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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446002/effects-of-fungal-lentinussajor-caju-treated-oil-palm-frond-on-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-in-finishing-goats
#1
Pin Chanjula, Vasun Petcharat, Anusorn Cherdthong
OBJECTIVE: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fungal treated oil palm fronds (FTOPF) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. METHODS: Eighteen growing crossbred male goats (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) with 18.7±2.0 kg of initial body weight (BW) were stratified and blocked by BW in a randomized complete block design. Three diets containing 30% of oil palm fronds (OPF) either untreated (UOPF) or treated with Lentinussajor-caju (FTOPF) with or without urea (FTOPFU) were used as roughage sources in total mixed rations (TMRs)...
June 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445703/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-for-filamentous-fungal-keratitis-role-of-observer-experience
#2
Ahmad Kheirkhah, Zeba A Syed, Vannarut Satitpitakul, Sunali Goyal, Rodrigo Müller, Elmer Y Tu, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To determine sensitivity and specificity of laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (LS-IVCM) for detection of filamentous fungi in patients with microbial keratitis and to evaluate the effect of observer's imaging experience on these parameters. DESIGN: Retrospective, reliability study METHODS: This study included 21 patients with filamentous fungal keratitis and 24 patients with bacterial keratitis (as controls). The etiology of infection was confirmed based on the response to specific therapy regardless of culture results...
April 23, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445616/extract-of-syzygium-aromaticum-suppress-eef1a-protein-expression-and-fungal-growth
#3
Yihe Wang, Yiran Ding, Shunhe Wang, Haiqin Chen, Zhang Hao, Wei Chen, Zhennan Gu, Yong Q Chen
AIMS: Clove extract has therapeutic potential as an antifungal drug, yet the mechanism of action remain ambiguous. Current study aimed to address the molecular process of the antifungal activity exerted by clove extract. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antifungal assays results showed that clove extract had some effects on all of the tested yeast. Propidium iodide staining assay showed cell membrane damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after treatment of clove extract for 30 h...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445212/plasma-concentration-of-itraconazole-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-treated-with-itraconazole-oral-solution
#4
Atsushi Marumo, Shuichi Miyawaki, Naoaki Dan, Ken Ishiyama
BACKGROUND: The prophylactic administration of itraconazole (ITCZ) is effective for preventing mycotic infections during chemotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, fungal infections can occur when the ITCZ does not reach an effective concentration. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to monitor the plasma concentration of ITCZ and hydroxyl-ITCZ (OH-ITCZ) weekly and to verify whether the day 3 plasma concentration of ITCZ could predict the subsequent acquisition of an effective plasma concentration...
April 25, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444991/new-hydrazides-and-hydrazide-hydrazones-of-2-3-dihalogen-substituted-propionic-acids-synthesis-and-in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-evaluation
#5
Łukasz Popiołek, Anna Biernasiuk
The main aim of this research was the synthesis, spectral identification and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of new hydrazides and hydrazide-hydrazones of 2,3-dihalogen substituted propionic acids. New hydrazides were obtained by the substitution reaction of appropriate ethyl esters of 2,3-dihalogen substituted propionic acids with hydrazine hydrate. Then obtained hydrazides were subjected to condensation reaction with various aldehydes which yielded with new hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives. All obtained compounds were identified on the basis of spectral methods ((1) H NMR, (13) C NMR) and in vitro screened against a panel of bacterial and fungal strains according to EUCAST and CLSI guidelines...
April 26, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444889/invasive-fungal-infections-in-paediatric-patients-treated-with-macromolecular-immunomodulators-other-than-tumour-necrosis-alpha-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
An expanding list of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and biologic therapeutics is currently entering clinical practice, particularly in the areas of oncology, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. These agents are directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity and may therefore be associated with serious and opportunistic infections. The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the literature on invasive fungal infections (IFIs) occurring in association with mAbs and fusion proteins other than tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, including therapeutics modulating T-cell-mediated pathologies (muromonab, abatacept, belatacept, ipilimumab, basiliximab, daclizumab), inducing lymphopenia (alemtuzumab), depleting CD20+ B cells (rituximab) and interfering with various targets (anakinra, natalizumab, blodalumab, ixekizumab and others) with a focus on children, and to provide a framework of evaluating the risk for IFIs in this population...
April 26, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444797/the-transcription-factor-myb115-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-and-enhances-fungal-resistance-in-poplar
#7
Lijun Wang, Lingyu Ran, Yisu Hou, Qiaoyan Tian, Chaofeng Li, Rui Liu, Di Fan, Keming Luo
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are major defense phenolic compounds in the leaves of poplar (Populus spp.) in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Transcriptional regulation of PA biosynthetic genes by the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes in poplar is not still fully understood. Here, an Arabidopsis TT2-like gene MYB115 was isolated from Populus tomentosa and characterized by various molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches. MYB115 restored PA productions in the seed coat of the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant...
