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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667686/rheological-characterization-of-dynamic-remodeling-of-the-pericellular-region-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-secreted-enzymes-in-well-defined-synthetic-hydrogel-scaffolds
#1
Maryam Daviran, Sarah M Longwill, Jonah F Casella, Kelly M Schultz
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) dynamically remodel their microenvironment during basic processes, such as migration and differentiation. Migration requires extracellular matrix invasion, necessitating dynamic cell-material interactions. Understanding these interactions is critical to advancing materials designs that harness and manipulate these processes for applications including wound healing and tissue regeneration. In this work, we encapsulate hMSCs in a cell-degradable poly(ethylene glycol)-peptide hydrogel to determine how cell-secreted enzymes, specifically matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), create unique pericellular microenvironments...
April 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667553/car-t-cell-therapy-a-new-era-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
Miliotou N Androulla, Papadopoulou C Lefkothea
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the years, a number of conventional cytotoxic approaches for neoplastic diseases has been developed. However, due to their limited effectiveness in accordance with the heterogeneity of cancer cells, there is a constant search for therapeutic approaches with improved outcome, such as immunotherapy that utilizes and enhances the normal capacity of the patient's immune system. METHODS: Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy involves genetic modification of patient's autologous T-cells to express a CAR specific for a tumor antigen, following by ex vivo cell expansion and re-infusion back to the patient...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667344/concise-review-aggressive-colorectal-cancer-role-of-epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-in-cancer-stem-cells-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#3
REVIEW
Maximilian Boesch, Gilbert Spizzo, Andreas Seeber
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. In spite of various attempts to ameliorate outcome by escalating treatment, significant improvement is lacking particularly in the adjuvant setting. It has been proposed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are at least partially responsible for therapy resistance in CRC. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was one of the first CSC antigens to be described. Furthermore, an EpCAM-specific antibody (edrecolomab) has the merit of having launched the era of monoclonal antibody treatment in oncology in the 1990s...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667004/the-development-of-hiv-vaccines-targeting-gp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-mper-challenges-and-prospects
#4
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Xiaojie Su, Lulu Si, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
A human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine which is able to effectively prevent infection would be the most powerful method of extinguishing pandemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yet, achieving such vaccine remains great challenges. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is a highly conserved region of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 subunit near the viral envelope surface, and it plays a key role in membrane fusion. It is also the target of some reported broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)...
April 17, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666626/next-generation-immune-repertoire-sequencing-as-a-clue-to-elucidate-the-landscape-of-immune-modulation-by-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#5
Tatsuo Ichinohe, Takahiko Miyama, Takakazu Kawase, Yasuko Honjo, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroyuki Sato, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki
The human immune system is a fine network consisted of the innumerable numbers of functional cells that balance the immunity and tolerance against various endogenous and environmental challenges. Although advances in modern immunology have revealed a role of many unique immune cell subsets, technologies that enable us to capture the whole landscape of immune responses against specific antigens have been not available to date. Acquired immunity against various microorganisms including host microbiome is principally founded on T cell and B cell populations, each of which expresses antigen-specific receptors that define a unique clonotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666303/a-gallium-67-68-labeled-antibody-fragment-for-immuno-spect-pet-shows-low-renal-radioactivity-without-loss-of-tumor-uptake
#6
Tomoya Uehara, Miki Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Yasushi Arano
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the renal radioactivity levels of a newly designed 67 Ga-labeled antibody fragment with a linkage cleaved by enzymes present on the brush border membrane (BBM) lining the lumen of the renal tubule. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 67 Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bn-NOTA) was conjugated with an antibody Fab fragment through a Met-Val-Lys linkage (67 Ga-NOTA-MVK-Fab) considering that a Met-Val sequence is a substrate of enzymes on the renal BBM and 67 Ga-NOTA-Met is excreted from the kidney into the urine...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666227/anti-hiv-1-b-cell-responses-are-dependent-on-b-cell-precursor-frequency-and-antigen-binding-affinity
#7
Pia Dosenovic, Ervin E Kara, Anna-Klara Pettersson, Andrew T McGuire, Matthew Gray, Harald Hartweger, Eddy S Thientosapol, Leonidas Stamatatos, Michel C Nussenzweig
The discovery that humans can produce potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to several different epitopes on the HIV-1 spike has reinvigorated efforts to develop an antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine. Antibody cloning from single cells revealed that nearly all bNAbs show unusual features that could help explain why it has not been possible to elicit them by traditional vaccination and instead would require a sequence of different immunogens. This idea is supported by experiments with genetically modified immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in mice...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665849/an-innovative-immunotherapeutic-strategy-for-ovarian-cancer-clec10a-and-glycomimetic-peptides
#8
Laura L Eggink, Katherine F Roby, Robert Cote, J Kenneth Hoober
BACKGROUND: Receptors specific for the sugar N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) include the human type II, C-type lectin receptor macrophage galactose-type lectin/C-type lectin receptor family member 10A (MGL/CLEC10A/CD301) that is expressed prominently by human peripheral immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells in the skin, alternatively-activated (M2a) macrophages, and to lesser extents by several other types of tissues. CLEC10A is an endocytic receptor on antigen-presenting cells and has been proposed to play an important role in maturation of dendritic cells and initiation of an immune response...
