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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#1
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352023/monoamine-abnormalities-in-the-sapap3-knockout-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-related-behaviour
#2
Jesse Wood, Zoe LaPalombara, Susanne E Ahmari
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of illness-related disability, but the neural mechanisms underlying OCD symptoms are unclear. One potential mechanism of OCD pathology is monoamine dysregulation. Because of the difficulty of studying monoamine signalling in patients, animal models offer a viable alternative to understanding this aspect of OCD pathophysiology. We used HPLC to characterize post-mortem monoamine levels in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial OFC, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral striatum of SAPAP-3 knockout (KO) mice, a well-validated model of compulsive-like behaviours in OCD...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351842/maintaining-a-healthy-proteome-during-oxidative-stress
#3
REVIEW
Dana Reichmann, Wilhelm Voth, Ursula Jakob
Some of the most challenging stress conditions that organisms encounter during their lifetime involve the transient accumulation of reactive oxygen and chlorine species. Extremely reactive to amino acid side chains, these oxidants cause widespread protein unfolding and aggregation. It is therefore not surprising that cells draw on a variety of different strategies to counteract the damage and maintain a healthy proteome. Orchestrated largely by direct changes in the thiol oxidation status of key proteins, the response strategies involve all layers of protein protection...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351249/utilizing-dietary-micronutrient-ratios-in-nutritional-research-may-be-more-informative-than-focusing-on-single-nutrients
#4
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman, Jasminka Z Ilich
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350726/3d-assembly-of-ti3c2-mxene-directed-by-water-oil-interfaces
#5
Renji Bian, Ruizhi Lin, Guilin Wang, Gang Lu, Weiqiang Zhi, Shanglin Xiang, Tingwei Wang, Paul S Clegg, Dongyu Cai, Wei Huang
MXene is an emerging class of 2D materials exfoliated from ternary carbide and nitride ceramics. The exfoliation process, which is an acid etching approach, functionalizes the MXene surface with -OH, -O and -F groups. These functional groups offer significant opportunities for tuning the colloidal properties of the MXene nanoblocks; importantly, this tunability points the way towards a facile route for assembling these nanoblocks into 3D architectures that are in demand for many applications. This route, presented for the first time here, uses water/oil interfaces for assembling Ti3C2-MXene in 3D architectures...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350562/enzymes-in-lipid-modification
#6
Uwe T Bornscheuer
This article reviews the application of enzymes in lipid modification. Lipases are the most established biocatalysts used for the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols, fats, and margarine for the release of flavoring fatty acids for food applications. In addition, the various enzymes, such as P450 monooxygenases, hydratases, lipoxygenases, and certain lyases, used for oxyfunctionalization and the phospholipases used for degumming are covered. Basic aspects of enzyme catalysis and the modern tools used for their discovery and improvement by protein engineering provide insight into how suitable biocatalysts can be identified and optimized for an application...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350532/design-of-exceptionally-strong-organic-superbases-based-on-aromatic-pnictogen-oxides-a-computational-dft-analysis-of-the-oxygen-basicity-in-the-gas-phase-and-acetonitrile-solution
#7
Tana Tandaric, Robert Vianello
DFT B3LYP calculations convincingly showed that aromatic pnictogen-oxides offer scaffolds suitable for tailoring powerful organic superbases exhibiting exceptional oxygen basicity in both gas-phase and polar aprotic acetonitrile solution. With their protonation enthalpies and pKa values, they surpass the basicity of classical proton sponges and related nitrogen bases. The most potent system is provided with two arsenic-oxide moieties on the phenanthrene framework assisted with the two phosphazeno groups in the para-position to both basic centers...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350420/over-expression-of-dec1-inhibits-myogenic-differentiation-by-modulating-myog-activity-in-bovine-satellite-cell
#8
Yongzhen Huang, Xinsheng Lai, Linyong Hu, Chuzhao Lei, Xianyong Lan, Chunlei Zhang, Yun Ma, Li Zheng, Yue-Yu Bai, Fengpeng Lin, Hong Chen
Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 1 (DEC1), a member of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor Bhlhe40, also called stimulated by retinoic acid 13, STRA13, plays an important role in the regulation of adipogenesis, tumorigenesis, peripheral circadian output, response to hypoxia and development of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies suggested that DEC1 was involved in skeletal muscle development; however, its precise role in myoblast differentiation has not been determined. In the present study, we showed that DEC1 expressed ubiquitously in different bovine tissues and was down-regulated in differentiated bovine satellite cells...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349662/roles-and-maturation-of-iron-sulfur-proteins-in-plastids
