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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319682/n-substituted-5-amino-1-hydroxymethyl-cyclopentanetriols-a-new-family-of-activity-promotors-for-a-gm1-gangliosidosis-related-human-lysosomal-%C3%AE-galactosidase-mutant
#2
Michael Schalli, Christina Tysoe, Roland Fischer, Bettina M Pabst, Martin Thonhofer, Eduard Paschke, Tanja Rappitsch, Arnold E Stütz, Marion Tschernutter, Werner Windischhofer, Stephen G Withers
From 1,2;3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-galactopyranose, a series of highly functionalized (hydroxymethyl)cyclopentanes was easily available. In line with reports by Reymond and Jäger on similar structures, these amine containing basic carbasugars are potent inhibitors of β-D-galactosidases and, for the first time, could be shown to act as pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis-associated lysosomal acid β-galactosidase mutant R201C, thus representing a new structural type of pharmacological chaperones for this lysosomal storage disease...
March 11, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317954/surface-chemistry-of-pure-tetragonal-zro2-and-gas-phase-dependence-of-the-tetragonal-to-monoclinic-zro2-transformation
#3
Eva-Maria Köck, Michaela Kogler, Thomas Götsch, Lukas Schlicker, Maged F Bekheet, Andrew Doran, Aleksander Gurlo, Bernhard Klötzer, Benedikt Petermüller, Daniel Schildhammer, Nevzat Yigit, Simon Penner
The surface chemical properties of undoped tetragonal ZrO2 and the gas-phase dependence of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation are studied using a tetragonal ZrO2 polymorph synthesized via a sol-gel method from an alkoxide precursor. The obtained phase-pure tetragonal ZrO2 is defective and strongly hydroxylated with pronounced Lewis acidic and Brønsted basic surface sites. Combined in situ FT-infrared and electrochemical impedance measurements reveal effective blocking of coordinatively unsaturated sites by both CO and CO2, as well as low conductivity...
March 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317949/the-nature-of-the-conserved-basic-amino-acid-sequences-found-among-437-heparin-binding-proteins-determined-by-network-analysis
#4
Timothy R Rudd, Mark D Preston, Edwin A Yates
In multicellular organisms, a large number of proteins interact with the polyanionic polysaccharides heparan sulphate (HS) and heparin. These interactions are usually assumed to be dominated by charge-charge interactions between the anionic carboxylate and/or sulfate groups of the polysaccharide and cationic amino acids of the protein. A major question is whether there exist conserved amino acid sequences for HS/heparin binding among these diverse proteins. Potentially conserved HS/heparin binding sequences were sought amongst 437 HS/heparin binding proteins...
March 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317729/chemical-components-and-emulsification-properties-of-mucilage-from-dioscorea-opposita-thunb
#5
Fanyi Ma, Yun Zhang, Yanna Yao, Yurong Wen, Weiping Hu, Jie Zhang, Xiuhua Liu, Alan E Bell, Carina Tikkanen-Kaukanen
The properties of mucilage obtained from Dioscorea opposita, generated during industrial manufacturing were investigated in this study. Characteristics such as monosaccharide content, amino acid content, molecular weight, and structural features were measured, whereas morphology was observed using a scanning/transmission electron microscope. Additionally, emulsification properties at different concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) and under acidic and basic pH (5.0 and 9.0) conditions were studied...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317177/optical-sensing-of-anions-via-supramolecular-recognition-with-biimidazole-complexes
#6
Dieter Ulrich Sorsche, Sven Rau, Sebastian Andreas Rommel, Maximilian Fleischmann
Phosphorescent metal complexes with peripheral N-H donor functionalities have attracted great attention as potential molecular sensing units for anionic species lately. In this contribution we discuss the development and potential of anion recognition and sensing features of recent examples of luminescent 2,2'-biimidazole complexes of ruthenium(II), iridium(III), osmium(II) and cobalt(III). The general dependency of photophysical features in these complexes regarding the acid-base chemistry of the peripheral N-H functionalities will be outlined as a basic requirement for optical ion recognition...
