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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876762/the-stable-microbiome-of-inter-and-sub-tidal-anemone-species-under-increasing-pco2
#1
Erinn M Muller, Maoz Fine, Kim B Ritchie
Increasing levels of pCO2 within the oceans will select for resistant organisms such as anemones, which may thrive under ocean acidification conditions. However, increasing pCO2 may alter the bacterial community of marine organisms, significantly affecting the health status of the host. A pH gradient associated with a natural volcanic vent system within Levante Bay, Vulcano Island, Italy, was used to test the effects of ocean acidification on the bacterial community of two anemone species in situ, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina using 16 S rDNA pyrosequencing...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717415/monitoring-oxygen-status
#2
J G Toffaletti, C R Rackley
Although part of a common "blood gas" test panel with pH and pCO2, the pO2, %O2Hb, and related parameters are independently used to detect and monitor oxygen deficits from a variety of causes. Measurement of blood gases and cooximetry may be done by laboratory analyzers, point of care testing, noninvasive pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous blood gases. The specimen type and mode of monitoring oxygenation that are chosen may be based on a combination of urgency, practicality, clinical need, and therapeutic objectives...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698116/equatorial-heat-accumulation-as-a-long-term-trigger-of-permanent-antarctic-ice-sheets-during-the-cenozoic
#3
Maxime Tremblin, Michaël Hermoso, Fabrice Minoletti
Growth of the first permanent Antarctic ice sheets at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT), ∼33.7 million years ago, indicates a major climate shift within long-term Cenozoic cooling. The driving mechanisms that set the stage for this glaciation event are not well constrained, however, owing to large uncertainties in temperature reconstructions during the Eocene, especially at lower latitudes. To address this deficiency, we used recent developments in coccolith biogeochemistry to reconstruct equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric pCO2 values from pelagic sequences preceding and spanning the EOT...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578764/reduced-plant-water-status-under-sub-ambient-pco2-limits-plant-productivity-in-the-wild-progenitors-of-c3-and-c4-cereals
#4
Jennifer Cunniff, Michael Charles, Glynis Jones, Colin P Osborne
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The reduction of plant productivity by low atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) during the last glacial period is proposed as a limiting factor for the establishment of agriculture. Supporting this hypothesis, previous work has shown that glacial pCO2 limits biomass in the wild progenitors of C3 and C4 founder crops, in part due to the direct effects of glacial pCO2 on photosynthesis. Here, we investigate the indirect role of pCO2 mediated via water status, hypothesizing that faster soil water depletion at glacial (18 Pa) compared to post-glacial (27 Pa) pCO2, due to greater stomatal conductance, feeds back to limit photosynthesis during drying cycles...
November 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514017/effects-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-stomatal-characteristics-and-carbon-isotope-ratio-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-ecotypes-originating-from-an-altitudinal-gradient
#5
H Iroja U Caldera, W A Janendra M De Costa, F Ian Woodward, Janice A Lake, Sudheera M W Ranwala
Stomatal functioning regulates the fluxes of CO2 and water vapour between vegetation and atmosphere and thereby influences plant adaptation to their habitats. Stomatal traits are controlled by external environmental and internal cellular signalling. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of CO2 enrichment (CE) on stomatal density-related properties, guard cell length (GCL) and carbon isotope ratio (δ(13) C) of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes originating from a wide altitudinal range (50-1260 m above sea level (asl)), and grown at 400 and 800 ppm [CO2 ], and thereby elucidate the possible adaptation and acclimation responses controlling stomatal traits and water use efficiency (WUE)...
