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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528383/pretreatment-of-hardwood-and-miscanthus-with-trametes-versicolor-for-bioenergy-conversion-and-densification-strategies
#1
Ryan M Kalinoski, Hector D Flores, Sunil Thapa, Erin R Tuegel, Michael A Bilek, Evelin Y Reyes-Mendez, Michael J West, Tim J Dumonceaux, Thomas Canam
The pretreatment of plant biomass negatively impacts the economics of many bioenergy and bioproduct processes due to the thermochemical requirements for deconstruction of lignocelluluose. An effective strategy to reduce these severity requirements is to pretreat the biomass with white-rot fungi, such as Trametes versicolor, which have the innate ability to deconstruct lignocellulose with a suite of specialized enzymes. In the present study, the effects of 12 weeks of pretreatment with a wild-type strain (52J) and a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient strain (m4D) of T...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528214/nmr-structure-conformational-dynamics-and-biological-activity-of-psdef1-defensin-from-pinus-sylvestris
#2
Bulat I Khairutdinov, Elena A Ermakova, Yuri M Yusypovych, Elena K Bessolicina, Nadezhda B Tarasova, Yana Y Toporkova, Valentina Kovaleva, Yuriy F Zuev, Irina V Nesmelova
Plants have developed a complex defense response system against pests and pathogens. Defensins, produced by plants as part of their innate immune response, form the family of small, basic, cysteine-rich proteins with activity primarily directed against fungal pathogens. In addition, plant defensins can show antibacterial activity and protease and insect amylase inhibitory activities. However, in gymnosperms, only antifungal activity of defensins has been described thus far. Here, we report antibacterial and insect α-amylase inhibition activities for defensin PsDef1 from P...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528201/x-linked-carriers-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease-illness-lyonization-and-stability
#3
Beatriz E Marciano, Christa S Zerbe, E Liana Falcone, Li Ding, Suk See DeRavin, Janine Daub, Samantha Kreuzburg, Lynne Yockey, Sally Hunsberger, Ladan Foruraghi, Lisa A Barnhart, Kabir Matharu, Victoria Anderson, Dirk N Darnell, Cathleen Frein, Danielle L Fink, Karen P Lau, Debra A Long Priel, John I Gallin, Harry L Malech, Gulbu Uzel, Alexandra F Freeman, Douglas B Kuhns, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Steven M Holland
BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and aberrant inflammation. Mutations in CYBB cause X-linked CGD and account for 65%-70% of cases in western countries. OBJECTIVE: To understand the clinical manifestations associated with the X-linked CGD carrier state. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive retrospective study of 162 affected females. We examined dihydrorhodamine oxidation (DHR) data for percent (%) X chromosome inactivation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528086/cellulosic-ethanol-status-and-innovation
#4
REVIEW
Lee R Lynd, Xiaoyu Liang, Mary J Biddy, Andrew Allee, Hao Cai, Thomas Foust, Michael E Himmel, Mark S Laser, Michael Wang, Charles E Wyman
Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today's technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler)...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#5
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527917/spatial-distribution-of-vanadium-and-microbial-community-responses-in-surface-soil-of-panzhihua-mining-and-smelting-area-china
#6
Xuelong Cao, Muhe Diao, Baogang Zhang, Hui Liu, Song Wang, Meng Yang
Spatial distribution of vanadium in surface soils from different processing stages of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite in Panzhihua mining and smelting area (China) as well as responses of microbial communities including bacteria and fungi to vanadium were investigated by fieldwork and laboratory incubation experiment. The vanadium contents in this region ranged from 149.3 to 4793.6 mg kg(-1), exceeding the soil background value of vanadium in China (82 mg kg(-1)) largely. High-throughput DNA sequencing results showed bacterial communities from different manufacturing locations were quite diverse, but Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were abundant in all samples...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527634/low-penetration-of-caspofungin-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-following-intravenous-administration-of-standard-doses
#7
Volker Strenger, Fedja Farowski, Carsten Müller, Nora Hofer, Hans Jürgen Dornbusch, Daniela Sperl, Herwig Lackner, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
