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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026138/reproduction-of-an-azooxanthellate-coral-is-unaffected-by-ocean-acidification
#1
Francesca Gizzi, Ludovica de Mas, Valentina Airi, Erik Caroselli, Fiorella Prada, Giuseppe Falini, Zvy Dubinsky, Stefano Goffredo
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and consequent ocean acidification (OA) are projected to have extensive consequences on marine calcifying organisms, including corals. While the effects of OA on coral calcification are well documented, the response of reproduction is still poorly understood since no information are reported for temperate corals. Here we investigate for the first time the influence of OA on sexual reproduction of the temperate azooxanthellate solitary scleractinian Leptopsammia pruvoti transplanted along a natural pCO2 gradient at a Mediterranean CO2 vent...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970659/prognostic-value-of-venous-to-arterial-carbon-dioxide-difference-during-early-resuscitation-in-critically-ill-patients-with-septic-shock
#2
Tamer Abdallah Helmy, Ehab Mahmoud El-Reweny, Farahat Gomaa Ghazy
CONTEXT: The partial pressure of venous to arterial carbon dioxide gradient (PCO2 gap) is considered as an alternative marker of tissue hypoperfusion and has been used to guide treatment for shock. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference during early resuscitation of patients with septic shock and compared it with that of lactate clearance and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812677/species-specific-responses-to-ocean-acidification-should-account-for-local-adaptation-and-adaptive-plasticity
#3
Cristian A Vargas, Nelson A Lagos, Marco A Lardies, Cristian Duarte, Patricio H Manríquez, Victor M Aguilera, Bernardo Broitman, Steve Widdicombe, Sam Dupont
Global stressors, such as ocean acidification, constitute a rapidly emerging and significant problem for marine organisms, ecosystem functioning and services. The coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile harbour a broad physical-chemical latitudinal and temporal gradient with considerable patchiness in local oceanographic conditions. This heterogeneity may, in turn, modulate the specific tolerances of organisms to climate stress in species with populations distributed along this environmental gradient...
March 13, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762601/natural-acidification-changes-the-timing-and-rate-of-succession-alters-community-structure-and-increases-homogeneity-in-marine-biofouling-communities
#4
Norah E M Brown, Marco Milazzo, Sam P S Rastrick, Jason M Hall-Spencer, Thomas W Therriault, Christopher G D Harley
Ocean acidification may have far-reaching consequences for marine community and ecosystem dynamics, but its full impacts remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of manipulating pCO2 at the ecosystem level to mimic realistic fluctuations that occur on a number of different timescales. It is especially unclear how quickly communities at various stages of development respond to intermediate-scale pCO2 change and, if high pCO2 is relieved mid-succession, whether past acidification effects persist, are reversed by alleviation of pCO2 stress, or are worsened by departures from prior high pCO2 conditions to which organisms had acclimatized...
August 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761526/a-study-of-partial-pressure-of-arterial-carbon-dioxide-and-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-correlation-in-intraoperative-and-postoperative-period-in-neurosurgical-patients
#5
Pallavi Gaur, Minal Harde, Pinakin Gujjar, Devanand Deosarkar, Rakesh Bhadade
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) is of utmost importance in neurosurgical patients. It is measured by partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2). We aimed to study the correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 in neurosurgical patients in the intraoperative and postoperative period on mechanical ventilation in Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU). METHODOLOGY: This was prospective observational study done at tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 1 year...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539518/spatial-patterns-of-anchoveta-engraulis-ringens-eggs-and-larvae-in-relation-to-pco2-in-the-peruvian-upwelling-system
#6
Sara G Shen, Andrew R Thompson, Jonathan Correa, Peer Fietzek, Patricia Ayón, David M Checkley
Large and productive fisheries occur in regions experiencing or projected to experience ocean acidification. Anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) constitute the world's largest single-species fishery and live in one of the ocean's highest pCO2 regions. We investigated the relationship of the distribution and abundance of Anchoveta eggs and larvae to natural gradients in pCO2 in the Peruvian upwelling system. Eggs and larvae, zooplankton, and data on temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and pCO2 were collected during a cruise off Peru in 2013...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430186/independence-of-nutrient-limitation-and-carbon-dioxide-impacts-on-the-southern-ocean-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#7
Marius N Müller, Thomas W Trull, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50(o)S, 149(o)E) with pH/CO2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions...
