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Benzene guideline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678614/emission-from-open-burning-of-municipal-solid-waste-in-india
#1
Kanchan Kumari, Sunil Kumar, R Vineel, Ankur Khare, Rakesh Kumar
Open burning of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a potential non-point source of emission, which causes greater concern especially in developing countries like India. The lack of awareness about environmental impact of open burning among the public, and ignorance of the fact i.e., "Open burning is a source of emission of carcinogenic substances" by environmental organizations are major hindrances towards appropriate municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system in India. The present paper highlights about the open burning of MSW practices in India, the current and projected emission of 10 major pollutants, namely dioxin, furans, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and 1-hexene emitted due to the open burning of MSW...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561292/guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-scabies-in-japan-third-edition-executive-committee-of-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-scabies
#2
(no author information available yet)
In the current work, we present our new guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of scabies which we, the Executive Committee convened by the Japanese Dermatological Association, developed to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of scabies in Japan. Approval of phenothrin topical use under the National Health Insurance in August 2014 led to this action. Permethrin, a topical anti-scabietic medication belonging to the same pyrethroid group as phenothrin, is already in use worldwide. In this guideline, we introduce criteria for a proper diagnosis of scabies, treatment algorithm for common and crusted (hyperkeratotic) scabies, and prevention...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502046/adapting-the-vegetative-vigour-terrestrial-plant-test-for-assessing-ecotoxicity-of-aerosol-samples
#3
Nora Kováts, Eszter Horváth, Bettina Eck-Varanka, Eszter Csajbók, András Hoffer
Plants, being recognized to show high sensitivity to air pollution, have been long used to assess the ecological effects of airborne contaminants. However, many changes in vegetation are now generally attributed to atmospheric deposition of aerosol particles; the dose-effect relationships of this process are usually poorly known. In contrast to bioindication studies, ecotoxicological tests (or bioassays) are controlled and reproducible where ecological responses are determined quantitatively. In our study, the No...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417329/quantitative-cancer-risk-assessment-and-local-mortality-burden-for-ambient-air-pollution-in-an-eastern-mediterranean-city
#4
Hassan R Dhaini, Thérèse Salameh, Antoine Waked, Stéphane Sauvage, Agnès Borbon, Paola Formenti, Jean-François Doussin, Nadine Locoge, Charbel Afif
Health risks posed by ambient air pollutants to the urban Lebanese population have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk and mortality burden of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulates (PM) based on two field-sampling campaigns conducted during summer and winter seasons in Beirut. Seventy NMHCs were analyzed by TD-GC-FID. PM2.5 elemental carbon (EC) components were examined using a Lab OC-EC aerosol Analyzer, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402363/on-the-validity-of-linear-response-approximations-regarding-the-solvation-dynamics-of-polyatomic-solutes
#5
Esther Heid, Wanda Moser, Christian Schröder
The time-dependent fluorescence of a chromophore can be calculated from either nonequilibrium simulations, or, as long as linear response theory holds true, from equilibrium solvent fluctuations in the ground or excited state if the perturbation inflicted by the chromophore is small. The assumption of Gaussian statistics, in contrast, links the nonequilibrium dynamics to solvent fluctuations solely in the excited state, as long as the energy gap distribution is Gaussian throughout the process. The validity of linear response theories on the ground and excited state surface as well as Gaussian statistics is thoroughly tested in this study by calculating the time-dependent Stokes shift of different benzene-like solutes...
May 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375613/thieno-3-4-b-thiophene-based-novel-small-molecule-optoelectronic-materials
#6
Cheng Zhang, Xiaozhang Zhu
Because of the tailorable photoelectric properties derived from judicious molecular design and large-area and low-temperature processability especially on flexible substrates, design and synthesis of new organic π-functional materials is always a central topic in the field of organic optoelectronics, which siginificantly contributed to the development of high-performance optoelectronic devices such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)...