April 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444690/strobilurins-as-growth-promoting-compounds-how-stroby-regulates-arabidopsis-leaf-growth
#8
Judith Van Dingenen, Chrystalla Antoniou, Panagiota Filippou, Jacob Pollier, Nathalie Gonzalez, Stijn Dhondt, Alain Goossens, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Dirk Inzé
Strobilurins are an important class of agrochemical fungicides used throughout the world on a wide variety of crops as protection against fungal pathogens. In addition to this protective role, they are reported to also positively influence plant physiology. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Stroby® WG, a commercially available fungicide consisting of 50% (w/w) kresoxim-methyl (KM) as active strobilurin compound, on Arabidopsis leaf growth. Treatment of seedlings with Stroby resulted in larger leaves due to an increase in cell number...
April 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444604/effect-of-%C3%AE-irradiation-on-fumonisin-producing-fusarium-associated-with-animal-and-poultry-feed-mixtures
#9
B V Deepthi, A P Gnanaprakash, M Y Sreenivasa
Contamination of animal and poultry feeds by Fusarium and the mycotoxin Fumonisin B1 is frequent in the feed supply chain. The present study evaluated the prevalence of fumonisin B1 producing Fusarium among irradiated and non-irradiated animal and poultry feed mixtures. Further, the efficiency of γ-rays (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy) to minimize Fusarium growth and biosynthesis of fumonisin B1 in artificially inoculated feed was evaluated. A total of 108 feed samples were collected in which 45.37% of feed mixtures were contaminated with Fusarium species...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444565/technological-applications-of-organo-montmorillonites-in-the-removal-of-pyrimethanil-from-water-adsorption-desorption-and-flocculation-studies
#10
Federico M Flores, Tomas Undabeytia, Esmeralda Morillo, Rosa M Torres Sánchez
Pyrimethanil (2-aniline-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidine, PRM) is used in fruit packing plants to control fungal infections and diseases. The effluents greatly polluted with this fungicide, as a point source contamination, need to be technologically treated for their regeneration before they reach water bodies. This work evaluates the use of organo-montmorillonites, synthetized in our laboratory, for their application in adsorption and coagulation/flocculation processes for the removal of PRM from water. The adsorption-desorption performance of PRM in a raw montmorillonite (Mt) and several organo-montmorillonites (organo-Mt) obtained by different amounts and types of exchanged surfactants (octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and didodecyldimethylammonium (DDAB) bromides and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMA)) was studied...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444360/role-of-early-onset-neutropenia-in-development-of-candidemia-in-premature-infants
#11
Nermin Ramy, Mohamed Hashim, Heba Abou Hussein, Happy Sawires, Maha Gaafar, Ayat El Maghraby
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early-onset neutropenia (EON) on the development of candidemia in premature infants and evaluate other risk factors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit of Cairo University Hospital. Fifty neutropenic premature infants were matched to 50 non-neutropenics. Subjects were then regrouped into candidemics and non-candidemics to study other risk factors such as central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition, drugs as corticosteroids and others...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443813/vacuolar-h-atpase-subunit-vma1p-functions-as-the-molecular-ligand-in-the-vacuole-targeting-fungicidal-activity-of-polymyxin-b
#12
Maki Iida, Keiichi Yamada, Yoshiya Nango, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Akira Ogita, Ken-Ichi Fujita, Toshio Tanaka
Polymyxin B (PMB) is a cationic cyclic peptide that can selectively inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane permeability barrier through binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, a fluorescent PMB derivative (PMB-Ds) was applied to visually confirm the vacuole as a direct lethal target of PMB against fungal cells, which lack LPS. PMB-Ds could be visualized in the normal rounded vacuolar membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, suggesting the presence of a molecular ligand assisting the vacuole-targeting mobilization of the peptide in the organism...
April 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443088/utilizing-anaerobic-fungi-for-two-stage-sugar-extraction-and-biofuel-production-from-lignocellulosic-biomass
#13
Abhaya Ranganathan, Olivia P Smith, Noha H Youssef, Christopher G Struchtemeyer, Hasan K Atiyeh, Mostafa S Elshahed
Lignocellulosic biomass is a vast and underutilized resource for the production of sugars and biofuels. However, the structural complexity of lignocellulosic biomass and the need for multiple pretreatment and enzymatic steps for sugar release renders this process economically challenging. Here, we report a novel approach for direct, single container, exogenous enzyme-free conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars and biofuels using the anaerobic fungal isolate strain C1A. This approach utilizes simple physiological manipulations for timely inhibition and uncoupling of saccharolytic and fermentative capabilities of strain C1A, leading to the accumulation of sugar monomers (glucose and xylose) in the culture medium...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442603/aspergillus-fumigatus-trehalose-regulatory-subunit-homolog-moonlights-to-mediate-cell-wall-homeostasis-through-modulation-of-chitin-synthase-activity
#14
Arsa Thammahong, Alayna K Caffrey-Card, Sourabh Dhingra, Joshua J Obar, Robert A Cramer
Trehalose biosynthesis is found in fungi but not humans. Proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis are essential for fungal pathogen virulence in humans and plants through multiple mechanisms. Loss of canonical trehalose biosynthesis genes in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus significantly alters cell wall structure and integrity, though the mechanistic link between these virulence-associated pathways remains enigmatic. Here we characterize genes, called tslA and tslB, which encode proteins that contain domains similar to those corresponding to trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase but lack critical catalytic residues for phosphatase activity...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442200/next-generation-sequencing-and-culture-based-techniques-offer-complementary-insights-into-fungi-and-prokaryotes-in-beach-sands
#15
Daniela Romão, Christopher Staley, Filipa Ferreira, Raquel Rodrigues, Raquel Sabino, Cristina Veríssimo, Ping Wang, Michael Sadowsky, João Brandão
A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach, in conjunction with culture-based methods, was used to examine fungal and prokaryotic communities for the presence of potential pathogens in beach sands throughout Portugal. Culture-based fungal enumeration revealed low and variable concentrations of the species targeted (yeasts and dermatophytes), which were underrepresented in the community characterized by NGS targeting the ITS1 region. Conversely, NGS indicated that the potentially pathogenic species Purpureocillium liliacinum comprised nearly the entire fungal community...
