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Man Shun Fu, Carolina Coelho, Carlos M De Leon-Rodriguez, Diego C P Rossi, Emma Camacho, Eric H Jung, Madhura Kulkarni, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and its interaction with macrophages is a key event determining the outcome of infection. Urease is a major virulence factor in C. neoformans but its role during macrophage interaction has not been characterized. Consequently, we analyzed the effect of urease on fungal-macrophage interaction using wild-type, urease-deficient and urease-complemented strains of C. neoformans. The frequency of non-lytic exocytosis events was reduced in the absence of urease...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
M Guadalupe Rojas, Robert B Elliott, Juan A Morales-Ramos
Mortality caused by indirect exposure to Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana (GHA and NI8) to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), workers was evaluated. Groups of 50 workers were placed in one side of dual-box arenas. The opposite side of the arenas was lined with filter paper squares previously sprayed with unformulated purified spores (106 spores/ml) suspended in 0.2% Ethal TDA 3, HLB 8 of the three fungal strains, or untreated filter paper squares as the control...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Stephanie M Jagemann, Jennifer Juzwik, Patrick C Tobin, Kenneth F Raffa
Oak wilt is a lethal disease caused by the invasive fungus Bretziella fagacearum, which is transmitted belowground via root grafts and aboveground by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). Attempts to limit spread and impact of B. fagacearum emphasize limiting harvesting and pruning to periods of vector inactivity. However, there is limited information on sap beetle activity periods, responses to temperature, and phoresy frequencies of fungi. We sampled two major vectors in Wisconsin, Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi, for 2 yr to quantify their seasonal and geographic abundances...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Xue Guo, Xishu Zhou, Lauren Hale, Mengting Yuan, Jiajie Feng, Daliang Ning, Zhou Shi, Yujia Qin, Feifei Liu, Liyou Wu, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Xueduan Liu, Yiqi Luo, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou
Clipping, removal of aboveground plant biomass, is an important issue in grassland ecology. However, few studies have focused on the effect of clipping on belowground microbial communities. Using integrated metagenomic technologies, we examined the taxonomic and functional responses of soil microbial communities to annual clipping (2010-2014) in a grassland ecosystem of the Great Plains of North America. Our results indicated that clipping significantly ( P < 0.05) increased root and microbial respiration rates...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jill Yeager, Barbara Krenzer
A 61-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis on chronic immunosuppression presented with fever. Laboratory studies demonstrated multiorgan failure with pancytopenia, elevation in liver function studies, and an elevated ferritin level, with a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis confirmed on bone marrow biopsy. After initial treatment with chemotherapy, fungal blood cultures grew Histoplasma , prompting initiation of antifungal therapy, which resulted in successful treatment of Histoplasma -associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Randa Zeidan, Zahoor Ul-Hassan, Roda Al-Thani, Virgilio Balmas, Samir Jaoua
Mycotoxins are important contaminants of food and feed. In this study, low fermenting yeast ( Lachancea thermotolerans ) and its derivatives were applied against toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins. A. parasiticus , P. verrucosum and F. graminearum and their mycotoxins were exposed to yeast volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and cells, respectively. VOCs reduced significantly the fungal growth (up to 48%) and the sporulation and mycotoxin synthesis (up to 96%). Very interestingly, it was shown that even 7 yeast colonies reduced Fusarium&rsquo;s growth and the synthesis of its mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON)...
June 14, 2018: Toxins
Alberto Gianinetti, Franca Finocchiaro, Fabio Maisenti, Dailly Kouongni Satsap, Caterina Morcia, Roberta Ghizzoni, Valeria Terzi
Seed persistence in the soil is threatened by microorganisms, but the seed coat helps protect the seed from them. Although modern rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars have a whitish caryopsis, some varieties have a red caryopsis coat, a trait typical of wild Oryza species. The red colour is due to the oxidation of proanthocyanidins, a class of flavonoids that is found in the outer layers of the seed in many species. We aimed to assess whether these natural compounds (proanthocyanidins and proanthocyanidin-derived pigment) have some protective effect against microbial attacks...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Oscar M Gomez, Laura C Alvarez, Jose F Muñoz, Elizabeth Misas, Juan E Gallo, Maria Del P Jimenez, Myrtha Arango, Juan G McEwen, Orville Hernandez, Oliver K Clay
Sporothrix schenckii is a thermodimorphic fungal pathogen with a high genetic diversity. In this work, we present the assembly and similarity analysis of the whole-genome sequences of two clinical isolates from Colombia of S. schenckii sensu stricto .
June 14, 2018: Genome Announcements
R Atia, L Jouve, J Knoeri, C Georgeon, L Laroche, V Borderie, N Bouheraoua
Infectious keratitis are a frequent cause of ocular morbidity. Today, new treatments are necessary to combat the emergence of antibiotic resistant germs. Corneal collagen cross-linking has been suggested to treat corneal infectious (PACK-CXL). Its action would be both antimicrobial and protective for the cornea, increasing its biochemical resistence to proteolytic enzymes. In vivo, PACK-CXL might demonstrate good efficacy against bacterial keratitis, contrary to herpetic keratitis for which it is contraindicated...