April 17, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665376/insect-cell-produced-recombinant-protein-subunit-vaccines-protect-against-zika-virus-infection
#9
Panke Qu, Wei Zhang, Dapeng Li, Chao Zhang, Qingwei Liu, Xueyang Zhang, Xuesong Wang, Wenlong Dai, Yongfen Xu, Qibin Leng, Jin Zhong, Xia Jin, Zhong Huang
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) may lead to severe neurologic disorders. It is of significant importance and urgency to develop safe and effective vaccines to prevent ZIKV infection. Here we report the development of ZIKV subunit vaccines based on insect cell-produced recombinant proteins. The N-terminal approximately 80% region (designated as E80) and the domain III (designated as EDIII) of ZIKV envelope (E) protein were efficiently produced as secreted proteins in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system. Both E80 and EDIII could inhibit ZIKV infection in vitro, suggesting that they may have folded properly to display native conformations...
April 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665330/design-and-applications-of-cell-selective-surfaces-and-interfaces
#10
Haolan Zhang, Xiaowen Zheng, Wajiha Ahmed, Yuejun Yao, Jun Bai, Yicheng Chen, Changyou Gao
Tissue regeneration involves versatile kinds of cells. The accumulation and disorganized behaviors of undesired cells impair natural healing process, leading to uncontrolled immune response, restenosis, and/or fibrosis. The cell-selective surfaces and interfaces can have specific and positive effects to the desired types of cells, allowing tissue regeneration with restored structures and functions. This review outlines the importance of surfaces and interfaces of biomaterials with cell-selective properties...
April 17, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663323/single-pass-diafiltration-integrated-into-a-fully-continuous-mab-purification-process
#11
Joanna Rucker-Pezzini, Lindsay Arnold, Kevin Hill-Byrne, Tom Sharp, Maksim Avazhanskiy, Chris Forespring
The concept of continuous manufacturing has gained significant interest from the biopharmaceutical industry over the past several years. Benefits include increased manufacturing productivity, improved quality control, reduction in plant footprint, and more flexible management of facility capacity. There are several technologies currently available that enable continuous processing for chromatography and ultrafiltration. However, a single pass diafiltration design that meets the required small molecule clearance and has been integrated into a fully continuous monoclonal antibody purification process has not been previously published...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662676/-toxoplasma-gondii-exposure-and-epilepsy-a-matched-case-control-study-in-a-public-hospital-in-northern-mexico
#12
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Yazmin Del Rosario Rico-Almochantaf, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Gerardo Quiñones-Canales, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jorge Torres-González, Eda Guadalupe Ramírez-Valles, Andrea Minjarez-Veloz
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii and epilepsy in patients attended to in a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango. Methods: We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 99 patients suffering from epilepsy and 99 without epilepsy. Sera of participants were analyzed for anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seropositive samples to T...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662026/the-hard-way-towards-an-antibody-based-hiv-1-env-vaccine-lessons-from-other-viruses
#13
REVIEW
Oliver Ringel, Vincent Vieillard, Patrice Debré, Jutta Eichler, Hildegard Büning, Ursula Dietrich
Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced the number of new infections worldwide, a vaccine against HIV-1 is still urgently needed. We discuss here the major reasons for the failure of "classical" vaccine approaches, which are mostly due to the biological properties of the virus itself...
April 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661755/a-cd123-targeting-antibody-drug-conjugate-imgn632-designed-to-eradicate-aml-while-sparing-normal-bone-marrow-cells
#14
Yelena Kovtun, Gregory E Jones, Sharlene Adams, Lauren Harvey, Charlene A Audette, Alan Wilhelm, Chen Bai, Lingyun Rui, Rassol Laleau, Fenghua Liu, Olga Ab, Yulius Setiady, Nicholas C Yoder, Victor S Goldmacher, Ravi V J Chari, Jan Pinkas, Thomas Chittenden
The outlook for patients with refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor, with conventional chemotherapeutic treatments often associated with unacceptable toxicities, including severe infections due to profound myelosuppression. Thus there exists an urgent need for more effective agents to treat AML that confer high therapeutic indices and favorable tolerability profiles. Because of its high expression on leukemic blast and stem cells compared with normal hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors, CD123 has emerged as a rational candidate for molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches in this disease...