March 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316198/-research-update-of-effectiveness-and-mechanism-of-essential-fatty-acids-in-treating-dry-eye
#7
Y Liu, Q F Liang
Topical anti-inflammatory therapy has become the significant way of treating dry eye so far. However, as the long-term use of routine anti-inflammatory medications are restricted from their side effects, it is inevitable to explore safer and more effective alternatives. Essential fatty acids have proven to be anti-inflammatory systemically, which makes it possible to treat dry eye. Clinical trials have demonstrated that supplementation with either ω-3 or ω-6 essential fatty acids or both has multifactorial efficacies including improvement of subjective symptoms, alleviation of inflammation of ocular surface and eyelid margin, prolongation of tear break-up time and increase of tear flow secretion...
March 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315768/peptide-protein-interactions-within-human-hair-keratins
#8
Célia F Cruz, Teresa Matamá, Artur Cavaco-Paulo
We selected 1235 decapeptides from human hair proteins encoded by human genes of keratins and keratin associated proteins. The peptides were linked to glass arrays and screened for their affinity towards a solution of human hair extracted keratin fraction. Based on the physicochemical properties of the peptides, ten variables were studied: content of different types of amino acid side chains (cysteine, hydrophobic, polar, basic, acidic, aromatic rings, amide, alcohol side chains), isoelectric point, and net charge...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315764/development-of-nanocomposite-scaffolds-based-on-tio2-doped-in-grafted-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-by-freeze-drying-method-and-evaluation-of-biocompatibility
#9
Saber Abd-Khorsand, Samaneh Saber-Samandari, Saeed Saber-Samandari
Porous three-dimensional scaffolds with potential for application as cancellous bone graft substitutes were prepared using the freeze-drying technique. Hydroxyapatite with different weight ratio were embedded in the network of poly(acrylic acid) grafted chitosan accompanied by using TiO2 as an auxiliary component to fabricate porous nanocomposite bone scaffolds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis and mechanical tests were carried out to characterize the prepared scaffolds...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315599/effective-saccharification-of-lignocellulosic-barley-straw-by-mechanocatalytical-pretreatment-using-potassium-pyrosulfate-as-a-catalyst
#10
Laura Schneider, Jasmiina Haverinen, Mari Jaakkola, Ulla Lassi
The catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass is attractive due to the feasible generation of valuable products such as reducing sugars which constitute the basic substrates for chemical and transportation fuel production, as well as the production of renewable hydrogen. This study shows the efficient conversion of lignocellulose, especially hemicellulose, into reducing sugars such as xylose and galactose, by mechanocatalysis using potassium pyrosulfate, K2S2O7, as an effective salt catalyst. Ball milling was performed, introducing a mechanical force which, combined with chemical pretreatment, leads to reducing sugar yields (40%) almost as high as when commonly used sulfuric acid was employed...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314283/stable-shrna-silencing-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-ldha-in-human-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-fails-to-alter-lactic-acid-production-glycolytic-activity-atp-or-survival
#11
Nzinga Mack, Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Hernan Flores-Rozas, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND: In the US, African Americans have a high death rate from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by lack of hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2/ERRB2) which are otherwise valuable targets of chemotherapy. There is a need to identify novel targets that negatively impact TNBC tumorigenesis. TNBCs release an abundance of lactic acid, under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions; this referred to as the Warburg effect. Accumulated lactic acid sustains peri-cellular acidity which propels metastatic invasion and malignant aggressive transformation...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314203/near-infrared-nir-disrelation-mapping-analysis-for-poly-lactic-acid-nanocomposite
#12
Hideyuki Shinzawa, Junji Mizukado
Near infrared (NIR) imaging data of poly(lactic) acid (PLA) nanocomposite were analysed by disrelation mapping to prove the possible interaction between PLA matrix and montmorillonite-based nanoclay. The basic concept of disrelation mapping can be viewed as a spatial filter based on two-dimensional (2D) correlation function to elucidate specific areas where disrelated variation between intensities occurs. Correlation intensity develops on disrelation map only if spectral intensities at v1 and v2 within the local spatial area vary in a dissimilar manner...
March 14, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304056/phenacyl-azides-as-efficient-intermediates-one-pot-synthesis-of-pyrrolidines-and-imidazoles
#13
Chada Narsimha Reddy, Manda Sathish, Susanta Adhikary, Jagadeesh Babu Nanubolu, Abdullah Alarifi, Ram Awatar Maurya, Ahmed Kamal
Phenacyl azides were decomposed in basic media to generate N-unsubstituted imines which were reacted with cyclic amino acids to give an azomethine ylide that underwent [3 + 2] cycloaddition with maleimides and N-unsubstituted imines to yield various diastereoselective pyrrolidines and imidazoles respectively in a one-pot three component manner with good to excellent yields.