April 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441930/ribosomal-subunit-protein-typing-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-the-identification-and-discrimination-of-aspergillus-species
#16
Sayaka Nakamura, Hiroaki Sato, Reiko Tanaka, Yoko Kusuya, Hiroki Takahashi, Takashi Yaguchi
BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of Aspergillus species is a very important subject. Mass spectral fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is generally employed for the rapid identification of fungal isolates. However, the results are based on simple mass spectral pattern-matching, with no peak assignment and no taxonomic input. We propose here a ribosomal subunit protein (RSP) typing technique using MALDI-TOF MS for the identification and discrimination of Aspergillus species...
April 26, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441744/production-of-laccase-by-a-new-myrothecium-verrucaria-md-r-16-isolated-from-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp-and-its-application-on-dye-decolorization
#17
Jiao Sun, Na Guo, Li-Li Niu, Qing-Fang Wang, Yu-Ping Zang, Yuan-Gang Zu, Yu-Jie Fu
The present study was conducted to screen a laccase-producing fungal endophyte, optimize fermentation conditions, and evaluate the decolorization ability of the laccase. A new fungal endophyte capable of laccase-producing was firstly isolated from pigeon pea and identified as Myrothecium verrucaria based on a ITS-rRNA sequences analysis. Meanwhile, various fermentation parameters on the laccase production were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal fermentation conditions were a fermentation time of five days, temperature 30 °C and pH 6...
April 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441625/influence-of-co-existed-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-and-hexavalent-chromium-on-the-cellular-characteristics-of-pycnoporus-sanguineus-during-their-removal-and-reduction
#18
Mi Feng, Hua Yin, Hui Peng, Xintong Liu, Pingping Yang, Guining Lu, Zhi Dang
Simultaneous TBBPA removal and Cr(VI) reduction by Pycnoporus sanguineus together with the effect of these co-existed pollutants on the fungal cellular characteristics were investigated in this study, aiming at illuminating the mechanism involved in the interactions between contaminants and microbial cells. The results revealed that Cr(VI) reduction and TBBPA removal declined from 92.5%, 75.4-30.6%, 44.8% when Cr(VI) concentration increased from 5 to 40mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiencies for Cr(VI) and TBBPA reached 61...
April 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441441/a-novel-multiplexed-probe-based-quantitative-pcr-assay-for-the-soybean-root-and-stem-rot-pathogen-phytophthora-sojae-utilizes-its-transposable-element
#19
James S Haudenshield, Jeong Y Song, Glen L Hartman
Phytophthora root rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae (Kaufm. & Gerd.). P. sojae has a narrow host range, consisting primarily of soybean, and it is a serious pathogen worldwide. It exists in root and stem tissues as mycelium, wherein it can form oospores which subsequently germinate to release motile, infectious zoospores. Molecular assays detecting DNA of P. sojae are useful in disease diagnostics, and for determining the presence of the organism in host tissues, soils, and runoff or ponded water from potentially infested fields...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441411/comparative-transcriptome-and-proteome-analysis-reveals-a-global-impact-of-the-nitrogen-regulators-area-and-areb-on-secondary-metabolism-in-fusarium-fujikuroi
#20
Andreas Pfannmüller, Johannes Leufken, Lena Studt, Caroline B Michielse, Christian M K Sieber, Ulrich Güldener, Susan Hawat, Michael Hippler, Christian Fufezan, Bettina Tudzynski
The biosynthesis of multiple secondary metabolites in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is strongly affected by nitrogen availability. Here, we present the first genome-wide transcriptome and proteome analysis that compared the wild type and deletion mutants of the two major nitrogen regulators AreA and AreB. We show that AreB acts not simply as an antagonist of AreA counteracting the expression of AreA target genes as suggested based on the yeast model. Both GATA transcription factors affect a large and diverse set of common as well as specific target genes and proteins, acting as activators and repressors...
2017: PloS One
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