August 11, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477963/internal-ph-regulation-facilitates-in-situ-long-term-acclimation-of-massive-corals-to-end-of-century-carbon-dioxide-conditions
#6
M Wall, J Fietzke, G M Schmidt, A Fink, L C Hofmann, D de Beer, K E Fabricius
The resilience of tropical corals to ocean acidification depends on their ability to regulate the pH within their calcifying fluid (pHcf). Recent work suggests pHcf homeostasis under short-term exposure to pCO2 conditions predicted for 2100, but it is still unclear if pHcf homeostasis can be maintained throughout a corals lifetime. At CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea, massive Porites corals have grown along a natural seawater pH gradient for decades. This natural gradient, ranging from pH 8.1-7.4, provides an ideal platform to determine corals' pHcf (using boron isotopes)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302686/climate-driven-c4-plant-distributions-in-china-divergence-in-c4-taxa
#7
Renzhong Wang, Linna Ma
There have been debates on the driving factors of C4 plant expansion, such as PCO2 decline in the late Micocene and warmer climate and precipitation at large-scale modern ecosystems. These disputes are mainly due to the lack of direct evidence and extensive data analysis. Here we use mass flora data to explore the driving factors of C4 distribution and divergent patterns for different C4 taxa at continental scale in China. The results display that it is mean annual climate variables driving C4 distribution at present-day vegetation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293752/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-embryonic-respiration-and-development-of-a-temperate-wrasse-living-along-a-natural-co2-gradient
#8
Carlo Cattano, Folco Giomi, Marco Milazzo
Volcanic CO2 seeps provide opportunities to investigate the effects of ocean acidification on organisms in the wild. To understand the influence of increasing CO2 concentrations on the metabolic rate (oxygen consumption) and the development of ocellated wrasse early life stages, we ran two field experiments, collecting embryos from nesting sites with different partial pressures of CO2 [pCO2; ambient (∼400 µatm) and high (800-1000 µatm)] and reciprocally transplanting embryos from ambient- to high-CO2 sites for 30 h...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122565/biodiversity-response-to-natural-gradients-of-multiple-stressors-on-continental-margins
#9
Erik A Sperling, Christina A Frieder, Lisa A Levin
Sharp increases in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation that threaten marine organisms on continental margins and their ecological functions and resulting ecosystem services. The relative influence of these stressors on biodiversity remains unclear, as well as the threshold levels for change and when secondary stressors become important. One strategy to interpret adaptation potential and predict future faunal change is to examine ecological shifts along natural gradients in the modern ocean...
April 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202743/distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-screening-by-urinary-acidification-testing-in-mexican-children
#10
Norma E Guerra-Hernández, Karen V Ordaz-López, Laura Escobar-Pérez, Circe Gómez-Tenorio, Víctor M García-Nieto
BACKGROUND: Primary distal renal tubular acidosis is a clinical disorder characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, urinary acidification impairment, hypokalemia, metabolic bone disease, and nephrocalcinosis. Urinary acidification ability may be evaluated by an acidification test or maximum urinary pCO2 assessment with alkaline urine. The maximum urinary pCO2 test using acetazolamide and sodium bicarbonate is an easy test to confirm the lack of urine acidification in distal renal tubular acidosis in children...
May 2015: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26085671/biochemical-adaptation-to-ocean-acidification
#11
REVIEW
Jonathon H Stillman, Adam W Paganini
The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness...
June 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26082336/gastric-feeding-intolerance-is-not-caused-by-mucosal-ischemia-measured-by-intragastric-air-tonometry-in-the-critically-ill
#12
Jörn O Streefkerk, Albertus Beishuizen, A B Johan Groeneveld
BACKGROUND: Gastric mucosal ischemia may be a risk factor for gastrointestinal intolerance to early feeding in the critically ill. AIMS: To study intragastric PCO2 air tonometry and gastric residual volumes (GRV) before and after the start of gastric feeding. METHODS: This is a two-center study in intensive care units of a university and teaching hospital. Twenty-nine critically ill, consecutive and consenting patients scheduled to start gastric feeding were studied after insertion of a gastric tonometry catheter and prior to and after start of gastric feeding (500 ml over 1 h), when clinically indicated...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25835382/in-situ-changes-of-tropical-crustose-coralline-algae-along-carbon-dioxide-gradients
#13
K E Fabricius, A Kluibenschedl, L Harrington, S Noonan, G De'ath