March 17, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302018/harmony-search-as-a-powerful-tool-for-feature-selection-in-qspr-study-of-the-drugs-lipophilicity
#14
Behnoosh Bahadori, Morteza Atabati
Lipophilicity represents one of the most studied and most frequently used fundamental physicochemical properties. In the present work harmony search (HS) algorithm is suggested to feature selection in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) modeling to predict lipophilicity of neutral, acidic, basic and amphotheric drugs that were determined by UHPLC. Harmony search is a music-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm. It was affected by the observation that the aim of music is to search for a perfect state of harmony...
March 15, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301521/lysosomal-adaptation-how-cells-respond-to-lysosomotropic-compounds
#15
Shuyan Lu, Tae Sung, Nianwei Lin, Robert T Abraham, Bart A Jessen
Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation and cellular homoeostasis and recently lysosomes have been shown as signaling hub to respond to the intra and extracellular changes (e.g. amino acid availability). Compounds including pharmaceutical drugs that are basic and lipophilic will become sequestered inside lysosomes (lysosomotropic). How cells respond to the lysosomal stress associated with lysosomotropism is not well characterized. Our goal is to assess the lysosomal changes and identify the signaling pathways that involve in the lysosomal changes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301247/different-duck-species-infected-intramuscularly-with-duck-origin-genotype-ix-apmv-1-show-discrepant-mortality-and-indicate-another-fatal-genotype-apmv-1-to-ducks
#16
Guanghua Fu, Longfei Cheng, Qiuling Fu, Baomin Qi, Cuiteng Chen, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Chunhe Wan, Rongchang Liu, Yu Huang
Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299925/in-vivo-fate-of-carbon-nanotubes-with-different-physicochemical-properties-for-gene-delivery-applications
#17
Anna Cifuentes-Rius, Nathan R B Boase, Ines Font, Núria Coronas, Victor Ramos-Perez, Kristofer James Thurecht, Salvador Borros
Gene therapy has arisen as a pioneering technique to treat disease by direct employment of nucleic acids as medicine. The major historical problem is to develop efficient and safe systems for the delivery of therapeutic genes into the target cells. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have demonstrated considerable promise as delivery vectors due to their their (i) high aspect ratio and (ii) capacity to translocate through plasma membranes as nanoneedle. To leverage these advantages, close attention needs to be paid on the physicochemical characteristics of CNTs used...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299282/extracellular-proton-concentrations-impacts-ln229-glioblastoma-tumor-cell-fate-via-differential-modulation-of-surface-lipids
#18
Sebastian John, K C Sivakumar, Rashmi Mishra
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer with marginal survival rates. GBM extracellular acidosis can profoundly impact its cell fate heterogeneities and progression. However, the molecules and mechanisms that enable GBM tumor cells acid adaptation and consequent cell fate competencies are weakly understood. Since extracellular proton concentrations (pHe) directly intercept the tumor cell plasma membrane, surface lipids must play a crucial role in pHe-dependent tumor cell fate dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297794/-research-advances-in-autoimmune-liver-diseases-in-2016
#19
B Li, Q X Wang, X Ma
Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of abnormal autoimmune-mediated inflammatory hepatobiliary injuries, mainly including autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), primary biliary cholangitis(PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune liver diseases, an important type of non-viral liver disease, have become a prominent issue in hepatology. In 2016, many new advances have been achieved in the clinical and basic research on autoimmune liver diseases, including the phase 3 clinical trial of obeticholic acid, the proposal of UK-PBC risk score, and the research on gut microbiota associated with PSC...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297771/-advances-in-basic-and-clinical-research-on-liver-cirrhosis-in-2016
#20
C Gu, M Y Song, W J Sun, X Y Xu, C Q Yang, D F Chen
Esophageal and gastric varices are common complications of liver cirrhosis and are seen in 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The annual incidence rate of esophagogastric variceal bleeding is 5%-15%, and even if the recommended treatment is used, the 6-week mortality rate is still as high as 15%-20%. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of end-stage liver disease and has an incidence rate of 10%-30% in patients with severe liver damage. SBP refers to the bacterial infection of the peritoneum and/or ascites that occurs in the absence of any inflammation in adjacent tissues (e...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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