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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655193/the-importance-of-fermentative-conditions-for-the-biotechnological-production-of-lignin-modifying-enzymes-from-white-rot-fungi
#1
Francesca Martani, Fabrizio Beltrametti, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi, Marina Lotti
White-rot fungi are the main natural producers of lignin modifying enzymes, i.e. laccases and peroxidases, whose secretion and activity allows the depolymerization of lignin and the release of polysaccharides contained in lignocellulose. These enzymes are able to oxidize, in addition to lignin, a wide spectrum of natural and synthetic substrates, making their industrial and biotechnological application appealing. However, the complex regulation of the synthesis of lignin modifying enzymes, as well as the heterogeneous physiology of fungi in response to nutrients, make the use of white-rot fungi as production platforms challenging...
June 26, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655098/-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-with-posaconazole-plays-a-pivotal-role-during-chemotherapy-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#2
B F Gong, Y T Liu, G J Zhang, S N Wei, Y Li, K Q Liu, X Y Gong, X L Zhao, S W Qiu, R X Gu, D Lin, H Wei, C L Zhou, B C Liu, Y Wang, Y C Mi, J X Wang
Objective: To evaluate the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFI) and usage of intravenous antifungal drugs during remission induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) under primary antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole. Methods: Clinical records from newly diagnosed AML patients above 15 years old in one single center from February 2014 to January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. The incidence of IFI and usage of intravenous antifungal drugs were investigated between control group (not receiving any broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis) and treatment group (receiving posaconazole as primary prophylaxis)...
June 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654652/alleviation-of-the-effects-of-saline-alkaline-stress-on-maize-seedlings-by-regulation-of-active-oxygen-metabolism-by-trichoderma-asperellum
#3
Jian Fu, Zhihua Liu, Zuotong Li, Yufeng Wang, Kejun Yang
This study investigated the influence of Trichoderma asperellum on active oxygen production in maize seedlings under saline-alkaline stress conditions. Two maize cultivars were tested: 'Jiangyu 417' ('JY417'), which can tolerate saline-alkaline stress; and, 'Xianyu 335' ('XY335'), which is sensitive to saline-alkaline stress. The seedlings were grown on natural saline-alkaline soil (pH 9.30) in plastic pots. To each liter of saline-alkaline soil, 200 mL of T. asperellum spore suspension was applied; three fungal suspensions were used, namely, 1 × 103, 1 × 106, and 1 × 109 spores/L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654182/the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-modld1-is-essential-for-growth-and-infection-related-development-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#4
Tengsheng Zhou, Li Qin, Xiaohan Zhu, Wenyun Shen, Jitao Zou, Zonghua Wang, Yangdou Wei
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is initiated by the attachment of conidia to plant surfaces. Germ tubes emerging from conidia develop melanized appressoria to physically penetrate the host surface. Previous studies revealed that appressorium development requires the breakdown of storage lipids and glycogen that occur in peroxisomes and the cytosol respectively, culminating in production of pyruvate. However, the downstream product(s) entering the mitochondria for further oxidation is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654130/concurrent-double-fungal-infections-of-the-skin-caused-by-phialemoniopsis-endophytica-and-exophiala-jeanselmei-in-a-patient-with-microscopic-polyangiitis
#5
Ayako Ito, Nanako Yamada, Ryoko Kimura, Natsumi Tanaka, Jun Kurai, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuki, Osamu Yamamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654073/rapid-deletion-production-in-fungi-via-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-of-oscar-deletion-constructs
#6
Scott E Gold, Zahi Paz, María D García-Pedrajas, Anthony E Glenn
Precise deletion of gene(s) of interest, while leaving the rest of the genome unchanged, provides the ideal product to determine that particular gene's function in the living organism. In this protocol the OSCAR method of precise and rapid deletion plasmid construction is described. OSCAR relies on the cloning system in which a single recombinase reaction is carried out containing the purified PCR-amplified 5' and 3' flanks of the gene of interest and two plasmids, pA-Hyg OSCAR (the marker vector) and pOSCAR (the assembly vector)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653769/examining-the-importance-of-laboratory-and-diagnostic-testing-when-treating-and-diagnosing-onychomycosis
#7
REVIEW
Mahmoud Ghannoum, Pranab Mukherjee, Nancy Isham, Bryan Markinson, James Del Rosso, Luis Leal
Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection caused primarily by dermatophytes. Several other nail disorders, including psoriasis, can simulate onychomycosis. Accurate diagnosis is therefore vital for the ongoing treatment and management of onychomycosis and to avoid misdiagnosis and treatment delay, which can be both lengthy and costly. Often, a combination of histologic and laboratory techniques is used to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The potential diagnostic challenges associated with the differential diagnosis of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes and the most common techniques used to confirm the diagnosis are discussed...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653740/isolation-diversity-and-biotechnological-potential-of-rhizo-and-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-mangrove-plants-from-saudi-arabia
#8
F Bibi, I Ullah, S A Alvi, S A Bakhsh, M Yasir, A A K Al-Ghamdi, E I Azhar
Marine bacteria have been exceptional sources of halotolerant enzymes since decades. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria producing hydrolytic enzymes from seven different mangroves collected from the coastal area of Thuwal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to further screen them for other enzymatic and antifungal activities. We have isolated 46 different rhizo- and endophytic bacteria from the soil, roots, and leaves of the mangroves using different enzymatic media. These bacterial strains were capable of producing industrially important enzymes (cellulase, protease, lipase, and amylase)...
