the Great Lakes basin causing serious fish kills. We have previously demonstrated that a DNA plasmid (pcDNA), containing a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb glycoprotein (G) gene insert (designated pVHSivb-G) confers moderate protection in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), a highly susceptible species upon challenge...
December 2, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911903/transfected-babesia-bovis-expressing-a-tick-gst-as-a-live-vector-vaccine
#9
Daiane P Oldiges, Jacob M Laughery, Nelson Junior Tagliari, Ronaldo Viana Leite Filho, William C Davis, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Carlos Termignoni, Donald P Knowles, Carlos E Suarez
The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911413/fabricating-a-uv-vis-and-raman-spectroscopy-immunoassay-platform
#10
Cynthia Hanson, Nathan D Israelsen, Michael Sieverts, Elizabeth Vargis
Immunoassays are used to detect proteins based on the presence of associated antibodies. Because of their extensive use in research and clinical settings, a large infrastructure of immunoassay instruments and materials can be found. For example, 96- and 384-well polystyrene plates are available commercially and have a standard design to accommodate ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy machines from various manufacturers. In addition, a wide variety of immunoglobulins, detection tags, and blocking agents for customized immunoassay designs such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are available...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911364/an-intramedullary-locking-nail-for-standardized-fixation-of-femur-osteotomies-to-analyze-normal-and-defective-bone-healing-in-mice
#11
Tina Histing, Michael D Menger, Tim Pohlemann, Romano Matthys, Tobias Fritz, Patric Garcia, Moritz Klein
Bone healing models are essential to the development of new therapeutic strategies for clinical fracture treatment. Furthermore, mouse models are becoming more commonly used in trauma research. They offer a large number of mutant strains and antibodies for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms behind the highly differentiated process of bone healing. To control the biomechanical environment, standardized and well-characterized osteosynthesis techniques are mandatory in mice. Here, we report on the design and use of an intramedullary nail to stabilize open femur osteotomies in mice...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910826/enhancing-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer-using-immunoadjuvants-delivered-in-situ-from-new-design-radiotherapy-biomaterials-a-preclinical-study
#12
Yao Hao, Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Michele Moreau, Neeharika Sinha, Erno Sajo, Wilfred Ngwa
Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910810/production-of-tnf-alpha-ex-vivo-is-predictive-of-an-immune-response-to-flu-vaccination-in-a-frail-elderly-population
#13
Frédéric Bloch, Bénédicte Charmeteau, Michael Tovey, Jean-François Meritet, Corinne Desaint, Odile Launay, Pierre Lebon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the response to influenza vaccination and the ability to produce proinflamatory cytokines in elderly subjects. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 25 elderly subjects collected before influenza vaccination were stimulated with the influenza vaccine in order to evaluate the secretion of five specific cytokines: TNFα, IFNα, IFNγ, IL2 and IL10. The results were correlated with the increased HAI antibody titres two weeks after vaccination...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908880/an-anti-cd3-anti-cll-1-bispecific-antibody-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#14
Steven R Leong, Siddharth Sukumaran, Maria Hristopoulos, Klara Totpal, Shannon Stainton, Elizabeth Lu, Alfred Wong, Lucinda Tam, Robert Newman, Brian R Vuillemenot, Diego Ellerman, Chen Gu, Mary Mathieu, Mark S Dennis, Allen Nguyen, Bing Zheng, Crystal Zhang, Genee Lee, Yu-Waye Chu, Rodney A Prell, Kedan Lin, Steven T Laing, Andrew G Polson
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is major unmet medical need. Most patients have poor long-term survival and treatment has not significantly changed in 40 years. Recently, bispecific antibodies that redirect the cytotoxic activity of effector T-cells by binding to CD3, the signaling component of the T-cell receptor, and a tumor target have shown clinical activity. Notably, blinatumomab is approved to treat relapsed/refractory acute lymphoid leukemia. Here we describe the design, discovery, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, and safety of a CD3 T-cell-dependent bispecific (TDB) full-length human IgG1 therapeutic antibody targeting CLL-1 that could potentially be used in humans to treat AML...
