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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453909/cardiotoxicity-and-cardiomyopathy-in-children-and-young-adult-survivors-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#1
REVIEW
Seth J Rotz, Thomas D Ryan, Joel Hlavaty, Stephen A George, Javier El-Bietar, Christopher E Dandoy
Cardiomyopathy is common in long-term survivors of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Events occurring before and after HSCT when combined with specific insults during HSCT likely contribute to long-term risk. Strategies for detecting subclinical cardiomyopathy prior to patients developing overt heart failure are under investigation. Changes in HSCT preparative regimens and cardioprotective medications administered during chemotherapy may alter the risk for cardiomyopathy. Interventions in long-term survivors such as lifestyle modification and cardioactive medications are of increasing importance...
April 28, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449155/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-with-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-or-exendin-4
#2
Mohamed Abd Elaziz Wassef, Ola M Tork, Laila A Rashed, Walaa Ibrahim, Heba Morsi, Dina Mohamed Mekawy Rabie
Therapy targeting mitochondria may provide novel ways to treat diabetes and its complications. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists and exendin-4; an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 have shown cardioprotective properties in many cardiac injury models. So, we evaluated their effects in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. This work included seven groups of adult male albino rats: the control group, the non-treated diabetic group, and the treated diabetic groups: one group was treated with MSCs only, the second with pioglitazone only, the third with MSCs and pioglitazone, the forth with exendin-4 only and the fifth with MSCs and exendin-4...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448039/surgical-ablation-assay-for-studying-eye-regeneration-in-planarians
#3
Jacob M Morton, Marwa A Saad, Wendy S Beane
In the study of adult stem cells and regenerative mechanisms, planarian flatworms are a staple in vivo model system. This is due in large part to their abundant pluripotent stem cell population and ability to regenerate all cell and tissue types after injuries that would be catastrophic for most animals. Recently, planarians have gained popularity as a model for eye regeneration. Their ability to regenerate the entire eye (comprised of two tissue types: pigment cells and photoreceptors) allows for the dissection of the mechanisms regulating visual system regeneration...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447572/effects-of-bone-marrow-derived-msc-transplantation-on-functional-recovery-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury-comparisons-of-transplant-locations-and-cell-concentrations
#4
Jessica J Matyas, Andrew N Stewart, Allison Goldsmith, Zhenhong Nan, Reid L Skeel, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a widely disabling condition, constraining those affected by it to wheelchairs and requiring intense daily care and assistance. Cell replacement therapies, targeting regeneration of cells in the injured cord, are currently gaining momentum in the field of SCI research. Previous studies indicate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can reduce functional deficits through immunomodulation and production of trophic factors in a variety of neurological disorders. The present study assessed the efficacy of transplanted bone marrow-derived MSCs at different concentrations and locations for promoting functional recovery following SCI...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446779/functional-neuronal-differentiation-of-injury-induced-muscle-derived-stem-cell-like-cells-with-therapeutic-implications
#5
Kinga Vojnits, Haiying Pan, Xiaojing Dai, Hao Sun, Qingchun Tong, Radbod Darabi, Johnny Huard, Yong Li
Mammalian skeletal muscles contain a number of heterogeneous cell populations. Our previous study characterized a unique population of myogenic lineage stem cells that can be isolated from adult mammalian skeletal muscles upon injury. These injury-induced muscle-derived stem cell-like cells (iMuSCs) displayed a multipotent state with sensitiveness and strong migration abilities. Here, we report that these iMuSCs have the capability to form neurospheres that represent multiple neural phenotypes. The induced neuronal cells expressed various neuron-specific proteins, their mRNA expression during neuronal differentiation recapitulated embryonic neurogenesis, they generated action potentials, and they formed functional synapses in vitro...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446005/cardioprotective-effects-of-wharton-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-rodent-model-of-myocardial-injury
#6
Taghrid Gaafar, Wael Attia, Shereen Mahmoud, Dina Sabry, Osama Abdel Aziz, Dina Rasheed, Hala Hamza
Background: Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a valuable alternative source that possess multipotent properties, easy to obtain and available in large scale compared to BMMSCs. We investigated the possibility of cardiac function improvement post isoproterenol induced cardiac injury in a rat model following human WJMSCs transplantation. Materials and Methods: MSCs were extracted and cultured from cord WJ, characterized by morphology, Immunophenotyping and differentiation to osteoblast and adipocytes...