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Mélanie Roland, Frédéric Gaymard, Jérémy Couturier, Nicolas Rouhier
One reason why iron is an essential element for most organisms is its presence in prosthetic groups such as hemes or iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which are notably required for electron transfer reactions. As an organelle with an intense metabolism in plants, chloroplast relies on many Fe-S proteins. This includes those present in the electron transfer chain which will be, in fact, essential for most other metabolic processes occurring in chloroplasts, e.g., carbon fixation, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation, pigment, amino acid, and vitamin biosynthetic pathways to cite only a few examples...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349578/in-situ-tissue-labeling-of-cerebral-amyloid-using-hiv-related-tat-peptide
#10
E Maderna, L Colombo, A Cagnotto, G Di Fede, A Indaco, F Tagliavini, M Salmona, G Giaccone
Delivering peptide-based drugs to the brain is a major challenge because of the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To overcome this problem, cell-penetrating peptides derived from proteins that are able to cross biological membranes have been used as cell-permeable and brain-penetrant compounds. An example is the transactivator of transcription protein transduction domain (Tat) of the human immunodeficiency virus. The basic domain of Tat is formed of arginine and lysine amino acid residues. Tat has been used as brain-penetrant carrier also in therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia characterized by extracellular cerebral deposits of amyloid made up of Aβ peptide...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348240/snf1-related-kinase1-controlled-c-s1-bzip-signaling-activates-alternative-mitochondrial-metabolic-pathways-to-ensure-plant-survival-in-extended-darkness
#11
Lorenzo Pedrotti, Christoph Weiste, Thomas Nägele, Elmar Wolf, Francesca Lorenzin, Katrin Dietrich, Andrea Mair, Wolfram Weckwerth, Markus Teige, Elena Baena-González, Wolfgang Dröge-Laser
Sustaining energy homeostasis is of pivotal importance for all living organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, evolutionarily conserved SnRK1 kinases (Snf1-RELATED KINASE1) control metabolic adaptation during low energy stress. To unravel starvation-induced transcriptional mechanisms, we performed transcriptome studies of inducible knock-down lines and found that S1-basic leucine Zipper transcription factors (S1-bZIPs) control a defined subset of genes downstream of SnRK1. For example, S1-bZIPs coordinate the expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acid catabolism, which constitutes an alternative mitochondrial respiratory pathway that is crucial for plant survival during starvation...
January 18, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346729/electronic-interactions-in-iminophosphorane-superbase-complexes-with-carbon-dioxide
#12
Francesca Ingrosso, Manuel F Ruiz-Lopez
Iminophosphoranes or phosphazenes are an important class of compounds with increasing use in synthetic organic chemistry as neutral organic superbases exhibiting low nucleophilicity. Their electronic structure and therefore their properties strongly depend on substitution but there have been very few theoretical studies devoted to this topic, and more specifically to the formation of electron donor-acceptor complexes of iminophosphoranes with electrophiles. In this work, we have investigated the interaction with carbon dioxide at different ab initio levels...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344416/lycium-barbarum-a-traditional-chinese-herb-and-a-promising-anti-aging-agent
#13
REVIEW
Yanjie Gao, Yifo Wei, Yuqing Wang, Fang Gao, Zhigang Chen
Lycium barbarum has been used in China for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. Lycium barbarum contains abundant Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), betaine, phenolics, carotenoids (zeaxanthin and β-carotene), cerebroside, 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG), β-sitosterol, flavonoids and vitamins (in particular, riboflavin, thiamine, and ascorbic acid). LBPs are the primary active components of Lycium barbarum. In this review, we discuss the pharmacological activities of LBPs and other major components...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342891/influence-of-the-composition-structure-and-physical-and-chemical-properties-of-aluminium-oxide-based-sorbents-on-water-adsorption-ability
#14
Ruslan Zotov, Eugene Meshcheryakov, Alesia Livanova, Tamara Minakova, Oleg Magaev, Lyubov Isupova, Irina Kurzina
Interaction between the water adsorption ability of aluminium-oxide-based sorbents and their chemical composition, acid-base properties of the surface, and textural characteristics has been analysed. Alumina desiccants were synthesized with the centrifugal-thermal activation of gibbsite followed by the hydration of the gibbsite under mild conditions. It was demonstrated that the multicyclic adsorption regeneration of samples under realistic conditions results in structural transformations and changes in the acidity of their surfaces and water adsorption ability...