June 11, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Arnulf H Koeppen
This chapter summarizes the neuropathologic features of nonneoplastic disorders of the adult cerebellum. Gait ataxia and extremity dysmetria are clinical manifestations of diseases that interrupt the complex cerebellar circuitry between the neurons of the cerebellar cortex, the cerebellar nuclei (especially the dentate nuclei), and the inferior olivary nuclei. The cerebellum is a prominent target of several sporadic and hereditary neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple system atrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia, and Friedreich ataxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
So-Hyun Nam, Kyoung-Ah Kwon
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic malformations are histologically benign vascular structures that vary in anatomic lesion and size. Extensive head and neck lymphatic malformations may be life-threatening. In the present study, we described three difficult-to-treat infants with giant cervico-mediastinal lymphatic malformations accompanied by severe respiratory distress. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Case 1. A Korean girl born at a gestational age of 37 weeks and weighing 2920 g had a large cervical mass compressing the trachea...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Chong Su, Hong Yang, Hui Sun, John Paul Fawcett, Dong Sun, Jingkai Gu
Amphotericin B (AMB) is a polyene macrolide antibiotic used for treating invasive fungal infections. Liposomal AMB (L-AMB) is a lipid dosage form which reduces the side effects and toxicity of the drug. The quantitation of free AMB (F-AMB) and L-AMB in vivo is important to monitor quality control of the liposomal formulation and to ensure its safety during clinical use. In this study, an original strategy was developed to separately determine F-AMB and L-AMB in rat plasma using LC-MS/MS. F-AMB was analyzed after separation by solid phase extraction, total AMB (T-AMB) was determined after protein precipitation and L-AMB was determined by difference...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Kunal Kumar, Akash Sabarwal, Rana P Singh
Mancozeb (Manganese ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate with zinc salt) is a dithiocarbamate fungicide used to control fungal disease in many fruit plants, flowers and the maintenance of field crops. The effect of mancozeb on cell viability of human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS, SNU-1 cells and human normal FHs 74 Int cells were investigated. This study demonstrated that mancozeb was able to inhibit cell proliferation by 56-82% at 5-10 μM concentrations after 48 h. Mancozeb treatment for 48 h resulted in 33% (P < 0...
June 11, 2018: Mitochondrion
Marjo Helander, Irma Saloniemi, Marina Omacini, Magdalena Druille, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Kari Saikkonen
Our aim was to study the effects of glyphosate, tilling practice and cultivation history on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of target (weeds) and non-target (crops) plants. Glyphosate, the world's most widely used pesticide, inhibits an enzyme found in plants but also in microbes. We examined the effects of glyphosate treatment applied in the preceding fall on growth of a perennial weed, Elymus repens (target plant) and a forage grass, Festuca pratensis (non-target plant) and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) root colonization in a field pot experiment...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ye Xia, Amna Amna, Stephen Obol Opiyo
Plants have a diverse endophytic microbiome that is functionally important for their growth, development, and health. In this study, the diversity and specificity of culturable endophytic fungal communities were explored in one of the most important biofuel crops, switchgrass plants (Panicum virgatum L.), which have been cultivated on a reclaimed coal-mining site for more than 20 years. The endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface-sterilized shoot (leaf and stem), root, and seed tissues of switchgrass plants and then cultured for identification...
2018: PloS One
Marcio L Rodrigues, Priscila C Albuquerque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Julia Carolina Athanázio-Heliodoro, Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado, Célio Júnior da Costa Fernandes, Mirella Rossitto Zanutto, Débora Zanoni do Prado, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Roselaine Facanali, Willian Fernando Zambuzzi, Márcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Luciana Francisco Fleuri
Lipases are an economic important group of biocatalysts that can be produced by some fungal under solid-state fermentation. Orange wastes are source of lipases and potential substrates for lipases production. This work assessed 19 fugal strains cultivated in Citrus sinensis cv. Hamlin orange wastes (peel, frit and core) for production of lipases in order to generate compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Fifteen of those fungi grew and produced lipases, mainly the Aspergillus brasiliensis [National Institute of Quality Control (INCQS) 40036]/frit system, which showed 99...
June 14, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Romina Buchs, Bruno Lehner, Phillippe Meuwly, Bruno Schnyder
<i>C. albicans</i> frequently causes recurrent intimal infectious disease (ID). This demands the treatment of multiple phases of the infection. The objective of this study was to uncover the host-pathogen-interaction using 2D epithelium cell-barrier and 3D subepithelium tissue cells of human mucosa. The 2D cell cultures assessed <i>C. albicans</i> adhesion. Addition of the anti-fungal drug Fluconazol did not inhibit the adhesion, despite its pathogen growth inhibition (MIC value 0.08μg/mL)...
June 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Yun Chen, Shiyu Zheng, Zhenzhen Ju, Chengqi Zhang, Guangfei Tang, Jing Wang, Ziyue Wen, Wei Chen, Zhonghua Ma
Peroxisomal proliferation is highly stimulated during the biosynthesis of mycotoxins and plant infection by Fusarium graminearum. Currently, the functions of the peroxisome in these cellular processes are poorly understood. In this study, we applied genetic, cell biological and biochemical analyses to investigate the functions of the peroxisomes. We constructed targeted deletion of docking machinery components, including FgPex13, FgPex14 and the filamentous fungal specific peroxin FgPex33. Our results indicated that peroxisome dysfunction resulted in a shortage of acetyl-CoA, the precursor of trichothecene biosynthesis, and subsequently decreased deoxynivalenol (DON) production...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Vladimir Mouraviev, Michael McDonald
INTRODUCTION: The changing face of current infection phenotypes from planktonic to biofilm type has been developed implicating bacterial biofilms in recurrent infection. To date, no specific medical treatment exists to specifically target biofilms in the human host. Similarly, the identification of a biofilm has relied upon the analysis of tissue samples with electron microscopy or DNA identification with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Standard culture and sensitivity test is not able to detect a presence of biofilms...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
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