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Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M I Boguś, E Włóka, A Wrońska, A Kaczmarek, M Kazek, K Zalewska, M Ligęza-Żuber, M Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species...
October 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Anza, L Epelde, U Artetxe, J M Becerril, C Garbisu
In the north of Spain, Cortaderia selloana plants have invaded ecosystems of high ecological value. Control of this species is carried out with the application of glyphosate-based formulations. The aim of this work was to determine, under microcosm conditions, the short-term (2 months) effects of the application of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup®) on C. selloana rhizosphere microbial communities. To this purpose, before and after the application of Roundup®, several parameters that provide information on the biomass, activity and diversity of rhizosphere fungal and bacterial communities (enzyme activities, basal and substrate-induced respiration, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, nitrification potential rate, ergosterol content and community-level profiles with Biolog™ plates and ARISA) were determined...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Angélica Rossana Castro de Souza, Daiana Bortoluzzi Baldoni, Jessica Lima, Vitória Porto, Camila Marcuz, Carolina Machado, Rafael Camargo Ferraz, Raquel C Kuhn, Rodrigo J S Jacques, Jerson V C Guedes, Marcio A Mazutti
Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Ricardo Ferrer, Rafael Zaragoza, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Llinares, Santiago Grau, Francisco Álvarez-Lerma, Guillermo Quindós, Miguel Salavert, Rafael Huarte
BACKGROUND: Although the management of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding the approach to invasive fungal infection in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. AIMS: To identify the essential clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus necessary for the management of IFI in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. METHODS: A prospective, Spanish questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists (intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases) in IFI and belonging to six scientific national societies...
October 18, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Sanjib K Shrestha, Liliia M Kril, Keith D Green, Stefan Kwiatkowski, Vitaliy M Sviripa, Justin R Nickell, Linda P Dwoskin, David S Watt, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial and fungal strains poses a threat to human health that requires the design and synthesis of new classes of antimicrobial agents. We evaluated bis(N-amidinohydrazones) and N-(amidino)-N'-aryl-bishydrazones for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against panels of Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. We investigated their potential to develop resistance against both bacteria and fungi by a multi-step resistance-selection method, explored their potential to induce the production of reactive oxygen species, and assessed their toxicity...
October 10, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Samantha Y L Ang, Victor W L Ng, Shree Dinesh Kumar, Sharon Y Y Low
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus spp. that enters the body via inhalation. This ubiquitous yeast has gained notoriety as an opportunistic pathogen in the immunosuppressed population. The authors report a case of a previously-well adult male presented with left-sided weakness. Imaging demonstrated a pulmonary mass and 2 contrast-enhancing intracranial lesions-all features suggestive of a primary lung carcinoma with brain metastases. However, further investigations confirmed disseminated cryptococcosis, without evidence of malignancy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ramu Guda, Sirassu Narsimha, Ramavath Babu, Srujana Muthadi, Harikiran Lingabathula, Rambabu Palabindela, Narsimha Reddy Yellu, Girijesh Kumar, Mamatha Kasula
A series of novel substituted hydrazono indolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione analogues have been synthesized and screened for their in vitro cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Among all the target compounds, 3c exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against three cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549, HeLa with IC50 values 07.14±1.285μM, 09.18±0.968μM and 10.57±0.581μM respectively, while maintaining low toxicity towards non-cancer originated cell line, HEK-293. The detailed studies about molecular interactions with probable target protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) were done by using docking simulations...
October 5, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
C Garcia-Benitez, P Melgarejo, A De Cal
Brown rot caused by the fungi Monilinia laxa (Aderhold and Ruhland) Honey, M. fructicola (Winter) Honey, or M. fructigena (Aderhold and Ruhland) is a serious fungal disease of peaches. The fungal infection process begins when fungal conidia germinate on the fruit surface to produce germ tubes and/or appressoria, and the incidence of brown rot increases as fruit approaches maturity. The interaction between the fungal infection process, peach maturity, and the environmental conditions is not well understood. Accordingly, the objectives of this investigation were to investigate germ tube and appressorial formation by M...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yendouban Lamboni, Kristian F Nielsen, Anita R Linnemann, Yüksel Gezgin, Kerstin Hell, Martinus J R Nout, Eddy J Smid, Manuele Tamo, Martinus A J S van Boekel, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Jens Christian Frisvad
In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)...