April 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444766/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediates-distinct-impacts-of-sevoflurane-on-different-subfields-of-immature-hippocampus
#7
Gang Zhu, Lei Tao, Ronglin Wang, Ying Xue, Xingqin Wang, Shaosong Yang, Xude Sun, Guodong Gao, Zixu Mao, Qian Yang
Sevoflurane, a typical inhaled anesthetic, is widely used in patients of all ages during surgery. The negative effects, such as inducing cell death and damaging spatial memory, of sevoflurane on neurodevelopment have raised increasing concerns in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The current study focused on the crucial role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in sevoflurane-induced hippocampal injury. Three-week-old rats were exposed to sevoflurane or control air for 5h with or without ER stress inhibitor (4-phenylbutyric acid, 4-PBA) injection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442989/perinatal-brain-injury-as-a-consequence-of-preterm-birth-and-intrauterine-inflammation-designing-targeted-stem-cell-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Madison C B Paton, Courtney A McDonald, Beth J Allison, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of preterm birth and brain injury. Bacterial invasion of the chorion and amnion, and/or the placenta, can lead to a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn has significant adverse consequences for the developing fetal brain. Accordingly, there is a strong causal link between chorioamnionitis, preterm brain injury and the pathogenesis of severe postnatal neurological deficits and cerebral palsy. Currently there are no treatments to protect or repair against brain injury in preterm infants born after pregnancy compromised by intrauterine infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440805/cell-transplantation-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Peggy Assinck, Greg J Duncan, Brett J Hilton, Jason R Plemel, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the injured spinal cord. The transplantation of Schwann cells, neural stem cells or progenitor cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated as potential therapies for spinal cord injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which these individual cell types promote repair and functional improvements...
April 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440546/stem-cell-dynamics-in-muscle-regeneration-insights-from-live-imaging-in-different-animal-models
#10
REVIEW
Dhanushika Ratnayake, Peter D Currie
In recent years, live imaging has been adopted to study stem cells in their native environment at cellular resolution. In the skeletal muscle field, this has led to visualising the initial events of muscle repair in mouse, and the entire regenerative response in zebrafish. Here, we review recent discoveries in this field obtained from live imaging studies. Tracking of tissue resident stem cells, the satellite cells, following injury has captured the morphogenetic dynamics of stem/progenitor cells as they facilitate repair...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440500/indirect-effects-of-x-irradiation-on-proliferation-and-osteogenic-potential-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-local-irradiated-rat-model
#11
Ruilian Sun, Guoying Zhu, Jianping Wang, Ling Tong, Jianglong Zhai
Cancer survivors after radiotherapy may suffer a variety of bone‑related adverse side effects, including radioactive osteoporosis and fractures. Localized irradiation is a common treatment modality for malignancies. Recently, a series of reactions and injuries called indirect effects (remote changes in bone when other parts of the body are irradiated) have been reported on the indirect irradiated area of bone tissue after radiotherapy. To address this issue, we developed a rat localized irradiation model...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440472/human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-acute-myocarditis-by-modulating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-1-2-mediated-apoptosis
#12
Changyi Zhang, Guichi Zhou, Chanxin Cai, Jindi Li, Fen Chen, Lichun Xie, Wei Wang, Yonggang Zhang, Xiulan Lai, Lian Ma
Acute myocarditis is a non-ischemic inflammatory disease of the myocardium, and there is currently no standard treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can alleviate myosin‑induced myocarditis; however, the mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the authors investigated the ability of human umbilical cordMSCs (HuMSCs) to attenuate myocardial injury and dysfunction during the acute phase of experimental myocarditis. Male Lewis rats (aged 8 weeks) were injected with porcine myosin to induce myocarditis...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440250/outcomes-of-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-following-autologous-simple-limbal-epithelial-transplant-in-pediatric-unilateral-severe-chemical-injury
#13
Divya Singh, M Vanathi, Chanchal Gupta, Noopur Gupta, Radhika Tandon
AIMS: To evaluate outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in pediatric eyes with unilateral severe chemical injury which have undergone autologous simple limbal epithelial transplant (SLET). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study design was a retrospective case series. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, case series of all children <16 years of age that have undergone DALK following autologous SLET procedure in unilateral severe chemical injury evaluates the outcomes and complications in the setting of a tertiary care center in North India...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439013/biliary-epithelial-injury-induced-regenerative-response-by-il-33-promotes-cholangiocarcinogenesis-from-peribiliary-glands
#14
Hayato Nakagawa, Nobumi Suzuki, Yoshihiro Hirata, Yohko Hikiba, Yoku Hayakawa, Hiroto Kinoshita, Sozaburo Ihara, Koji Uchino, Yuji Nishikawa, Hideaki Ijichi, Motoyuki Otsuka, Junichi Arita, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Norihiro Kokudo, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
