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stem cell, injury, regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721683/mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-articular-cartilage-synovial-membrane-and-synovial-fluid-for-cartilage-regeneration-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Yi-Zhou Huang, Hui-Qi Xie, Antonietta Silini, Ornella Parolini, Yi Zhang, Li Deng, Yong-Can Huang
Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719644/isolation-of-putative-stem-cells-present-in-human-adult-olfactory-mucosa
#2
Tamara Tanos, Alberto Maria Saibene, Carlotta Pipolo, Paolo Battaglia, Giovanni Felisati, Alicia Rubio
The olfactory mucosa (OM) has the unique characteristic of performing an almost continuous and lifelong neurogenesis in response to external injuries, due to the presence of olfactory stem cells that guarantee the maintenance of the olfactory function. The easy accessibility of the OM in humans makes these stem cells feasible candidates for the development of regenerative therapies. In this report we present a detailed characterization of a patient-derived OM, together with a description of cell cultures obtained from the OM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#3
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710142/perspective-neuroregenerative-nutrition
#4
Dennis A Steindler, Brent A Reynolds
Good health while aging depends upon optimal cellular and organ functioning that contribute to the regenerative ability of the body during the lifespan, especially when injuries and diseases occur. Although diet may help in the maintenance of cellular fitness during periods of stability or modest decline in the regenerative function of an organ, this approach is inadequate in an aged system, in which the ability to maintain homeostasis is further challenged by aging and the ensuing suboptimal functioning of the regenerative unit, tissue-specific stem cells...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705258/fate-bias-during-neural-regeneration-adjusts-dynamically-without-recapitulating-developmental-fate-progression
#5
Jeremy Ng Chi Kei, Peter David Currie, Patricia Regina Jusuf
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of neurons in the central nervous system is poor in humans. In other vertebrates neural regeneration does occur efficiently and involves reactivation of developmental processes. Within the neural retina of zebrafish, Müller glia are the main stem cell source and are capable of generating progenitors to replace lost neurons after injury. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent Müller glia and neuron differentiation mirror development. METHODS: Following neural ablation in the zebrafish retina, dividing cells were tracked using a prolonged labelling technique...
July 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705162/the-effect-of-autologous-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-a-large-osteochondral-defect-of-the-knee-following-unsuccessful-surgical-intervention-of-osteochondritis-dissecans-a-case-study
#6
Julien Freitag, Kiran Shah, James Wickham, Richard Boyd, Abi Tenen
BACKGROUND: A prospective analysis of the effect of autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in the treatment of an osteochondral defect of the knee with early progressive osteoarthritis following unsuccessful surgical intervention of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). CASE PRESENTATION: After failed conventional management of OCD a patient undergoes intra-articular MSC therapy. Patient outcome measures included the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)...
July 14, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702326/rev-erb-co-regulates-muscle-regeneration-via-tethered-interaction-with-the-nf-y-cistrome
#7
Ryan D Welch, Chun Guo, Monideepa Sengupta, Katherine J Carpenter, Natalie A Stephens, Stacy A Arnett, Marvin J Meyers, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Jinsong Zhang, Thomas P Burris, Colin A Flaveny
OBJECTIVE: The loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are a central feature of traumatic injury and degenerative myopathies. Unfortunately, pharmacological interventions typically fail to stem the long-term decline in quality of life. Reduced Rev-Erb-mediated gene suppression in cultured C2C12 myoblasts has been shown to stimulate myoblast differentiation. Yet the mechanisms that allow Rev-Erb to pleiotropically inhibit muscle differentiation are not well understood. In this study, we sought to elucidate the role of Rev-Erb in the regulation of muscle differentiation and regeneration in vivo...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701357/a-tale-of-two-niches-differential-functions-for-vcam-1-in-satellite-cells-under-basal-and-injured-conditions
#8
Hyo-Jung Choo, James P Canner, Katherine E Vest, Zachary Thompson, Grace K Pavlath
Cell-cell adhesion molecules play key roles in maintaining quiescence or promoting activation of various stem cells in their niche. Muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC) are critical for skeletal muscle regeneration after injury but little is known about the role of adhesion molecules in regulating the behavior of these stem cells. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a cell-cell adhesion protein expressed on quiescent and activated SC whose function is unknown in this context. We deleted Vcam1 from SC using an inducible Cre recombinase in young mice...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700576/cholangiocytes-act-as-facultative-liver-stem-cells-during-impaired-hepatocyte-regeneration
#9
Alexander Raven, Wei-Yu Lu, Tak Yung Man, Sofia Ferreira-Gonzalez, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Benjamin J Dwyer, John P Thomson, Richard R Meehan, Roman Bogorad, Victor Koteliansky, Yuri Kotelevtsev, Charles Ffrench-Constant, Luke Boulter, Stuart J Forbes