January 14, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339986/seeking-optimal-nutrition-for-healthy-body-mass-reduction-among-former-athletes
#15
Dominika Maciejewska, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Maja Czerwińska-Rogowska, Marcin Banaszczak, Karina Ryterska, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jakub Piotrwski, Joanna Hołowko, Arleta Drozd, Paweł Wysokińki, Krzysztof Ficek, Krzysztof Wilk, Anna Lubkowska, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jerzy Bertrand, Ewa Stachowska
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of 6 week Mediterranean diet or 30% calorie restriction on the fatty acid profile and eicosanoids (hydroxyoctadecadienoi acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids) concentration. Furthermore, basic biochemical variables such as insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and a lipid profile were estimated. The study enrolled 94 Caucasian former athletes aged 20-42, with body height of 179 ± 16.00 cm and body mass of 89.26 ± 13.25 kg who had not been active for at least 5 years...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339625/acid-production-potentials-of-massive-sulfide-minerals-and-lead-zinc-mine-tailings-a-medium-term-study
#16
Emin Ender Çelebi, Mehmet Salim Öncel, Mehmet Kobya
Weathering of sulfide minerals is a principal source of acid generation. To determine acid-forming potentials of sulfide-bearing materials, two basic approaches named static and kinetic tests are available. Static tests are short-term, and easily undertaken within a few days and in a laboratory. In contrast, kinetic tests are long-term procedures and mostly carried out on site. In this study, experiments were conducted over a medium-term period of 2 months, not as short as static tests and also not as long as kinetic tests...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337866/crispr-cas-targeting-of-host-genes-as-an-antiviral-strategy
#17
REVIEW
Shuliang Chen, Xiao Yu, Deyin Guo
Currently, a new gene editing tool-the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) associated (Cas) system-is becoming a promising approach for genetic manipulation at the genomic level. This simple method, originating from the adaptive immune defense system in prokaryotes, has been developed and applied to antiviral research in humans. Based on the characteristics of virus-host interactions and the basic rules of nucleic acid cleavage or gene activation of the CRISPR-Cas system, it can be used to target both the virus genome and host factors to clear viral reservoirs and prohibit virus infection or replication...
January 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336137/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-hair-cells-using-growth-factors
#18
Mohammad-Reza Mahmoudian-Sani, Morteza Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Mohammad-Saeid Jami, Massoud Saidijam
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we attempted to differentiated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to auditory hair cells using growth factors. METHODS: Retinoic acid (RA), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were added to hBMSCs cell culture medium. The cells were evaluated morphologically and the expression of SOX2, POU4F3, MYO7A, and Calretinin at mRNA level and ATOH1 mRNA and protein expression. RESULTS: After treatment with the growth factors, the morphology of the cells did not change, but evaluation of gene expression at the mRNA level increased the expression of the ATOH1, SOX2, and POU4F3 markers...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335779/equine-neutrophils-and-their-role-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-lung-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Stacy L Anderson, Baljit Singh
Horses are susceptible to a multitude of inflammatory conditions that are characterized by a strong neutrophilic response. Here, we review basic equine neutrophil biology and explore the role of neutrophils in inflammatory conditions with emphasis on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and lung inflammation. In addition, unique aspects of equine neutrophil biology have been highlighted. Neutrophils comprise the highest proportion of circulating white blood cells in equine blood. The concentration of circulating equine neutrophils is a primary indicator of systemic inflammation...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334460/multiple-stimuli-responses-of-stereo-isomers-of-aie-active-ethynylene-bridged-and-pyridyl-modified-tetraphenylethene
#20
Zhaoyang Wang, Xiao Cheng, Anjun Qin, Haoke Zhang, Jing Zhi Sun, Ben Zhong Tang
Luminescent molecules with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property, or AIE-gens are typical stimuli-responsive materials and many AIE-gens have shown luminescent responses to mechano-, thermo-, electro-, vapo- and/or solvato-stimulus, but the detailed structure-property relationship has been addressed for only few of them. Here, we report a tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivative with pyridyl modifiers and ethynylene bridges. The (Z)- and (E)-isomers are clearly purified and both of them are AIE-active and demonstrate multiple luminescent responses to external stimuli...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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