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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245184/evaluation-of-the-use-of-novel-biomarkers-to-augment-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-activities
#1
Kayla R Stover, Rachel M Kenney, Travis S King, Alan E Gross
As antimicrobial stewardship increasingly receives worldwide attention for improving patient care by optimizing antimicrobial therapy, programs are evaluating new tools that may augment antimicrobial stewardship activities. Biomarkers are objective, accurate, and reproducible measures that provide information about medical conditions. A systematic literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed to evaluate the use of novel biomarkers as additions to the antimicrobial stewardship armamentarium...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244019/prevalence-healthcare-resource-utilization-and-overall-burden-of-fungal-meningitis-in-the-united-states
#2
Lefko T Charalambous, Alykhan Premji, Caroline Tybout, Anastasia Hunt, Drew Cutshaw, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Siyun Yang, Jichun Xie, Charles Giamberardino, Promila Pagadala, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad
PURPOSE: Previous epidemiological and cost studies of fungal meningitis have largely focused on single pathogens, leading to a poor understanding of the disease in general. We studied the largest and most diverse group of fungal meningitis patients to date, over the longest follow-up period, to examine the broad impact on resource utilization within the United States. METHODOLOGY: The Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database was used to identify patients with a fungal meningitis diagnosis in the United States between 2000 and 2012...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243832/abiotic-rather-than-biotic-filtering-shapes-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-of-european-seminatural-grasslands
#3
Maarten Van Geel, Hans Jacquemyn, Jan Plue, Liina Saar, Liis Kasari, Gerrit Peeters, Kasper van Acker, Olivier Honnay, Tobias Ceulemans
Although it is well known that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a key role in the functioning of natural ecosystems, the underlying drivers determining the composition of AMF communities remain unclear. In this study, we established 138 sampling plots at 46 grassland sites, consisting of 26 acidic grasslands and 20 calcareous grasslands spread across eight European countries, to assess the relative importance of abiotic and biotic filtering in driving AMF community composition and structure in both the grassland soils and in the roots of 13 grassland plant species...
December 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243824/apoplastp-prediction-of-effectors-and-plant-proteins-in-the-apoplast-using-machine-learning
#4
Jana Sperschneider, Peter N Dodds, Karam B Singh, Jennifer M Taylor
The plant apoplast is integral to intercellular signalling, transport and plant-pathogen interactions. Plant pathogens deliver effectors both into the apoplast and inside host cells, but no computational method currently exists to discriminate between these localizations. We present ApoplastP, the first method for predicting whether an effector or plant protein localizes to the apoplast. ApoplastP uncovers features of apoplastic localization common to both effectors and plant proteins, namely depletion in glutamic acid, acidic amino acids and charged amino acids and enrichment in small amino acids...
December 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243577/recent-developments-of-coumarin-hybrids-as-anti-fungal-agents
#5
Xin-Liang Hu, Zhi Xu, Ming-Liang Liu, Lian-Shun Feng, Guang-De Zhang
Fungi place a huge burden on global healthcare systems attributed to the fact that fungal infections are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality rates in patients who received stem cell transplantation, antineoplastic chemotherapy, organ transplants or suffered human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Unfortunately, almost none of the representative anti-fungal agents currently used in clinical therapy are ideal in terms of efficacy, anti-fungal spectrum or safety. Moreover, the rapid development of resistance to existing anti-fungal drugs has further aggravated the mortality and spread of fungi, creating an urgent need of novel anti-fungal agents...
December 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243551/donor-leucocytosis-predicts-bacterial-and-fungal-contamination-of-the-preservation-solution-in-visceral-organ-transplantation
#6
Georgios C Sotiropoulos, Jörg Steinmann, Sabrina Stern, Sonia Raduenz, Nikolaos Machairas, Peter M Rath, Fuat H Saner, Andreas Paul, Anja Gallinat
INTRODUCTION: Contamination of the preservation solution may contribute to septic complications that can occur after transplantation and cause higher morbidity and mortality among recipients. The aim of this study was to determine potential donor-related predictors of positive microbiological findings in the preservation solution. DESIGN: We retrospectively studied 16 donor parameters on data from our center for microbiological findings in the preservation solution used in solid-organ recovery...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243387/investigation-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-magnesium-transporters-reveals-important-role-of-vacuolar-magnesium-transporter-in-regulating-fungal-virulence-factors
#7
Chen-Hao Suo, Lan-Jing Ma, Hai-Long Li, Jian-Fang Sun, Chao Li, Ming-Hui Lin, Tian-Shu Sun, Wei Du, Yan-Jian Li, Xin-Di Gao, Yang Meng, Si-Xiang Sai, Chen Ding
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that metals are critical factors for the regulation of fungal virulence in hosts. In this study, we systemically investigated the function of C. neoformans magnesium transporters in controlling the intracellular Mg balance and virulence-associated factors. We identified three Mg transporters in C. neoformans: Mgt1, Mgt2, and Mgt3. While we could not detect a Mg2+ -related growth phenotype in mgt1 and mgt3 knockout strains, a GAL7p-Mgt2 strain showed significant Mg-dependent growth defects in the presence of glucose...