April 4, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236484/characterization-and-source-profiling-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-indoor-air-of-private-residences-in-selangor-state-malaysia
#7
Nobumitsu Sakai, Shuta Yamamoto, Yasuto Matsui, Md Firoz Khan, Mohd Talib Latif, Mustafa Ali Mohd, Minoru Yoneda
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in indoor air were investigated at 39 private residences in Selangor State, Malaysia to characterize the indoor air quality and to identify pollution sources. Twenty-two VOCs including isomers (14 aldehydes, 5 aromatic hydrocarbons, acetone, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) were collected by 2 passive samplers for 24h and quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Source profiling based on benzene/toluene ratio as well as statistical analysis (cluster analysis, bivariate correlation analysis and principal component analysis) was performed to identify pollution sources of the detected VOCs...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235390/qsar-analysis-for-6-arylpyrazine-2-carboxamides-as-trypanosoma-brucei-inhibitors
#8
V H Masand, N N E El-Sayed, D T Mahajan, V Rastija
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is prevalent in African countries, covering 37 countries, mostly sub-Saharan. A limited number of drugs are available to cure this neglected disease. In the present work, quantitative structure-activity (toxicity) relationships (QSA(T)R) analysis has been performed for a dataset of 54 6-arylpyrazine-2-carboxamides as Trypanosoma brucei inhibitors to identify the important structural features required for future optimization of lead candidates. The QSA(T)R models satisfy OECD guidelines and have high statistical robustness...
February 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063708/infants-indoor-and-outdoor-residential-exposure-to-benzene-and-respiratory-health-in-a-spanish-cohort
#9
Amparo Ferrero, Ana Esplugues, Marisa Estarlich, Sabrina Llop, Amparo Cases, Enrique Mantilla, Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez
Benzene exposure represents a potential risk for children's health. Apart from being a known carcinogen for humans (group 1 according to IARC), there is scientific evidence suggesting a relationship between benzene exposure and respiratory problems in children. But results are still inconclusive and inconsistent. This study aims to assess the determinants of exposure to indoor and outdoor residential benzene levels and its relationship with respiratory health in infants. Participants were 1-year-old infants (N = 352) from the INMA cohort from Valencia (Spain)...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866741/assessment-of-indoor-air-quality-in-office-buildings-across-europe-the-officair-study
#10
Corinne Mandin, Marilena Trantallidi, Andrea Cattaneo, Nuno Canha, Victor G Mihucz, Tamás Szigeti, Rosanna Mabilia, Erica Perreca, Andrea Spinazzè, Serena Fossati, Yvonne De Kluizenaar, Eric Cornelissen, Ioannis Sakellaris, Dikaia Saraga, Otto Hänninen, Eduardo De Oliveira Fernandes, Gabriela Ventura, Peder Wolkoff, Paolo Carrer, John Bartzis
The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012-2013). Four rooms were investigated per building. The target pollutants were twelve volatile organic compounds, seven aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860299/validation-of-a-new-high-throughput-method-to-determine-urinary-s-phenylmercapturic-acid-using-low-temperature-partitioning-extraction-and-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#11
Rafaela de Paiva Gomes, Camila Bárbara Pena, Jennifer Rezende, Mauricio Xavier Coutrim, Robson José de Cássia Franco Afonso
A new highly sensitive and environmentally friendly analytical method, using low-temperature partition extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, without the use of a labeled analyte, was developed and validated to determine and quantify urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid in urine samples. The World Health Organization, in its guidelines for air quality in Europe, recognizes that benzene is carcinogenic to humans and there is no safe level of exposure. Urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid is a sensitive and specific biological marker of exposure to benzene...
January 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796456/development-of-quechers-based-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-bisphenol-a-and-tetrabromobisphenol-a-in-seafood-fish-bivalves-and-seaweeds
#12
Sara C Cunha, Cátia Oliveira, José O Fernandes
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in different seafood samples was developed and validated. Sample preparation was based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based procedure through an extraction of target analytes with acidified acetonitrile (MeCN) added with inorganic salts (MgSO4, NaCl) followed by a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using hexane-tertbutylmethyl ether/hexane-benzene to eliminate matrix co-extracts...
January 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761924/visualizing-dispersion-interactions-through-the-use-of-local-orbital-spaces
#13
Axel Wuttke, Ricardo A Mata
The interpretation of chemical properties/phenomena can often be aided through the use of imagery. The mapping of molecular electrostatic potentials is a prime example, serving as a guideline in the design of novel compounds or understanding transition state stabilization effects. It is today a common tool for theoreticians and experimentalists alike. With the emergence of concepts such as dispersion energy donors, and the overall importance of dispersion in chemical systems, representations targeting such a class of interactions are warranted...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662836/biodegradation-of-nonionic-and-anionic-surfactants-in-domestic-wastewater-under-simulated-sewer-conditions
#14
Jennifer Z Menzies, Kathleen McDonough, Drew McAvoy, Thomas W Federle
The ultimate disposition of chemicals discarded down the drain can be substantially impacted by their fate in the sewer, but to date limited data have been published on the biodegradability of chemicals in sewer systems. The recently established OECD 314 guideline (Simulation tests to assess the biodegradability of chemicals discharged in wastewater, 2008) contains a simulation method (314A) for evaluating the biodegradation of chemicals in sewage under simulated sewer conditions. This research used the OECD 314A method to evaluate the rates and pathways of primary and ultimate biodegradation of a suite of (14)C-labeled homologues representing four classes of high volume surfactants including nonionic alkyl ethoxylates (AE), and anionic alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES), alkyl sulfate (AS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS)...