December 1, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908295/dopamine-2-receptor-extracellular-n-terminus-regulates-receptor-surface-availability-and-is-the-target-of-human-pathogenic-antibodies-from-children-with-movement-and-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Nese Sinmaz, Fiona Tea, Deepti Pilli, Alicia Zou, Mazen Amatoury, Tina Nguyen, Vera Merheb, Sudarshini Ramanathan, Sandra T Cooper, Russell C Dale, Fabienne Brilot
Anti-Dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) antibodies have been recently identified in a subgroup of children with autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders, however the epitope(s) and mechanism of pathogenicity remain unknown. Here we report a major biological role for D2R extracellular N-terminus as a regulator of receptor surface availability, and as a major epitope targeted and impaired in brain autoimmunity. In transfected human cells, purified anti-D2R antibody from patients specifically and significantly reduced human D2R surface levels...
December 1, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906605/current-drug-design-to-target-the-semaphorin-neuropilin-plexin-complexes
#16
Lionel A T Meyer, Justine Fritz, Marie Pierdant-Mancera, Dominique Bagnard
The Semaphorin/Neuropilin/Plexin (SNP) complexes control a wide range of biological processes. Consistently, activity deregulation of these complexes is associated with many diseases. The increasing knowledge on SNP had in turn validated these molecular complexes as novel therapeutic targets. Targeting SNP activities by small molecules, antibodies and peptides or by soluble Semaphorins have been proposed as new therapeutic approach. This review is focusing on the latest demonstration of this potential and discusses some of the key questions that need to be addressed before translating SNP targeting into clinically relevant approaches...
December 1, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906115/established-cell-surface-markers-efficiently-isolate-highly-overlapping-populations-of-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting
#17
Claire C Maesner, Albert E Almada, Amy J Wagers
BACKGROUND: Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) has enabled the direct isolation of highly enriched skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, populations from postnatal tissue. Several distinct surface marker panels containing different positively selecting surface antigens have been used to distinguish muscle satellite cells from other non-myogenic cell types. Because functional and transcriptional heterogeneity is known to exist within the satellite cell population, a direct comparison of results obtained in different laboratories has been complicated by a lack of clarity as to whether commonly utilized surface marker combinations select for distinct or overlapping subsets of the satellite cell pool...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905530/structural-basis-for-broad-neutralization-of-hiv-1-through-the-molecular-recognition-of-10e8-helical-epitope-at-the-membrane-interface
#18
Edurne Rujas, Jose M M Caaveiro, Angélica Partida-Hanon, Naveed Gulzar, Koldo Morante, Beatriz Apellániz, Miguel García-Porras, Marta Bruix, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jamie K Scott, M Ángeles Jiménez, José L Nieva
The mechanism by which the HIV-1 MPER epitope is recognized by the potent neutralizing antibody 10E8 at membrane interfaces remains poorly understood. To solve this problem, we have optimized a 10E8 peptide epitope and analyzed the structure and binding activities of the antibody in membrane and membrane-like environments. The X-ray crystal structure of the Fab-peptide complex in detergents revealed for the first time that the epitope of 10E8 comprises a continuous helix spanning the gp41 MPER/transmembrane domain junction (MPER-N-TMD; Env residues 671-687)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905089/novel-paradigm-for-immunotherapy-of-ovarian-cancer-by-engaging-prophylactic-immunity-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#19
Marek Malecki, Emily Putzer, Caroline Quach, Chaitanya Dodivenaka, Xenia Tombokan
BACKGROUND: Only eight women out of one hundred diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancers, which progressed to the clinical stage IV, survive 10 years. First line therapies: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy inflict very serious iatrogenic consequences. Passive immunotherapy of ovarian cancers offers only low efficacy. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancers are not available. Interestingly, prophylactic vaccines for Hepatitis B Viruses (HBV) are very effective...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904520/a-diagnostic-one-step-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-method-for-accurate-detection-of-influenza-virus-type-a
#20
Mohammad Amin Behzadi, Mazyar Ziyaeyan, Abdolvahab Alborzi
INTRODUCTION: Influenza A is known as a public health concern worldwide. In this study, a novel one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was designed and optimized for the detection of influenza A viruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The primers and probe were designed based on the analysis of 90 matrix nucleotide sequence data of influenza type A subtypes from the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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