The kinetics of caspofungin (CAS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following intravenous (i.v.) administration has been studied exclusively in animal models. However, human data are missing so far. In this study, 13 CSF samples were obtained at different time points following i.v. infusion of CAS in ten paediatric haemato-/oncological patients (age range 1.0-14.2 years, median 8.6 years) without signs of central nervous system (CNS) infection (n = 10 samples) or with infectious meningitis (n = 3 samples). Serum samples were obtained concurrently...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527583/molecular-characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-tcsc-a-characteristic-type-iii-hybrid-histidine-kinase-of-filamentous-fungi-harboring-six-hamp-domains
#8
Anja Spadinger, Frank Ebel
The type III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK) TcsC enables the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive under hyperosmotic conditions. It is, moreover, of particular interest, since it is the target of certain antifungal agents, such as fludioxonil. This study was aimed at a functional characterization of the domains that constitute the sensing and the kinase module of TcsC. The sensing module consists of six HAMP domains, an architecture that is commonly found in type III HHKs of filamentous fungi. To dissect the functional role of the individual domains, we have analyzed a set of truncated derivatives of TcsC with respect to their impact on fungal growth and their ability to respond to hyperosmotic stress and fludioxonil...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527355/antimycotic-activity-of-fengycin-c-biosurfactant-and-its-interaction-with-phosphatidylcholine-model-membranes
#9
Lina María González-Jaramillo, Francisco José Aranda, José Antonio Teruel, Valeska Villegas-Escobar, Antonio Ortiz
Lipopeptide biosurfactants constitute one of the most promising groups of compounds for the treatment and prevention of fungal diseases in plants. Bacillus subtilis strain EA-CB0015 produces iturin A, fengycin C and surfactin and it has been proven useful for the treatment of black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, an important pathology caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet). We have found that B. subtilis EA-CB0015 cell free supernatants and purified fractions inhibit M. fijiensis cellular growth...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#10
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526872/seasonal-soil-microbial-responses-are-limited-to-changes-in-functionality-at-two-alpine-forest-sites-differing-in-altitude-and-vegetation
#11
José A Siles, Rosa Margesin
The study of soil microbial responses to environmental changes is useful to improve simulation models and mitigation strategies for climate change. We here investigated two Alpine forest sites (deciduous forest vs. coniferous forest) situated at different altitudes (altitudinal effect) in spring and autumn (seasonal effect) regarding: (i) bacterial and fungal abundances (qPCR); (ii) diversity and structure of bacterial and fungal communities (amplicon sequencing); and (iii) diversity and composition of microbial functional gene community (Geochip 5...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526268/structural-and-functional-aspects-of-the-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-condensation-domain-superfamily-discovery-dissection-and-diversity
#12
REVIEW
Kristjan Bloudoff, T Martin Schmeing
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are incredible macromolecular machines that produce a wide range of biologically- and therapeutically-relevant molecules. During synthesis, peptide elongation is performed by the condensation (C) domain, as it catalyzes amide bond formation between the nascent peptide and the amino acid it adds to the chain. Since their discovery more than two decades ago, C domains have been subject to extensive biochemical, bioinformatic, mutagenic, and structural analyses. They are composed of two lobes each with homology to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, have two binding sites for their two peptidyl carrier protein-bound ligands, and have an active site with conserved motif HHxxxDG located between the two lobes...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526091/a-pre-therapeutic-coating-for-medical-devices-that-prevents-the-attachment-of-candida-albicans
#13
Diego Vargas-Blanco, Aung Lynn, Jonah Rosch, Rony Noreldin, Anthony Salerni, Christopher Lambert, Reeta P Rao
BACKGROUND: Hospital acquired fungal infections are defined as "never events"-medical errors that should never have happened. Systemic Candida albicans infections results in 30-50% mortality rates. Typically, adhesion to abiotic medical devices and implants initiates such infections. Efficient adhesion initiates formation of aggressive biofilms that are difficult to treat. Therefore, inhibitors of adhesion are important for drug development and likely to have a broad spectrum efficacy against many fungal pathogens...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526018/infection-mediated-asthma-etiology-mechanisms-and-treatment-options-with-focus-on-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-macrolides
