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Kehong Zhang, Keiichiro Koiwai, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
Penaeidins are a unique family of antimicrobial peptides specific to penaeid shrimp and have been reported mainly function as anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. In order to investigate whether penaeidins could also respond to virus or not, we examined the effect of WSSV on MjPen-II (penaeidin in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus) expression. In the control group, MjPen-II transcript level can be detected in almost all test tissues but was expressed most strongly in hemocytes. After WSSV infection, MjPen-II transcript level was significantly downregulated in hemocytes...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ahmed Elkhalifa Chemsa, Amar Zellagui, Mehmet Öztürk, Ebru Erol, Ozgür Ceylan, Mehmet Emin Duru, Mesbah Lahouel
Anthemis species are traditionally used to treat infectious and inflammatory processes, among others clinical disturbances. In the current study, the chemical composition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the antioxidant, anticholinesterase, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm activities of Anthemis stiparum subsp. sabulicola aerial parts methanolic extract (As-ME) and essential oil (As-EO) were investigated. The chemical composition of As-EO was established by GC-MS and GC-FID. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of As-ME were spectrophotometrically determined...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sebastian Schlafer, Anja Kamp, Javier E Garcia
pH in fungal biofilms is important for a variety of fungal infections and industrial applications involving fungal biofilms, but to date, it has never been measured directly inside the biofilm matrix. In the present study, a new methodology was developed allowing for confocal microscopy based monitoring of extracellular pH inside fungal biofilms. Monospecies biofilms of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Cryptococcus neoformans were stained with the pH dependent ratiometric probe C-SNARF-4, imaged with a confocal microscope, and a digital image analysis procedure was developed to determine pH in the extracellular matrix...
April 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Kieren A Marr, Kausik Datta, Seema Mehta, Darin B Ostrander, Michelle Rock, Jesse Francis, Marta Feldmesser
Background: Establishing rapid diagnoses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is priority, given poor outcomes of late therapy. Non-culture based tests that detect galactomannan and β-D glucan are available, but are technically cumbersome and rely on invasive sampling (blood or bronchoalveolar lavage). Methods: We optimized a lateral flow dipstick assay using the galactofuranose -specific monoclonal antibody (mAb476), which was previously shown to recognize urine antigens after Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in an`imals...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
José L Ramirez, Christopher A Dunlap, Ephantus J Muturi, Ana B F Barletta, Alejandro P Rooney
Alternative methods of mosquito control are needed to tackle the rising burden of mosquito-borne diseases while minimizing the use of synthetic insecticides, which are threatened by the rapid increase in insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Fungal biopesticides show great promise as potential alternatives because of their ecofriendly nature and ability to infect mosquitoes on contact. Here we describe the temporospatial interactions between the mosquito Aedes aegypti and several entomopathogenic fungi...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Simon Uhse, Florian G Pflug, Alexandra Stirnberg, Klaus Ehrlinger, Arndt von Haeseler, Armin Djamei
Large-scale insertional mutagenesis screens can be powerful genome-wide tools if they are streamlined with efficient downstream analysis, which is a serious bottleneck in complex biological systems. A major impediment to the success of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based screens for virulence factors is that the genetic material of pathogens is often underrepresented within the eukaryotic host, making detection extremely challenging. We therefore established insertion Pool-Sequencing (iPool-Seq) on maize infected with the biotrophic fungus U...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
Narayana Rao Gundoju, Ramesh Bokam, Nageswara Rao Yalavarthi, Sudheer Kumar Buddana, R S Prakasham, Mangala Gowri Ponnapalli
The total syntheses of four polyketides, surinone B (1), alatanones A-B (2-3), and trineurone A (4) were accomplished through an efficient and unified strategy via one-pot C-acylation reaction coupling 1,3-cyclohexadiones with EDC-activated acids under mild conditions. Alatanone A (2) was found to be a potent anti-microbial agent against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MIC 31.25 μg/ml while alatanone B (3) was found to be a potent anti-fungal agent against Cladosporium cladosporioides with MIC 62...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Lucero Romero-Aguilar, Mónica Montero-Lomeli, Juan Pablo Pardo, Guadalupe Guerra-Sánchez
The article shows how to implement the LD index assay, which is a sensitive microplate assay to determine the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets (LDs). LD index is obtained without lipid extraction. It allows measuring the LDs content in high-throughput experiments under different conditions such as growth in rich or nitrogen depleted media. Albeit the method was described for the first time to study the lipid droplet metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it was successfully applied to the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Arul Prakash Francis, Sneha Gurudevan, A Jayakrishnan
Polymannose (PM) having a weight-average molar mass (Mw ) of 30-53 kDa was synthesized by the polycondensation of mannose using phosphorous acid as the catalyst and characterized by various techniques such as NMR, IR, GPC and polarimetry. 2D NMR results confirmed the presence of (1→ 6)-linked α-D-mannose residues as backbone with O-3 and O-2 substituted linear or branched chains in PM. Amphotericin B (AmB) was conjugated to periodate-oxidized PM through Schiff's linkages at 20 wt% concentration. The AmB-PM conjugates were highly soluble in phosphate buffered saline (180-250 mg/mL), exhibited negligible hemolytic potential to human erythrocytes even at a concentration of 200 μg /mL (equivalent to ~ 40 μg/mL AmB) and were non-toxic to human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells even at a concentration of 250 μg/mL (equivalent to ~ 50 μg/mL AmB)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Aditya K Gupta, Kelly A Foley
Onychomycosis is a difficult to treat fungal infection of the nails. The chronic nature of onychomycosis contributes to high recurrence rates and the difficulty in treating both dermatophyte and non- dermatophyte infections. It has been hypothesized that the formation of biofilms, sessile, multicellular communities of fungi surrounded by a protective extracellular matrix, allow for fungi to evade current antifungal therapies and contribute to observed antifungal resistance. This review presents the experimental evidence that has accumulated in recent years implicating biofilms in the pathogenesis of onychomycosis...