June 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653680/fungal-pathogenesis-combatting-the-oxidative-burst
#9
Antonio Di Pietro, Nicholas J Talbot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653577/the-emerging-british-verticillium-longisporum-population-consists-of-aggressive-brassica-pathogens
#10
Jasper Depotter, Luis Rodriguez-Moreno, Bart Phj Thomma, Tom Wood
V. longisporum is an economically important fungal pathogen of brassicaceous crops that originated from at least three hybridization events between different Verticillium spp., leading to the hybrid lineages A1/D1, A1/D2 and A1/D3. Isolates of lineage A1/D1 generally cause stem striping on oilseed rape (Brassica napus), which has recently been reported for the first time to occur in the UK. Intriguingly, the emerging UK population is distinct from the north-central Europe stem striping population. Little is known about the pathogenicity of the newly emerged UK population, hence pathogenicity tests were executed to compare British isolates to previously characterized reference strains...
June 27, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652961/successful-long-term-terbinafine-therapy-in-an-asthmatic-patient-with-aspergillus-sensitization-and-bronchiectasis
#11
Isabel Rodriguez-Goncer, Rob Niven, David W Denning
Severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) is estimated to affect ~25% of patients with poorly controlled asthma. Tri-azole therapy is effective in only 60-80% and side effects are common. We report a 25 years-old woman with severe asthma, Aspergillus sensitization and marked bronchiectasis that developed a rare Achilles-tendinopathy with both itraconazole and voriconazole. She started a trial with terbinafine as salvage therapy that led to a striking improvement and long-term control of her respiratory disease...
June 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652944/extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-an-incidental-finding
#12
Ashley Althoff, Michael Bibliowicz
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This neoplasm is more prevalent in regions of Asia and Latin America and most commonly involves the sinonasal tract, presenting with signs of nasal obstruction, epistaxis, or sinus infection. It is a locally destructive and angioinvasive neoplasm. The treatment of ENKTCL is dependent on the extent of the tumor. For localized disease, the treatment is chemoradiation. For disseminated disease, treatment is mainly chemotherapy-based...