April 24, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661724/variation-in-nuclear-size-and-pd-l2-positivity-correlate-with-aggressive-chromophobe-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Mohamed E Mostafa, Amrou Abdelkader, Naoto Kuroda, Delia Pérez-Montiel, Anjishnu Banerjee, Ondrej Hes, Kenneth A Iczkowski
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) is not amenable to International Society for Urologic Pathology-endorsed nucleolar grading. Novel grading approaches were proposed, but the rarity of adverse pathology hampers their discriminatory value. We investigate simple linear micrometer measurements and a proposed immunostain in CRCCs. 32 patients' CRCCs were studied: 12 adverse cases (stage pT3, recurrence, or metastasis), 15 controls (stage ≤pT2, no recurrence or metastasis after >3 years), and 8 metastases (3 were paired with primary adverse cases)...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660049/ginsenoside-rg1-enhanced-immune-responses-to-infectious-bursal-disease-vaccine-in-chickens-with-oxidative-stress-induced-by-cyclophosphamide
#16
S Bi, X Chi, Y Zhang, X Ma, S Liang, Y Wang, S H Hu
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginsenoside Rg1 on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens. Ninety-six chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 24 birds. Groups 2 and 3 received intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide at 100 mg/kg body weight for 3 d to induce oxidative stress and immune suppression. Groups 1 and 4 were injected with saline in the same way as groups 2 and 3. Then chickens in group 3 were orally administrated Rg1 of 1 mg/kg body weight in drinking water for 7 d...
April 5, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659676/methodology-of-clinical-trials-evaluating-the-incorporation-of-new-drugs-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-patients-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-dlbcl-a-critical-review
#17
G Iacoboni, E Zucca, M Ghielmini, A Stathis
Purpose: The first line treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the combination of rituximab with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy, curing approximately 60% of patients. Many clinical trials have been performed over the last 10 years trying to improve the results of this treatment, but the appropriateness of their planning strategies could be rediscussed. Patients and Methods: Reports of phase 3 trials evaluating the addition of molecularly targeted agents (MTA) or new monoclonal antibodies to the classic R-CHOP backbone in first-line induction or maintenance treatment were reviewed...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658693/polyacrylamide-gel-contained-zinc-finger-peptide-as-the-lock-and-zinc-ions-as-the-key-for-construction-of-ultrasensitive-prostate-specific-antigen-sers-immunosensor
#18
Linglin Xie, Xia Yang, Yi He, Ruo Yuan, Yaqin Chai
In this work, we adopted polyacrylamide gel contained the zinc finger peptide(PZF)as a "Lock" of Raman signal and zinc ions (Zn2+) as a sensitive "key" which was converted from target-captured ZnO NPs to achieve the ultrasensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Owing to the "lock" effect from PZF, the SERS tag toluidine blue (TB) connected on AgNPs-coating silica wafer was sheltered leading to low Raman response. Meanwhile, target PSA can specifically connect with antibody 2 coupled ZnO nanocomplexes (ZnO@Au@Ab2) and antibody 1 coupled magnetic (CoFe2O4@Au@Ab1) through sandwich immunoassay...
April 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658577/interleukin-29-activates-expression-of-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-1-in-macrophages-via-toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-2
#19
Haoqiang Zhang, Bing Song, Shaoheng He
Obesity and diabetes are characterized by low grade chronic inflammation status and insulin resistance in adipose tissue associated with metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1). Interleukin (IL)29, exhibits multiple immune regulatory activities. However, the role of IL29 and its effects on TIMP1 remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of IL29 on expression of TIMP1 in macrophages associated with inflammation in adipose tissue. IL29 and high glucose were used to activate Raw264...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657399/seroprevalence-of-small-ruminant-caprine-arthritis-encephalitis-lentivirus-among-goats-from-selected-small-ruminant-farms-in-selangor-malaysia
#20
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Yusuf Abba, Veenosha Nehru Raju, Idris Umar Hambali, Innocent Damudu Peter, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Jefri Mohd Norsidin
Background and Aim: Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important viral disease of small ruminants particularly in dairy goats with severe social and economic implication. Hence, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CAE virus (CAEV) among goat population in selected small ruminant farms in Selangor and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 91 goats selected at random...
February 2018: Veterinary World
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