After liver injury, regeneration occurs through self-replication of hepatocytes. In severe liver injury, hepatocyte proliferation is impaired-a feature of human chronic liver disease. It is unclear whether other liver cell types can regenerate hepatocytes. Here we use two independent systems to impair hepatocyte proliferation during liver injury to evaluate the contribution of non-hepatocytes to parenchymal regeneration. First, loss of β1-integrin in hepatocytes with liver injury triggered a ductular reaction of cholangiocyte origin, with approximately 25% of hepatocytes being derived from a non-hepatocyte origin...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698718/the-holy-grail-of-orthopedic-surgery-mesenchymal-stem-cells-their-current-uses-and-potential-applications
#10
REVIEW
Roberto Berebichez-Fridman, Ricardo Gómez-García, Julio Granados-Montiel, Enrique Berebichez-Fastlicht, Anell Olivos-Meza, Julio Granados, Cristina Velasquillo, Clemente Ibarra
Only select tissues and organs are able to spontaneously regenerate after disease or trauma, and this regenerative capacity diminishes over time. Human stem cell research explores therapeutic regenerative approaches to treat various conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from adult stem cells; they are multipotent and exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. They can differentiate into multiple cell types of the mesenchyme, for example, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, tenocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and sarcomere muscular cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696292/acute-inflammation-regulates-neuroregeneration-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-olfactory-epithelium
#11
Mengfei Chen, Randall R Reed, Andrew P Lane
Adult neural stem cells/progenitor cells residing in the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium are capable of reconstituting the neuroepithelium even after severe damage. The molecular events underlying this regenerative capacity remain elusive. Here we show that the repair of neuroepithelium after lesioning is accompanied by an acute, but self-limited, inflammatory process. Attenuation of inflammatory cell recruitment and cytokine production by dexamethasone impairs proliferation of progenitor horizontal basal cells (HBCs) and subsequent neuronal differentiation...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695279/epigenetic-regulation-of-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-towards-spinal-cord-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Tomonori Kameda, Takuya Imamura, Kinichi Nakashima
Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to almost complete neural cell loss at the injured site, causing the irreversible disruption of neuronal circuits. The transplantation of neural stem or precursor cells (NS/PCs) has been regarded as potentially effective for SCI treatment because NS/PCs can compensate for the injured sites by differentiating into neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the proliferation, fate specification and maturation of NS/PCs and their progeny would facilitate the establishment of better therapeutic strategies for regeneration after SCI...
July 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694236/fibrin-functionalization-with-synthetic-adhesive-ligands-interacting-with-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-1-integrin-receptor-enhance-neurite-outgrowth-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-stem-progenitors
#13
Joana Silva, Ana R Bento, Daniela Barros, Tiago L Laundos, Susana R Sousa, Pedro Quelhas, Mónica M Sousa, Ana P Pêgo, Isabel F Amaral
To enhance fibrin hydrogel affinity towards pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and its capacity to support NSPC migration and neurite extension, we explored the tethering of synthetic peptides engaging integrin α6β1, a cell receptor enriched in NSPCs. Six α6β1 integrin ligands were tested for their ability to support integrin α6β1-mediated adhesion of embryonic stem cell-derived NSPCs (ES-NSPs) and sustain ES-NSPC viability, migration, and neuronal differentiation. Due to their better performance, peptides T1, HYD1, and A5G81 were immobilized into fibrin and functionalized gels characterized in terms of peptide binding efficiency, structure and viscoelastic properties...
July 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693892/the-application-of-decellularized-human-term-fetal-membranes-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine-term
#14
Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Ramin Khanabdali, Daniel E Heath, Bill Kalionis
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) is a field that applies biology and engineering principles to "restore, maintain or repair a tissue after injury". Besides the potential to treat various diseases, these endeavours increase our understanding of fundamental cell biology. Although TERM has progressed rapidly, engineering a whole organ is still beyond our skills, primarily due to the complexity of tissues. Material science and current manufacturing methods are not capable of mimicking this complexity...
July 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692374/is-there-a-role-for-stem-cells-in-treating-articular-injury
#15
Yusuf H Mirza, Sam Oussedik
Articular cartilage is a specialized tissue with a high prevalence of injuries. The complex architecture of articular cartilage means that injuries are difficult to treat. The sequelae of such injuries include post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Current treatments include microfracture, microdrilling, osteochondral transplantation and matrix autologous chondral implantation. However, current surgical therapies have a number of disadvantages. Mesenchymal stem cells have been suggested as a potential alternative therapy, with a theoretical ability to regenerate articular cartilage...