Crustose coralline algae (CCA) fulfill important ecosystem functions in coral reefs, including reef framework stabilization and induction of larval settlement. To investigate in situ the effects of high carbon dioxide on CCA communities, we deployed settlement tiles at three tropical volcanic CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea along gradients spanning from 8.1 to 7.4 pH. After 5 and 13 months deployment, there was a steep transition from CCA presence to absence around pH 7.8 (660 μatm pCO2): 98% of tiles had CCA at pH > 7...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25788895/viruses-and-bacteria-in-floodplain-lakes-along-a-major-amazon-tributary-respond-to-distance-to-the-amazon-river
#14
Rafael M Almeida, Fábio Roland, Simone J Cardoso, Vinícius F Farjalla, Reinaldo L Bozelli, Nathan O Barros
In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25753144/evaluation-of-the-microstat%C3%A2-sublingual-pco2-monitor-in-ambulatory-patients
#15
Benjamin D Fox, Dominique Joyal, Robert D Schlesinger, Mark J Eisenberg, David Langleben
Physicians often need to measure arterial PCO2 in clinical practice. Arterial blood gas sampling is typically available only in hospitals and may be unpleasant for patients. Minimally invasive techniques for measuring PCO2 offer the potential for overcoming these limitations. The MicroStat monitor non-invasively measures PCO2 in the sublingual tissues, which should track arterial PCO2 in hemodynamically stable patients. This was a prospective observational study. Patients undergoing routine cardiac catheterization were recruited...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25739995/natural-high-pco2-increases-autotrophy-in-anemonia-viridis-anthozoa-as-revealed-from-stable-isotope-c-n-analysis
#16
Rael Horwitz, Esther M Borell, Ruth Yam, Aldo Shemesh, Maoz Fine
Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25593746/when-to-stop-septic-shock-resuscitation-clues-from-a-dynamic-perfusion-monitoring
#17
Glenn Hernandez, Cecilia Luengo, Alejandro Bruhn, Eduardo Kattan, Gilberto Friedman, Gustavo A Ospina-Tascon, Andrea Fuentealba, Ricardo Castro, Tomas Regueira, Carlos Romero, Can Ince, Jan Bakker
BACKGROUND: The decision of when to stop septic shock resuscitation is a critical but yet a relatively unexplored aspect of care. This is especially relevant since the risks of over-resuscitation with fluid overload or inotropes have been highlighted in recent years. A recent guideline has proposed normalization of central venous oxygen saturation and/or lactate as therapeutic end-points, assuming that these variables are equivalent or interchangeable. However, since the physiological determinants of both are totally different, it is legitimate to challenge the rationale of this proposal...
2014: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25471738/changes-in-microbial-communities-in-coastal-sediments-along-natural-co2-gradients-at-a-volcanic-vent-in-papua-new-guinea
#18
Felix F Raulf, Katharina Fabricius, Sven Uthicke, Dirk de Beer, Raeid M M Abed, Alban Ramette
Natural CO2 venting systems can mimic conditions that resemble intermediate to high pCO2 levels as predicted for our future oceans. They represent ideal sites to investigate potential long-term effects of ocean acidification on marine life. To test whether microbes are affected by prolonged exposure to pCO2 levels, we examined the composition and diversity of microbial communities in oxic sandy sediments along a natural CO2 gradient. Increasing pCO2 was accompanied by higher bacterial richness and by a strong increase in rare members in both bacterial and archaeal communities...
October 2015: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25460066/duration-of-maternal-undernutrition-differentially-alters-fetal-growth-and-hormone-concentrations
#19
M E Field, R V Anthony, T E Engle, S L Archibeque, D H Keisler, H Han
To investigate the impact of duration of maternal undernutrition in twin sheep pregnancies, ewes were either fed 100% (C) or 50% of their nutrient requirements from 28 to 78 d gestational age (dGA) and readjusted to 100% beginning at 79 dGA (LC) or continuously restricted from 28 to 135 dGA (LL). Weights of the fetus, empty carcass, brain, and liver were greater in the LC than LL fetuses at 135 dGA (P ≤ 0.05). Although umbilical vein (UmV) glucose concentrations did not differ, the UmV:umbilical artery (UmA) glucose gradient was smaller (0...
April 2015: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25295878/effect-of-elevated-pco2-on-metabolic-responses-of-porcelain-crab-petrolisthes-cinctipes-larvae-exposed-to-subsequent-salinity-stress
#20
Seth H Miller, Sonia Zarate, Edmund H Smith, Brian Gaylord, Jessica D Hosfelt, Tessa M Hill
Future climate change is predicted to alter the physical characteristics of oceans and estuaries, including pH, temperature, oxygen, and salinity. Investigating how species react to the influence of such multiple stressors is crucial for assessing how future environmental change will alter marine ecosystems. The timing of multiple stressors can also be important, since in some cases stressors arise simultaneously, while in others they occur in rapid succession. In this study, we investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 on oxygen consumption by larvae of the intertidal porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes when exposed to subsequent salinity stress...
2014: PloS One
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