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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913222/human-liver-regeneration-in-advanced-cirrhosis-is-organized-by-the-portal-tree
#1
Katalin Dezső, András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Armanda Szücs, András Szuák, Bence Dorogi, Mátyás Kiss, Ágnes Nemeskéri, Péter Nagy, Sándor Paku
BACKGROUND&AIMS: In advanced cirrhosis new hepatocytic nodules are generated by budding of ductules in areas of parenchymal extinction. However, the vascular alterations in the areas of parenchymal extinction, the blood supply and the structure of the new hepatocytic nodules have not been analyzed in detail. METHODS: Explanted human cirrhotic livers of three different etiologies and two experimental models of cirrhosis in rats were examined thoroughly. 3D reconstruction of the immunohistochemically stained serial sections and casting of human and experimental cirrhotic livers have been used to reveal the structural organization of the regenerative buds...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911382/a-simple-mechanical-procedure-to-create-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-in-mouse
#2
Neda Afsharkhamseh, Elham Ghahari, Medi Eslani, Ali R Djalilian
Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a state of malfunction or loss of limbal epithelial stem cells, after which the corneal epithelium is replaced with conjunctiva. Patients suffer from recurrent corneal defects, pain, inflammation, and loss of vision. Previously, a murine model of LSCD was described and compared to two other models. The goal was to produce a consistent mouse model of LSCD that both mimics the phenotype in humans and lasts long enough to make it possible to study the disease pathophysiology and to evaluate new treatments...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910949/ascl3-transcription-factor-marks-a-distinct-progenitor-lineage-for-non-neuronal-support-cells-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#3
Pei-Lun Weng, Mridula Vinjamuri, Catherine E Ovitt
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is composed of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), sustentacular supporting cells, and several types of non-neuronal cells. Stem and progenitor cells are located basally, and are the source of all cell types needed to maintain OE homeostasis. Here, we report that Ascl3, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is expressed in the developing OE. Lineage tracing experiments demonstrate that the non-neuronal microvillar cells and Bowman's glands are exclusively derived from Ascl3(+) progenitor cells in the OE during development...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910911/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-program-macrophage-plasticity-by-altering-their-metabolic-status-via-a-pge2-dependent-mechanism
#4
Anoop Babu Vasandan, Sowmya Jahnavi, Chandanala Shashank, Priya Prasad, Anujith Kumar, S Jyothi Prasanna
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. MSCs promoted macrophage differentiation, enhanced respiratory burst and potentiated microbicidal responses in naïve macrophages (Mφ). Functional attenuation of inflammatory M1 macrophages was associated with a concomitant shift towards alternatively activated M2 state in MSC-M1 co-cultures...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905395/outside-in-integrin-signalling-regulates-haematopoietic-stem-cell-function-via-periostin-itgav-axis
#5
Satish Khurana, Sarah Schouteden, Javed K Manesia, Albert Santamaria-Martínez, Joerg Huelsken, Adam Lacy-Hulbert, Catherine M Verfaillie
Integrins play an important role in haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance in the bone marrow niche. Here, we demonstrate that Periostin (Postn) via interaction with Integrin-αv (Itgav) regulates HSC proliferation. Systemic deletion of Postn results in peripheral blood (PB) anaemia, myelomonocytosis and lymphopenia, while the number of phenotypic HSCs increases in the bone marrow. Postn(-/-) mice recover faster from radiation injury with concomitant loss of primitive HSCs. HSCs from Postn(-/-) mice show accumulation of DNA damage generally associated with aged HSCs...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905026/native-matrix-based-human-lung-alveolar-tissue-model-in-vitro-studies-of-the-reparatory-actions-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Ieva Bruzauskaite, Jovile Raudoniute, Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Sandra Meidute-Abaraviciene, Vaida Simonyte, Daiva Bironaite, Almantas Siaurys, Eiva Bernotiene, Ruta Aldonyte
Studies of lung diseases in vitro often rely on flat, plastic-based monocultures, due to short lifespan of primary cells, complicated anatomy, lack of explants, etc. We hereby present a native 3D model with cues for repopulating epithelial cells. Abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to modulate bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cigarette smoke-induced injury to pulmonary epithelium were tested in our model. Post-mortem human lung tissue was sliced, cut and decellularized. Resulting matrix pads were reseeded with pulmonary epithelium (A549 line)...