August 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401503/shedding-light-on-venoarterial-pco2-gradient
#8
EDITORIAL
Arnaldo Dubin, Mario Omar Pozo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398346/chemical-microenvironments-and-single-cell-carbon-and-nitrogen-uptake-in-field-collected-colonies-of-trichodesmium-under-different-pco2
#9
Meri J Eichner, Isabell Klawonn, Samuel T Wilson, Sten Littmann, Martin J Whitehouse, Matthew J Church, Marcel Mm Kuypers, David M Karl, Helle Ploug
Gradients of oxygen (O2) and pH, as well as small-scale fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and O2 were investigated under different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in field-collected colonies of the marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Microsensor measurements indicated that cells within colonies experienced large fluctuations in O2, pH and CO2 concentrations over a day-night cycle. O2 concentrations varied with light intensity and time of day, yet colonies exposed to light were supersaturated with O2 (up to ~200%) throughout the light period and anoxia was not detected...
June 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148831/geographical-gradients-in-selection-can-reveal-genetic-constraints-for-evolutionary-responses-to-ocean-acidification
#10
REVIEW
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Dustin Marshall, Sam Dupont, Leonardo D Bacigalupe, Levente Bodrossy, Alistair J Hobday
Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876762/the-stable-microbiome-of-inter-and-sub-tidal-anemone-species-under-increasing-pco2
#11
Erinn M Muller, Maoz Fine, Kim B Ritchie
Increasing levels of pCO2 within the oceans will select for resistant organisms such as anemones, which may thrive under ocean acidification conditions. However, increasing pCO2 may alter the bacterial community of marine organisms, significantly affecting the health status of the host. A pH gradient associated with a natural volcanic vent system within Levante Bay, Vulcano Island, Italy, was used to test the effects of ocean acidification on the bacterial community of two anemone species in situ, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina using 16 S rDNA pyrosequencing...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717415/monitoring-oxygen-status
#12
REVIEW
J G Toffaletti, C R Rackley
Although part of a common "blood gas" test panel with pH and pCO2, the pO2, %O2Hb, and related parameters are independently used to detect and monitor oxygen deficits from a variety of causes. Measurement of blood gases and cooximetry may be done by laboratory analyzers, point of care testing, noninvasive pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous blood gases. The specimen type and mode of monitoring oxygenation that are chosen may be based on a combination of urgency, practicality, clinical need, and therapeutic objectives...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698116/equatorial-heat-accumulation-as-a-long-term-trigger-of-permanent-antarctic-ice-sheets-during-the-cenozoic
#13
Maxime Tremblin, Michaël Hermoso, Fabrice Minoletti
Growth of the first permanent Antarctic ice sheets at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT), ∼33.7 million years ago, indicates a major climate shift within long-term Cenozoic cooling. The driving mechanisms that set the stage for this glaciation event are not well constrained, however, owing to large uncertainties in temperature reconstructions during the Eocene, especially at lower latitudes. To address this deficiency, we used recent developments in coccolith biogeochemistry to reconstruct equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric pCO2 values from pelagic sequences preceding and spanning the EOT...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578764/reduced-plant-water-status-under-sub-ambient-pco2-limits-plant-productivity-in-the-wild-progenitors-of-c3-and-c4-cereals
#14
Jennifer Cunniff, Michael Charles, Glynis Jones, Colin P Osborne
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The reduction of plant productivity by low atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) during the last glacial period is proposed as a limiting factor for the establishment of agriculture. Supporting this hypothesis, previous work has shown that glacial pCO2 limits biomass in the wild progenitors of C3 and C4 founder crops, in part due to the direct effects of glacial pCO2 on photosynthesis. Here, we investigate the indirect role of pCO2 mediated via water status, hypothesizing that faster soil water depletion at glacial (18 Pa) compared to post-glacial (27 Pa) pCO2, due to greater stomatal conductance, feeds back to limit photosynthesis during drying cycles...