2016: PloS One
Lasse van Wijlick, René Geissen, Jessica S Hilbig, Quentin Lagadec, Pilar D Cantero, Eugen Pfeifer, Mateusz Juchimiuk, Sven Kluge, Stephan Wickert, Paula Alepuz, Joachim F Ernst
In eukaryotes, Dom34 upregulates translation by securing levels of activatable ribosomal subunits. We found that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Dom34 interacts genetically with Pmt1, a major isoform of protein O-mannosyltransferase. In C. albicans, lack of Dom34 exacerbated defective phenotypes of pmt1 mutants, while they were ameliorated by Dom34 overproduction that enhanced Pmt1 protein but not PMT1 transcript levels. Translational effects of Dom34 required the 5'-UTR of the PMT1 transcript, which bound recombinant Dom34 directly at a CA/AC-rich sequence and regulated in vitro translation...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Dnyaneshwar D Athavale, Robin Jones, Brett A O'Donnell, Martin Forer, Nigel Biggs
PURPOSE: To describe the non-exenteration management of sino-orbital fungal infection, a life-threatening condition for which orbital exenteration is generally considered a first-line treatment. METHODS: A retrospective case series is presented of 7 orbits in 6 consecutive patients admitted and treated at 2 major metropolitan tertiary teaching hospitals in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. RESULTS: Seven orbits in 6 consecutive patients with sino-orbital fungal infection were treated conservatively with surgical debridement and intravenous antifungal agents...
October 20, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Kristin Bösch, Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Miroslav Vraneš, Jörg Kämper, Kerstin Schipper, Vera Göhre
Gene deletion plays an important role in the analysis of gene function. One of the most efficient methods to disrupt genes in a targeted manner is the replacement of the entire gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. During homologous recombination, exchange of DNA takes place between sequences with high similarity. Therefore, linear genomic sequences flanking a target gene can be used to specifically direct a selectable marker to the desired integration site. Blunt ends of the deletion construct activate the cell's DNA repair systems and thereby promote integration of the construct either via homologous recombination or by non-homologous-end-joining...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ludovic Enkler, Delphine Richer, Anthony L Marchand, Dominique Ferrandon, Fabrice Jossinet
Among Candida species, the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata has become the second most common causative agent of candidiasis in the world and a major public health concern. Yet, few molecular tools and resources are available to explore the biology of C. glabrata and to better understand its virulence during infection. In this study, we describe a robust experimental strategy to generate loss-of-function mutants in C. glabrata. The procedure is based on the development of three main tools: (i) a recombinant strain of C...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nadia G Kandile, Mansoura I Mohamed, Hind M Ismaeel
New compounds based on oxindole moiety were synthesized via the reaction of 5-substitued isatins 1a-e with different nucleophiles such as benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine 2a,b and 2,6-diaminopyridine 3 to afford three different classes of bis-Schiff bases 4a-e, 5a-e and 6a-e, respectively. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of their FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, GC/MS spectral data and elemental analysis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was evaluated using a broth dilution technique in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against four bacterial and two fungal pathogens and anticancer activities against HELA cervix...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Shakeela Yasmeen, Sajjad Hussain Sumrra, Muhammad Safwan Akram, Zahid H Chohan
A novel series of thiophene derived Schiff bases and their transition metal- [Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II)] based compounds are reported. The Schiff bases act as tridentate ligands toward metal ions via azomethine-N, deprotonated-N of ammine substituents and S-atom of thienyl moiety. The synthesized ligands along with their metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal pathogens (Trichophytonlongifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ioannis Kyriakidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
Macromolecular immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity represent a recent and important addition to our therapeutic armamentarium. Tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and clinical utilization of its antagonists has revolutionized treatment of juvenile rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis. Clinical utility has also been demonstrated for use against steroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease and other immune-mediated conditions...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
Maria Pia Bondioni, Vassilios Lougaris, Giuseppe Di Gaetano, Tiziana Lorenzini, Annarosa Soresina, Francesco Laffranchi, Diego Gatta, Alessandro Plebani
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of early detection of pulmonary fungal infections by lung CT scan in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). METHODS: A retrospective study on 14 patients affected with CGD for a total of 18 infectious episodes was performed. Revision of clinical data and CT scan analysis before and after treatment was performed. RESULTS: The presence of lung nodules <30 mm was evaluated in 18 infectious episodes in 14 patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Nidhi Singh, Priyanka Shah, Hemlata Dwivedi, Shikha Mishra, Renu Tripathi, Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) catalyzes the transfer of myristate to the amino-terminal glycine of a subset of proteins, a co-translational modification involved in trafficking substrate proteins to membrane locations, stabilization and protein-protein interactions. It is a studied and validated pre-clinical drug target for fungal and parasitic infections. In the present study, a machine learning approach, docking studies and CoMFA analysis have been integrated with the objective of translation of knowledge into a pipelined workflow towards the identification of putative hits through the screening of large compound libraries...
October 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
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