February 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659059/voc-exposures-in-california-early-childhood-education-environments
#15
T Hoang, R Castorina, F Gaspar, R Maddalena, P L Jenkins, Q Zhang, T E McKone, E Benfenati, A Y Shi, A Bradman
Little information exists about exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in early childhood education (ECE) environments. We measured 38 VOCs in single-day air samples collected in 2010-2011 from 34 ECE facilities serving California children and evaluated potential health risks. We also examined unknown peaks in the GC/MS chromatographs for indoor samples and identified 119 of these compounds using mass spectral libraries. VOCs found in cleaning and personal care products had the highest indoor concentrations (d-limonene and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane [D5] medians: 33...
September 22, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616782/development-and-validation-of-a-uhplc-uv-method-for-the-in-process-control-of-bosentan-monohydrate-synthesis
#16
Marta Jatczak, Katarzyna Sidoryk, Magdalena Kossykowska, Wojciech Łuniewski, Joanna Zagrodzka, Elżbieta Lipiec-Abramska
Bosentan monohydrate (4-tert-butyl-N-[6-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-2-(pyrimidin-2-yl) pyrimidin-4-yl]benzene-1-sulfonamide monohydrate) is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) applied in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. To achieve effective process control of the bosentan monohydrate synthesis, it was necessary to develop a selective and not highly time-consuming method for ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The method is characterized by adequate sensitivity, reproducibility and selectivity for the determination of bosentan monohydrate and related compounds from all synthetic stages...
2016: Chromatographia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575044/statistical-modeling-of-o3-nox-co-pm2-5-vocs-and-noise-levels-in-commercial-complex-and-associated-health-risk-assessment-in-an-academic-institution
#17
Deepak Singh, Amit Kumar, Krishan Kumar, Bupender Singh, Usha Mina, Braj Bihari Singh, Vinod Kumar Jain
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is considered to be of great concern due to its adverse impact on the human health nowadays. The presence of different air pollutants along with noise may aggravate the IAQ. The present study attempts to examine IAQ in terms of major criteria air pollutants (O3, NOx=NO+NO2, CO and PM2.5) along with total volatile organic compound (TVOC), individual VOC and noise pollution in indoor and outdoor environment of a Commercial Shopping Complex (CSC) in Delhi. Real time measurements have been carried out for O3, NOx, CO, PM2...
August 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405875/solid-phase-microextraction-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-methods-for-residual-solvent-assessment-in-seized-cocaine-and-heroin
#18
Pamela Cabarcos, Paloma Herbello-Hermelo, Iván Álvarez-Freire, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro, María Jesús Tabernero, Ana María Bermejo, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera
A simple sample pre-treatment method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized and validated for the assessment of 15 residual solvents (2-propanol, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, acetone, ethyl acetate, benzene, hexane, methylcyclohexane, methylcyclopentane, m-xylene, propyl acetate, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, and ethylbenzene) in seized illicit cocaine and heroin. DMSO and DMF as sample diluents were found to offer the best residual solvent transference to the head space for further adsorption onto the SPME fiber, and the developed method therefore showed high sensitivity and analytical recovery...
September 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314375/evaluation-of-volatile-organic-compounds-and-carbonyl-compounds-present-in-the-cabins-of-newly-produced-medium-and-large-size-coaches-in-china
#19
Yan-Yang Lu, Yi Lin, Han Zhang, Dongxiao Ding, Xia Sun, Qiansheng Huang, Lifeng Lin, Ya-Jie Chen, Yu-Lang Chi, Sijun Dong
An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116639/role-of-the-source-to-building-lateral-separation-distance-in-petroleum-vapor-intrusion
#20
Iason Verginelli, Oriana Capobianco, Renato Baciocchi
The adoption of source to building separation distances to screen sites that need further field investigation is becoming a common practice for the evaluation of the vapor intrusion pathway at sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Namely, for the source to building vertical distance, the screening criteria for petroleum vapor intrusion have been deeply investigated in the recent literature and fully addressed in the recent guidelines issued by ITRC and U.S.EPA. Conversely, due to the lack of field and modeling studies, the source to building lateral distance received relatively low attention...
June 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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