The carcinogenic mechanism of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) is unclear, due at least in part to the lack of an appropriate mouse model. Because human studies have reported frequent genetic alterations in the Ras- and TGFβ/SMAD-signaling pathways in ECC, mice with tamoxifen-inducible, duct-cell-specific Kras activation and a TGFβ receptor type 2 (TGFβR2) deletion were first generated by crossing LSL-Kras(G12D) , Tgfbr2(flox/flox) , and K19(CreERT) mice (KT-K19(CreERT) ). However, KT-K19(CreERT) mice showed only mild hyperplasia of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) in the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) and died within 7 wk, probably a result of lung adenocarcinomas...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438991/differentiation-of-v2a-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Jessica C Butts, Dylan A McCreedy, Jorge Alexis Martinez-Vargas, Frederico N Mendoza-Camacho, Tracy A Hookway, Casey A Gifford, Praveen Taneja, Linda Noble-Haeusslein, Todd C McDevitt
The spinal cord consists of multiple neuronal cell types that are critical to motor control and arise from distinct progenitor domains in the developing neural tube. Excitatory V2a interneurons in particular are an integral component of central pattern generators that control respiration and locomotion; however, the lack of a robust source of human V2a interneurons limits the ability to molecularly profile these cells and examine their therapeutic potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we report the directed differentiation of CHX10(+) V2a interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436462/mir-146b-is-down-regulated-during-the-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-skeletal-stem-cells-and-up-regulated-in-osteoarthritis
#16
Emma Budd, María C de Andrés, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Richard O C Oreffo
Articular cartilage injury can result in chondrocyte loss and diminishment of specialised extracellular matrix, which can progress to an osteoarthritic (OA) phenotype. Stem cells have emerged as a favourable approach for articular cartilage regeneration. Identification of miRNAs which influence stem cell fate offers new approaches for application of miRNAs to regenerate articular cartilage. Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) isolated from human bone marrow were cultured as high density micromass' using TGF-β3 to induce chondrogenesis...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434938/polycomb-group-gene-e-z-is-required-for-spermatogonial-dedifferentiation-in-drosophila-adult-testis
#17
Suk Ho Eun, Lijuan Feng, Luis Cedeno-Rosario, Qiang Gan, Gang Wei, Kairong Cui, Keji Zhao, Xin Chen
Dedifferentiation is an important process to replenish lost stem cells during aging or regeneration after injury to maintain tissue homeostasis. Here we report that Enhancer of Zeste [E(z)], a component of the Polycomb Repression Complex 2 (PRC2), is required to maintain a stable pool of germline stem cells (GSCs) within the niche microenvironment. During aging, germ cells with reduced E(z) activity cannot meet that requirement, but the defect neither arises from increased GSC death nor premature differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434038/emerging-potential-of-gene-silencing-approaches-targeting-anti-chondrogenic-factors-for-cell-based-cartilage-repair
#18
REVIEW
Andrea Lolli, Letizia Penolazzi, Roberto Narcisi, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Roberta Piva
The field of cartilage repair has exponentially been growing over the past decade. Here, we discuss the possibility to achieve satisfactory regeneration of articular cartilage by means of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depleted of anti-chondrogenic factors and implanted in the site of injury. Different types of molecules including transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, secreted proteins, and microRNAs have recently been identified as negative modulators of chondroprogenitor differentiation and chondrocyte function...
April 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434009/hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neonates
#19
Wei Ling Amelia Lee, Adina T Michael-Titus, Divyen K Shah
This review aims to highlight a possible relationship between hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory reactions perpetuate a large proportion of cerebral injury. The extent of injury noted in HIE is not only determined by the biochemical cascades that trigger the apoptosis-necrosis continuum of cell death in the brain parenchyma, but also by the breaching of the BBB by pro-inflammatory factors. We examine the changes that contribute to the breakdown of the BBB that occur during HIE at a macroscopic, cellular, and molecular level...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433939/enhanced-proangiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-stimulated-by-a-nitric-oxide-releasing-polymer
#20
Wei Du, Kaiyue Zhang, Shuaiqiang Zhang, Ran Wang, Yan Nie, Hongyan Tao, Zhibo Han, Lu Liang, Di Wang, Jianfeng Liu, Na Liu, Zhongchao Han, Deling Kong, Qiang Zhao, Zongjin Li
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been recognized as new candidates for the treatment of degenerative diseases or injury and may provide an alternative to cell-based therapy. However, the compositions in MSC-derived exosomes are highly influenced by the microenvironment in which their original cells reside. Here, we hypothesized that a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing polymer can boost the proangiogenic compositions of exosomes and enhance their proangiogenic capacity. Our results demonstrated that exosomes, released from human placenta-derived MSCs (hP-MSCs) by NO stimulation, augment the angiogenic effects of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro...
April 17, 2017: Biomaterials
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