December 1, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904037/analysis-of-cyp2r1-and-cyp26a1-expression-patterns-in-regeneration-in-mice-with-liver-injury
#8
Akiyo Hirose, Wataru Ochiai, Yuka Yamamoto, Masashi Fukaya, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Nozomi Wakui, Ayumi Takahashi, Yusuke Takahashi, Satoshi Kitaoka, Jo Hatogai, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are involved in the metabolism of various substances in the liver and small intestine and show markedly higher expression levels in the liver compared to other organs. The liver exhibits a remarkable capacity to regenerate. After excision of 70% of the liver, the organ can regenerate to its original size in approximately 1 week. Unlike the normal liver, in the injured liver, hepatic stem cells known as oval cells are considered to play an important role in regeneration. However, the role of CYPs in liver regeneration remains unclear...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903590/anterior-cruciate-ligament-derived-stem-cells-transduced-with-bmp2-accelerate-graft-bone-integration-after-acl-reconstruction
#9
Yohei Kawakami, Koji Takayama, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Ying Tang, Bing Wang, Yutaka Mifune, James H Cummins, Ryan J Warth, Ryosuke Kuroda, Masahiro Kurosaka, Freddie H Fu, Johnny Huard
BACKGROUND: Strong graft-bone integration is a prerequisite for successful graft remodeling after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using soft tissue grafts. Novel strategies to accelerate soft tissue graft-bone integration are needed to reduce the need for bone-tendon-bone graft harvest, reduce patient convalescence, facilitate rehabilitation, and reduce total recovery time after ACL reconstruction. HYPOTHESIS: The application of ACL-derived stem cells with enhanced expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) onto soft tissue grafts in the form of cell sheets will both accelerate and improve the quality of graft-bone integration after ACL reconstruction in a rat model...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903535/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cardiac-strain-pattern-following-transplantation-of-human-tissue-engineered-heart-muscles
#10
Xulei Qin, Johannes Riegler, Malte Tiburcy, Xin Zhao, Tony Chour, Babacar Ndoye, Michael Nguyen, Jackson Adams, Mohamed Ameen, Thomas S Denney, Phillip C Yang, Patricia Nguyen, Wolfram H Zimmermann, Joseph C Wu
BACKGROUND: The use of tissue engineering approaches in combination with exogenously produced cardiomyocytes offers the potential to restore contractile function after myocardial injury. However, current techniques assessing changes in global cardiac performance after such treatments are plagued by relatively low detection ability. Since the treatment is locally performed, this detection could be improved by myocardial strain imaging that measures regional contractility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tissue engineered heart muscles (EHMs) were generated by casting human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with collagen in preformed molds...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903221/in-vitro-generated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-suitable-tools-to-target-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Shruti D Dave, Patel C N, Patel J V, Thakkar U G
A synergy of a pre-accumulated genes with an autoimmunity advancing to slow abolition of pancreatic beta-cells causes insulin deficiency and results enrooting insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). As per WHO data worldwide about 150 million people are diabetic and the number may rise to more than double by the year 2025. Any absolute cure for IDDM is not available yet, and one of the credible advent in the field include cell-based therapy. At this conjecture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seems to have a specific and beneficial characteristics due to their in vivo as well as in vitro potential to mimic a pancreatic endocrine phenotype and immune-regulatory actions...
November 21, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901327/stem-cell-therapy-for-sequestering-neuroinflammation-in-traumatic-brain-injury-an-update-on-exosome-targeting-to-the-spleen
#12
Marci G Crowley, Michael G Liska, Cesar V Borlongan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), manifests with acute and chronic cell death pathways leading to initial impacted injury and subsequent neurodegeneration. In particular, the secondary cell death, plagued by a massive and lingering neuroinflammatory response, contributes significantly to worsening outcomes of the progressive TBI pathology. Fortunately, neuroinflammation also provides an opportunity for therapeutic interventions. Limited treatment options currently exist for the disease, but stem cell-based therapies offer promise in promoting neuroprotection and neuroregeneration by mitigating central neuroinflammation as well as modulating peripheral inflammation via the spleen...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896234/frequency-and-associated-factors-of-amphotericin-b-nephrotoxicity-in-hospitalized-patients-in-hematology-oncology-wards-in-the-southwest-of-iran
#13
Iman Karimzadeh, Marziyeh Heydari, Mani Ramzi, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the most clinically significant adverse reaction of amphotericin B. Different aspects of amphotericin B (AmB) nephrotoxicity have not been studied well in our population. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, time onset, and possible associated factors of AmB nephrotoxicity in hospitalized patients in hematology-oncology wards in the southwest of Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was performed over a period of 9 months at 2 hematology-oncology and 1 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation wards at Namazi Hospital...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895107/long-noncoding-rna-h19-accelerates-tenogenic-differentiation-and-promotes-tendon-healing-through-targeting-mir-29b-3p-and-activating-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#14
Ying-Fei Lu, Yang Liu, Wei-Ming Fu, Jia Xu, Bin Wang, Yu-Xin Sun, Tian-Yi Wu, Liang-Liang Xu, Kai-Ming Chan, Jin-Fang Zhang, Gang Li
Tendon injures are common orthopedic conditions, but tendon development and the pathogenesis of tendon injures, such as tendinopathy, remain largely unknown and have limited the development of clinical therapy. Studies on tenogenic differentiation at the molecular level may help in developing novel therapeutic strategies. As novel regulators, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to have widespread biological functions, and emerging evidence demonstrates that lncRNAs may play important regulatory roles in cell differentiation and tissue regeneration...