May 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652824/fungal-endophthalmitis-in-an-elderly-woman-differing-responses-in-each-eye
#13
Rei Sakata, Jiro Numaga
Candida endophthalmitis is caused by hematogenous metastasis of the yeast. To ensure early diagnosis, serodiagnosis, or surveillance culturing is usually performed. If fungemia is apparent upon successive serological testing (in at least two tests: blood culture and/or measurement of β-d-glucan level), ophthalmic consultation is necessary, even if no ophthalmic complaint is evident. This is because early detection with prompt prescription of systemic antifungal agents inhibits progression of the distinctive cholioretinitis...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652659/single-operator-cholangioscopy-for-biliary-complications-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#14
Anna Hüsing-Kabar, Hauke Sebastian Heinzow, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen Schmidt, Carina Stenger, Hans Ulrich Gerth, Michele Pohlen, Gerold Thölking, Christian Wilms, Iyad Kabar
AIM: To evaluate cholangioscopy in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for management of biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: Twenty-six LT recipients with duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction who underwent ERCP for suspected biliary complications between April and December 2016 at the university hospital of Muenster were consecutively enrolled in this observational study. After evaluating bile ducts using fluoroscopy, cholangioscopy using a modern digital single-operator cholangioscopy system (SpyGlass DS™) was performed during the same procedure with patients under conscious sedation...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652405/mechanism-of-pathogen-recognition-by-human-dectin-2
#15
Hadar Feinberg, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Maximus J Rex, Kurt Drickamer, William I Weis, Maureen E Taylor
Dectin-2, a C-type lectin on macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system, functions in responses to pathogens, particularly fungi. The carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) in dectin-2 is linked to a transmembrane sequence that interacts with the common FcRγ subunit to initiate immune signaling. The molecular mechanism by which dectin-2 selectively binds to pathogens has been investigated by characterizing the CRD expressed in a bacterial system. Competition binding studies indicated that the CRD binds to monosaccharides with modest affinity and that affinity is greatly enhanced for mannose linked α1-2 or α1-4 to a second mannose residue...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652241/prophylactic-treatment-with-vt-1161-protects-immunosuppressed-mice-from-rhizopus-arrhizus-var-arrhizus-infection
#16
Teclegiorgis Gebremariam, Sondus Alkhazraji, Lin Lin, Nathan P Wiederhold, Edward P Garvey, William J Hoekstra, Robert J Schotzinger, Thomas F Patterson, Scott G Filler, Ashraf S Ibrahim
We compared prophylactic or continuous therapy of the investigational drug VT-1161 to posaconazole in treating murine mucormycosis due to Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus In the prophylaxis studies, only VT-1161 resulted in improved survival and lowered tissue fungal burden of immunosuppressed infected mice. In the continuous therapy, VT-1161 outperformed posaconazole in prolonging mice survival time despite their comparable effect in lowering tissue fungal burden. These results support the further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652239/targeting-homoserine-dehydrogenase-from-paracoccidioides-genus-against-systemic-fungal-infections
#17
Mariane C Bagatin, Arethusa L Pimentel, Débora C Biavatti, Ernani A Basso, Erika S Kioshima, Flavio A V Seixas, Gisele de F Gauze
This work evaluated new potential inhibitors of the enzyme homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. The tertiary structure of the protein bonded to the analogue NAD and L-homoserine was modeled by homology. The best output model was subjected to gradient minimization, redocking and molecular dynamics. Virtual screening simulations with 187,841 purchasable molecules from the Zinc database were performed. After the screenings, 14 molecules were selected and analyzed by ADMETox criteria, resulting in four compounds for in vitro assays...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652019/sphingolipids-from-the-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#18
REVIEW
Thierry Fontaine
Sphingolipids (SPLs) are key components of the plasma membrane in yeast and filamentous fungi. These molecules are involved in a number of cellular processes, and particularly, SGLs are essential components of the highly polarized fungal growth where they are required for the formation of the polarisome organization at the hyphal apex. Aspergillus fumigatus, a human fungal pathogen, produce SGLs that are discriminated into neutral cerebrosides, glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors...
June 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651982/design-and-optimization-of-highly-selective-broad-spectrum-fungal-cyp51-inhibitors
#19
Christopher M Yates, Edward P Garvey, Sammy R Shaver, Robert J Schotzinger, William J Hoekstra
While the orally-active azoles such as fluconazole and posaconazole are effective antifungal agents, they potently inhibit a broad range of off-target human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) leading to various safety issues (e.g., drug-drug interactions, liver, and reproductive toxicities). Recently we described the rationally-designed, antifungal agent VT-1161 that is more selective for fungal CYP51 than related human CYP enzymes such as CYP3A4. Herein, we describe the use of a homology model of Aspergillus fumigatus to design and optimize a novel series of highly selective, broad spectrum fungal CYP51 inhibitors...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651864/another-possible-risk-for-the-mediterranean-sea-aspergillus-sydowii-discovered-in-the-port-of-genoa-ligurian-sea-italy
#20
G Greco, M Capello, G Cecchi, L Cutroneo, S Di Piazza, M Zotti
Aspergillus sydowii is a cosmopolitan fungus that has been responsible for the mass destruction of coral in the Caribbean Sea over the last 15years. To our knowledge, this study has found the first case of A. sydowii in the Mediterranean Sea, in marine-bottom sediments, water and calcareous shells of bivalve molluscs sampled during a campaign to characterise the mycobiota in the Port of Genoa (Italy). The area is characterised by adverse environmental conditions (high turbidity, organic pollution and high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds)...
June 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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