July 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691584/fibrin-gel-as-a-scaffold-for-photoreceptor-cells-differentiation-from-conjunctiva-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-retina-tissue-engineering
#16
Mostafa Soleimannejad, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Masoud Soleimani, Samad Nadri, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Ramak Roohipoor, Meysam Yazdankhah, Neda Bayat, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani, Jafar Ai
Stem cell-based therapies are attraction approaches for regenerative medicine for treating retinal diseases. One of the limitations in cell therapy is cell death following post-injection whit preventing functional integration with retinal tissue. Fibrin gel, a bio-polymeric material with excellent biocompatibility, provides numerous advantages as a tissue engineering scaffold and a stem cell carrier. Therefore, current research is focusing on developing fibrin hydrogel scaffolds to protect stem cells during delivery and to stimulate endogenous regeneration through interactions of transplanted stem cells and retinal tissue...
July 10, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686870/intestinal-enteroendocrine-lineage-cells-possess-homeostatic-and-injury-inducible-stem-cell-activity
#17
Kelley S Yan, Olivier Gevaert, Grace X Y Zheng, Benedict Anchang, Christopher S Probert, Kathryn A Larkin, Paige S Davies, Zhuan-Fen Cheng, John S Kaddis, Arnold Han, Kelly Roelf, Ruben I Calderon, Esther Cynn, Xiaoyi Hu, Komal Mandleywala, Julie Wilhelmy, Sue M Grimes, David C Corney, Stéphane C Boutet, Jessica M Terry, Phillip Belgrader, Solongo B Ziraldo, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Fengchao Wang, Richard J von Furstenberg, Nicholas R Smith, Parthasarathy Chandrakesan, Randal May, Mary Ann S Chrissy, Rajan Jain, Christine A Cartwright, Joyce C Niland, Young-Kwon Hong, Jill Carrington, David T Breault, Jonathan Epstein, Courtney W Houchen, John P Lynch, Martin G Martin, Sylvia K Plevritis, Christina Curtis, Hanlee P Ji, Linheng Li, Susan J Henning, Melissa H Wong, Calvin J Kuo
Several cell populations have been reported to possess intestinal stem cell (ISC) activity during homeostasis and injury-induced regeneration. Here, we explored inter-relationships between putative mouse ISC populations by comparative RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). The transcriptomes of multiple cycling ISC populations closely resembled Lgr5(+) ISCs, the most well-defined ISC pool, but Bmi1-GFP(+) cells were distinct and enriched for enteroendocrine (EE) markers, including Prox1. Prox1-GFP(+) cells exhibited sustained clonogenic growth in vitro, and lineage-tracing of Prox1(+) cells revealed long-lived clones during homeostasis and after radiation-induced injury in vivo...
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686859/the-accr-2-ual-of-m2-macrophages-provides-some-breathing-room
#18
Preethi Vijayaraj, Brigitte N Gomperts
Lung tissue can robustly regenerate functional alveolar units after injury, but the mechanisms are unknown. Lechner et al. (2017) in this issue of Cell Stem Cell demonstrate that lung regeneration is facilitated by bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells that are recruited to the lung through a CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis and by IL-13 expressing innate lymphoid cells.
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686611/yorkie-is-required-to-restrict-the-injury-responses-in-planarians
#19
Alexander Y T Lin, Bret J Pearson
Regeneration requires the precise integration of cues that initiate proliferation, direct differentiation, and ultimately re-pattern tissues to the proper size and scale. Yet how these processes are integrated with wounding responses remains relatively unknown. The freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, is an ideal model to study the stereotyped proliferative and transcriptional responses to injury due to its high capacity for regeneration. Here, we characterize the effector of the Hippo signalling cascade, yorkie, during planarian regeneration and its role in restricting early injury responses...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684664/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-potential-as-novel-immunomodulatory-therapeutic-agents
#20
REVIEW
Verena Börger, Michel Bremer, Rita Ferrer-Tur, Lena Gockeln, Oumaima Stambouli, Amina Becic, Bernd Giebel
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have been identified as mediators of a newly-discovered intercellular communication system. They are essential signaling mediators in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Depending on their origin, they fulfill different functions. EVs of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been found to promote comparable therapeutic activities as MSCs themselves. In a variety of in vivo models, it has been observed that they suppress pro-inflammatory processes and reduce oxidative stress and fibrosis...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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