April 19, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Chiara Pantarelli, Heidi C E Welch
Rac-GTPases and their Rac-GEF activators play important roles in the recruitment and host defense functions of neutrophils. These proteins control the activation of adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal dynamics that enable the adhesion, migration and tissue recruitment of neutrophils. They also regulate the effector functions that allow neutrophils to kill bacterial and fungal pathogens, and to clear debris. This review focusses on the roles of Rac-GTPases and Rac-GEFs in neutrophil adhesion, migration and recruitment...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Robert C Edgar
Prediction of taxonomy for marker gene sequences such as 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a fundamental task in microbiology. Most experimentally observed sequences are diverged from reference sequences of authoritatively named organisms, creating a challenge for prediction methods. I assessed the accuracy of several algorithms using cross-validation by identity, a new benchmark strategy which explicitly models the variation in distances between query sequences and the closest entry in a reference database. When the accuracy of genus predictions was averaged over a representative range of identities with the reference database (100%, 99%, 97%, 95% and 90%), all tested methods had ≤50% accuracy on the currently-popular V4 region of 16S rRNA...
2018: PeerJ
Masao Higo, Ryohei Sato, Ayu Serizawa, Yuichi Takahashi, Kento Gunji, Yuya Tatewaki, Katsunori Isobe
Background: Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation...
2018: PeerJ
Pradeep Sharma, Kamlesh S Bhaisora, Satyadeo Pandey, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Krushna C Pani, Jayesh Sardhara, Kuntal K Das, Anant Mehrotra, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
Central nervous system aspergillosis is rare with reported mortality rate of 13-50% involving foci in paranasal sinuses and even higher mortality rates (80-100%) in patients of immune-compromised status. Modern day imaging offers an opportunity for early diagnosis, but findings are minimal. A typical finding is that of a space occupying mass lesion with iso-hypointense signal on T1-weighted sequences and extreme hypointense appearance on T2-weighted. This results from the concentration of ferromagnetic substances (iron/zinc/magnesium/manganese) within the lesion...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
S K Kimaru, E Monda, R C Cheruiyot, J Mbaka, A Alakonya
Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, "pepper spots," and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s) of the disease...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Veronika Řezáčová, Lenka Zemková, Olena Beskid, David Püschel, Tereza Konvalinková, Martina Hujslová, Renata Slavíková, Jan Jansa
Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) interconnect plants of the same and/or different species, redistributing nutrients and draining carbon (C) from the different plant partners at different rates. Here, we conducted a plant co-existence (intercropping) experiment testing the role of AMF in resource sharing and exploitation by simplified plant communities composed of two congeneric grass species ( Panicum spp.) with different photosynthetic metabolism types (C3 or C4 )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zeljka Rupcic, Clara Chepkirui, Margarita Hernández-Restrepo, Pedro W Crous, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Marc Stadler
During the course of a study on the functional biodiversity of the mycobiota inhabiting rainforests in Thailand, a fungal strain was isolated from a plant sample and shown to represent an undescribed species, as inferred from a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on four DNA loci, revealed a phylogenetic tree with the newly generated sequences clustering in a separate branch, together with members of the Sulcatisporaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota)...
2018: MycoKeys
Martin Ryberg, R Henrik Nilsson
A growing proportion of fungal species and lineages are known only from sequence data and cannot be linked to any physical specimen or resolved taxonomic name. Such fungi are often referred to as "dark taxa" or "dark matter fungi". As they lack a taxonomic identity in the form of a name, they are regularly ignored in many important contexts, for example in legalisation and species counts. It is therefore very urgent to find a system to also deal with these fungi. Here, issues relating to the taxonomy and nomenclature of dark taxa are discussed and a number of questions that the mycological community needs to consider before deciding on what system/s to implement are highlighted...
2018: MycoKeys
G Hoarau, M Albrieux, T Martin-Phipps, K Zitte-Zehler, L Borry, J Peytral, D Garcia-Hermoso, S Picot
OBJECTIVES: Fungal keratitis is rare in France, but could be a severe sight-threatening condition. Here, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of fungal keratitis in Réunion Island. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we analyzed 13 culture-proven keratitis episodes, occurred between January 2013 and July 2017 in the ophthalmology ward of a University Hospital, Saint-Pierre. Twelve isolates were genotyped and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed. RESULTS: Corneal abrasion caused by vegetable matter was the main predisposing factor...
April 19, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Giuseppe Ianiri, Joseph Heitman, Annika Scheynius
Malassezia are abundant, lipid-dependent, commensal yeasts in the skin microbiome that also have a pathogenic lifestyle associated with several common skin disorders. Malassezia genomes encode myriad lipases and proteases thought to mediate lipid utilization and pathogenesis. Li et al. report the biochemical characterization of a unique secreted aspartyl protease produced by Malassezia globosa, MgSAP1, and demonstrate its active role in hindering biofilm formation of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Because biofilms are an established virulence attribute of S...
May 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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