December 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243237/beak-and-feather-disease-virus-carriage-by-knemidocoptes-pilae-in-a-sulphur-crested-cockatoo-cacatua-galerita
#8
T Portas, B Jackson, S Das, S Shamsi, S R Raidal
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the pathology associated with psittacine beak and feather disease in a wild sulphur-crested cockatoo with concurrent knemidocoptic mange, cestodiasis and mycotic encephalitis. METHODS & RESULTS: Large numbers of Knemidocoptes pilae Lavoipierre and Griffiths, 1951 (Acari: Epidermoptidae, Knemidokoptinae) were identified in affected skin associated with enhanced expression of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) determined by immunohistochemistry...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243092/-multiple-partial-recognitions-in-dynamic-equilibrium-in-the-binding-sites-of-proteins-form-the-molecular-basis-of-promiscuous-recognition-of-structurally-diverse-ligands
#9
REVIEW
Daisuke Kohda
Promiscuous recognition of ligands by proteins is as important as strict recognition in numerous biological processes. In living cells, many short, linear amino acid motifs function as targeting signals in proteins to specify the final destination of the protein transport. In general, the target signal is defined by a consensus sequence containing wild-characters, and hence represented by diverse amino acid sequences. The classical lock-and-key or induced-fit/conformational selection mechanism may not cover all aspects of the promiscuous recognition...
December 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243020/effect-of-1064-nm-q-switched-nd-yag-laser-on-invasiveness-and-innate-immune-response-in-keratinocytes-infected-with-candida-albicans
#10
Baroni Adone, De Filippis Anna, Oliviero Giovanni, Fusco Alessandra, Perfetto Brunella, Buommino Elisabetta, Donnarumma Giovanna
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen commensal in the oral cavity, vagina, and healthy skin. Common therapeutic options for fungal infections are topical or systemic antifungal drugs. Recently, in cutaneous pathologies, lasers and light-based treatments have emerged showing few contraindications and minimal side effects. The Q-switched (Nd-YAG) laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm has been shown to be useful in dermatology, dentistry, and some other medical specialties. It is used to treat onychomycoses, warts, and wounds and in some other treatments...
December 14, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242837/the-human-gut-microbial-metabolome-modulates-fungal-growth-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway
#11
Carlos García, Faiza Tebbji, Michelle Daigneault, Ning-Ning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Adnane Sellam
Candida albicans is well known as a major human fungal pathogen, but it is also a permanent resident of healthy gastrointestinal tracts. Recent studies have shown that the human gut microbial metabolome represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules with a significant degree of chemical diversity. Some of these bioactive molecules may have useful antivirulence activities. For instance, intestinal bacterial species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family were found to secrete molecules that attenuate Salmonella pathogenicity and repress the expression of virulence genes...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242834/novel-its1-fungal-primers-for-characterization-of-the-mycobiome
#12
Mykhaylo Usyk, Christine P Zolnik, Hitesh Patel, Michael H Levi, Robert D Burk
Studies of the human microbiome frequently omit characterization of fungal communities (the mycobiome), which limits our ability to investigate how fungal communities influence human health. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the eukaryotic ribosomal cluster has features allowing for wide taxonomic coverage and has been recognized as a suitable barcode region for species-level identification of fungal organisms. We developed custom ITS1 primer sets using iterative alignment refinement. Primer performance was evaluated using in silico testing and experimental testing of fungal cultures and human samples...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242781/ima-genome-f-8-draft-genome-of-cercospora-zeina-fusarium-pininemorale-hawksworthiomyces-lignivorus-huntiella-decipiens-and-ophiostoma-ips
#13
Brenda D Wingfield, Dave K Berger, Emma T Steenkamp, Hye-Jin Lim, Tuan A Duong, Burton H Bluhm, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Lieschen De Vos, G Fourie, Kershney Naidoo, Nicky Olivier, Yao-Cheng Lin, Yves Van de Peer, Fourie Joubert, Bridget G Crampton, Velushka Swart, Nicole Soal, Catherine Tatham, Magriet A van der Nest, Nicolaas A van der Merwe, Stephanie van Wyk, P Markus Wilken, Michael J Wingfield
The genomes of Cercospora zeina, Fusarium pininemorale, Hawksworthiomyces lignivorus, Huntiella decipiens, and Ophiostoma ips are presented in this genome announcement. Three of these genomes are from plant pathogens and otherwise economically important fungal species. Fusarium pininemorale and H. decipiens are not known to cause significant disease but are closely related to species of economic importance. The genome sizes range from 25.99 Mb in the case of O. ips to 4.82 Mb for H. lignivorus. These genomes include the first reports of a genome from the genus Hawksworthiomyces...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242774/multigene-phylogeny-of-endogonales-an-early-diverging-lineage-of-fungi-associated-with-plants
#14
Alessandro Desirò, William R Rimington, Alison Jacob, Natalie Vande Pol, Matthew E Smith, James M Trappe, Martin I Bidartondo, Gregory Bonito