#14
REVIEW
Wilmore C Webley, David L Hahn
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525761/impact-of-bioactive-packaging-systems-based-on-evoh-films-and-essential-oils-in-the-control-of-aflatoxigenic-fungi-and-aflatoxin-production-in-maize
#15
Eva M Mateo, José V Gómez, Irene Domínguez, Jose V Gimeno-Adelantado, Rufino Mateo-Castro, Rafael Gavara, Misericordia Jiménez
Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common fungal species associated with aflatoxin (AF) contamination of cereals, especially maize, and other agricultural commodities. AFB1, the most frequent and toxic metabolite, is a powerful hepatotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic compound. Effective strategies to control these fungal species and AFs in food and feed are required. Active packaging film containing essential oils (EO) is one of the most innovative food packaging concepts. In this study, ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) copolymer films incorporating EO from Origanum vulgare (ORE), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CIN) or their major active constituents, carvacrol (CAR) and cinnamaldehyde (CINHO), respectively, were developed and assayed to control growth of A...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525726/characterization-of-an-ionic-liquid-tolerant-%C3%AE-xylosidase-from-a-marine-derived-fungal-endophyte
#16
Anindita Sengupta, Angela Zabala, Si Yu Tan, Arthur Broadstock, T S Suryanarayanan, Venkat Gopalan
Ionic liquids (ILs) are used in lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment due to their ability to disrupt the extensive hydrogen-bonding network in cellulose and hemicellulose, and thereby decrease LCB recalcitrance to subsequent enzymatic degradation. However, this approach necessitates development of a cellulases and hemicellulases that can tolerate ~20% (w/v) IL, an amount that either co-precipitates with the sugar polymers after the initial pretreatment or is typically used in single-pot biomass deconstructions...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525598/differential-diagnosis-for-pythiosis-using-thermophilic-helicase-dna-amplification-and-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-thda-rflp
#17
Navaporn Worasilchai, Piyasak Chaumpluk, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ariya Chindamporn
Pythiosis is caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like microbe belonging to the kingdom Stramenopila. Its diagnosis is challenging due to clinical and histopathological similarities with the fungal microbes that cause mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis. In addition, the proper identification of P. insidiosum in the clinical laboratory is difficult. We have developed a rapid and accurate, species-specific identification method using a thermophilic helicase DNA amplification (tHDA) technique, to differentiate this pathogen from closely related pathogenic fungi...
May 18, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524886/fungal-keratitis-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#18
S Farrell, E McElnea, S Moran, S Knowles, C C Murphy
PurposeFungal keratitis is relatively rare in temperate climates with only one previous population-based study, which reported a minimum annual incidence of 0.32 per million population in the United Kingdom. We performed a nationwide study in the Republic of Ireland of cases over a 6-year period to establish the incidence, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes of fungal keratitis.Patients and methodsAll corneal scraping specimens positive for fungal species over a 6-year period were identified at the microbiology departments of the seven main ophthalmology units in the Republic of Ireland...
May 19, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#19
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524381/antifungal-activity-of-gallic-acid-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Zhi-Jian Li, Meng Liu, Gulina Dawuti, Qin Dou, Yu Ma, Heng-Ge Liu, Silafu Aibai
Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol natural compound found in many medicinal plant species, including pomegranate rind (Punica granatum L.), and has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. Pomegranate rind is used to treat bacterial and fungal pathogens in Uyghur and other systems of traditional medicine, but, surprisingly, the effects of GA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo...
May 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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