November 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514017/effects-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-stomatal-characteristics-and-carbon-isotope-ratio-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-ecotypes-originating-from-an-altitudinal-gradient
#15
H Iroja U Caldera, W A Janendra M De Costa, F Ian Woodward, Janice A Lake, Sudheera M W Ranwala
Stomatal functioning regulates the fluxes of CO2 and water vapor between vegetation and atmosphere and thereby influences plant adaptation to their habitats. Stomatal traits are controlled by external environmental and internal cellular signaling. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of CO2 enrichment (CE) on stomatal density (SD)-related properties, guard cell length (GCL) and carbon isotope ratio (δ(13) C) of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes originating from a wide altitudinal range [50-1260 m above sea level (asl)], and grown at 400 and 800 ppm [CO2 ], and thereby elucidate the possible adaptation and acclimation responses controlling stomatal traits and water use efficiency (WUE)...
January 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477963/internal-ph-regulation-facilitates-in-situ-long-term-acclimation-of-massive-corals-to-end-of-century-carbon-dioxide-conditions
#16
M Wall, J Fietzke, G M Schmidt, A Fink, L C Hofmann, D de Beer, K E Fabricius
The resilience of tropical corals to ocean acidification depends on their ability to regulate the pH within their calcifying fluid (pHcf). Recent work suggests pHcf homeostasis under short-term exposure to pCO2 conditions predicted for 2100, but it is still unclear if pHcf homeostasis can be maintained throughout a corals lifetime. At CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea, massive Porites corals have grown along a natural seawater pH gradient for decades. This natural gradient, ranging from pH 8.1-7.4, provides an ideal platform to determine corals' pHcf (using boron isotopes)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302686/climate-driven-c4-plant-distributions-in-china-divergence-in-c4-taxa
#17
Renzhong Wang, Linna Ma
There have been debates on the driving factors of C4 plant expansion, such as PCO2 decline in the late Micocene and warmer climate and precipitation at large-scale modern ecosystems. These disputes are mainly due to the lack of direct evidence and extensive data analysis. Here we use mass flora data to explore the driving factors of C4 distribution and divergent patterns for different C4 taxa at continental scale in China. The results display that it is mean annual climate variables driving C4 distribution at present-day vegetation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293752/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-embryonic-respiration-and-development-of-a-temperate-wrasse-living-along-a-natural-co2-gradient
#18
Carlo Cattano, Folco Giomi, Marco Milazzo
Volcanic CO2 seeps provide opportunities to investigate the effects of ocean acidification on organisms in the wild. To understand the influence of increasing CO2 concentrations on the metabolic rate (oxygen consumption) and the development of ocellated wrasse early life stages, we ran two field experiments, collecting embryos from nesting sites with different partial pressures of CO2 [pCO2; ambient (∼400 µatm) and high (800-1000 µatm)] and reciprocally transplanting embryos from ambient- to high-CO2 sites for 30 h...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122565/biodiversity-response-to-natural-gradients-of-multiple-stressors-on-continental-margins
#19
Erik A Sperling, Christina A Frieder, Lisa A Levin
Sharp increases in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation that threaten marine organisms on continental margins and their ecological functions and resulting ecosystem services. The relative influence of these stressors on biodiversity remains unclear, as well as the threshold levels for change and when secondary stressors become important. One strategy to interpret adaptation potential and predict future faunal change is to examine ecological shifts along natural gradients in the modern ocean...
April 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202743/distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-screening-by-urinary-acidification-testing-in-mexican-children
#20
Norma E Guerra-Hernández, Karen V Ordaz-López, Laura Escobar-Pérez, Circe Gómez-Tenorio, Víctor M García-Nieto
BACKGROUND: Primary distal renal tubular acidosis is a clinical disorder characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, urinary acidification impairment, hypokalemia, metabolic bone disease, and nephrocalcinosis. Urinary acidification ability may be evaluated by an acidification test or maximum urinary pCO2 assessment with alkaline urine. The maximum urinary pCO2 test using acetazolamide and sodium bicarbonate is an easy test to confirm the lack of urine acidification in distal renal tubular acidosis in children...
May 2015: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
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