Endogonales is a lineage of early diverging fungi within Mucoromycota. Many species in this order produce small sporophores ("sporocarps") containing a large number of zygospores, and many species form symbioses with plants. However, due to limited collections, subtle morphological differentiation, difficulties in growing these organisms in vitro, and idiosyncrasies in their rDNA that make PCR amplification difficult, the systematics and character evolution of these fungi have been challenging to resolve. To overcome these challenges we generated a multigene phylogeny of Endogonales using sporophores collected over the past three decades from four continents...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242772/fungal-nomenclature-evolving-changes-adopted-by-the-19th-international-botanical-congress-in-shenzhen-2017-and-procedures-for-the-fungal-nomenclature-session-at-the-11th-international-mycological-congress-in-puerto-rico-2018
#15
David L Hawksworth, Tom W May, Scott A Redhead
This article summarizes the key changes in the rules relating to the nomenclature of fungi made at the XIX International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in July 2017. Most significant was the decision to transfer decision-making on matters related only to the naming of fungi from International Botanical to International Mycological Congresses (IMCs). The rules relating to fungi are to be grouped together in a separate section of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN)...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242744/lung-talaromyces-marneffei-infection-in-an-indonesian-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-patient
#16
Surya Darma, Yusrizal Djam'an Saleh, Tri Wibawa
Talaromycosis, a disseminated and progressive infection caused by Talaromyces marneffei, is highly endemic in the tropical region of Asia. However, accumulated data show very low incidence in Indonesia. Here, we report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary T. marneffei infection. Screening of T. marneffei in this immunocompromised Indonesian patient is recommended even though the reported incidence of this particular fungal infection in Indonesia is low.
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242377/the-kinase-oscpk4-regulates-a-buffering-mechanism-that-fine-tunes-innate-immunity
#17
Jiyang Wang, Shanzhi Wang, Ke Hu, Jun Yang, Xiaoyun Xin, Wenqing Zhou, Jiangbo Fan, Fuhao Cui, Baohui Mou, Shiyong Zhang, Guo-Liang Wang, Wenxian Sun
The calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK4 has been demonstrated to play important roles in salt and drought tolerance, plant growth and development in rice. However, little is known on molecular mechanisms underlying OsCPK4 function in rice immunity. In this study, we demonstrated that the generation of oxidative burst and pathogenesis-related gene expression triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) were significantly enhanced in the oscpk4 mutants. These mutant lines are more resistant to bacterial blight and fungal blast diseases than the wild-type plants, indicating that OsCPK4 negatively regulates innate immunity in rice...
December 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242076/evaluation-of-colorimetric-assays-for-determination-of-h2o2in-planta-during-fungal-wood-decomposition
#18
Jesus D Castaño, Jiwei Zhang, Jonathan S Schilling
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a critical role in generating oxygen radicals as fungi attack and deconstruct plant cell walls. Its concentrations in planta, however, are often low during decomposition and evade detection by traditional methods. Here, we compared relevant methods and selected the best based on detection limits and selectivity.
December 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241891/cost-effectiveness-of-candida-polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-and-empirical-antifungal-treatment-among-patients-with-suspected-fungal-peritonitis-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#19
Arnaud Pagès, Xavier Iriart, Laurent Molinier, Bernard Georges, Antoine Berry, Patrice Massip, Blandine Juillard-Condat
BACKGROUND: Mortality from intra-abdominal candidiasis in intensive care units (ICUs) is high. It takes many days for peritoneal-fluid fungal culture to become positive, and the recommended empirical antifungal therapy involves excessive costs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) should produce results more rapidly than fungal culture. OBJECTIVES: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the combination of several diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to manage Candida peritonitis in non-neutropenic adult patients in ICUs...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241843/quantifying-the-effect-of-diabetes-on-surgical-hand-and-forearm-infections
#20
Ketan Sharma, Deng Pan, James Friedman, Jenny L Yu, Aaron Mull, Amy M Moore
PURPOSE: Diabetes has long been established as a risk factor for hand and forearm infections. The purpose of this study was to review the effect of glycemic factors on outcomes among diabetic patients with surgical upper-extremity infections. We hypothesized that diabetic inpatients may benefit from stronger peri-infection glycemic control. METHODS: A prospective cohort study enrolled diabetic and nondiabetic surgical hand and forearm infections over 3 years. Glycemic factors included baseline glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose (BG) at presentation, and inpatient BG...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
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