November 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891301/how-far-have-we-come-in-the-field-of-nerve-regeneration-after-trigeminal-nerve-injury
#15
REVIEW
Annika Rosén, Arezo Tardast, Tie-Jun Shi
Patients suffering from nerve injury with sensory disturbances or orofacial pain have greatly reduced quality of life, and it is a big cost for the society. Abnormal sensations caused by trigeminal nerve injury often become chronic, severely debilitating, and extremely difficult to treat. In general, non-invasive treatment such as drug treatment has been insufficient, and there are currently few available effective treatments. Surgical interventions such as end-to-end connection or nerve grafting have disadvantages such as donor site morbidity or formation of neuroma...
2016: Current Oral Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890010/biological-function-and-mechanism-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-packed-poly-3-4-ethylenedioxythiophene-pedot-scaffolds-for-peripheral-nerve-injury-the-involvement-of-mir-21-notch-signaling-pathway
#16
Wenliang Wu, Shijun Zhang, Yunzhen Chen, Haichun Liu
Ununited peripheral nerves represent attractive site for connectivity with neuroprostheses because of their predictable internal topography allows for precise sorting of motor and sensory signals. Also transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is increasingly recognized as an effective method of restore the peripheral nervous system injury due to its neuron-directed differentiation potential. This study was to evaluate the in vivo performance of BMSCs-packed Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) scaffolds across a critical nerve conduction gap and examine the potential mechanism by which BMSCs-packed PEDOT scaffolds mediates peripheral nerve regeneration in rat model of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) deletion...
November 23, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888602/a-glycovariant-of-human-cd44-is-characteristically-expressed-on-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Gisela Pachón-Peña, Conor Donnelly, Catalina Ruiz-Cañada, Adam Katz, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell, Robert Sackstein
The clinical effectiveness of systemically-administered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depends on their capacity to engage vascular endothelium. hMSCs derived from bone marrow (BM-hMSCs) natively lack endothelial binding capacity but express a CD44 glycovariant containing N-linked sialyllactosamines that can be α(1,3)-fucosylated using fucosyltransferase- VI (FTVI) to enforce sLe(X) decorations, thereby creating hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand (HCELL). HCELL expression programs potent shear-resistant adhesion of circulating cells to endothelial beds expressing E-selectin...
November 26, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888550/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-biology-and-preclinical-evidence-for-therapeutic-potential-for-organ-dysfunction-following-trauma-or-sepsis
#18
Michael A Matthay, Shibani Pati, Jae-Woo Lee
Several experimental studies have provided evidence that bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSC) may be effective in treating critically ill surgical patients who develop traumatic brain injury, acute renal failure, or the acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is also preclinical evidence that MSC may be effective in treating sepsis-induced organ failure, including evidence that MSC have anti-microbial properties. This review considers preclinical studies with direct relevance to organ failure following trauma, sepsis or major infections that apply to critically ill patients...
November 26, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887617/increased-expression-of-trop2-in-airway-basal-cells-potentially-contributes-to-airway-remodeling-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Qixiao Liu, Haijun Li, Qin Wang, Yuke Zhang, Wei Wang, Shuang Dou, Wei Xiao
BACKGROUND: The airway epithelium of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoes aberrant repair and remodeling after repetitive injury following exposure to environmental factors. Abnormal airway regeneration observed in COPD is thought to originate in the stem/progenitor cells of the airway epithelium, the basal cells (BCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain unknown. Here, trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2), a protein implicated in the regulation of stem cell activity, was examined in lung tissue samples from COPD patients...
November 25, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885340/acute-kidney-injury-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Vinod Krishnappa, Mohit Gupta, Gurusidda Manu, Shivani Kwatra, Osei-Tutu Owusu, Rupesh Raina
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a highly effective treatment strategy for lymphoproliferative disorders and bone marrow failure states including aplastic anemia and thalassemia. However, its use has been limited by the increased treatment related complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI) with an incidence ranging from 20% to 73%. AKI after HSCT has been associated with an increased risk of mortality. The incidence of AKI reported in recipients of myeloablative allogeneic transplant is considerably higher in comparison to other subclasses mainly due to use of cyclosporine and development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in allogeneic groups...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology
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