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Translational kidney research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071894/noninvasive-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-with-raman-spectroscopy
#1
Rishikesh Pandey, Santosh Kumar Paidi, Tulio A Valdez, Chi Zhang, Nicolas Spegazzini, Ramachandra Rao Dasari, Ishan Barman
The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes...
January 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012182/development-of-a-multidimensional-assessment-tool-for-uremic-pruritus-in-dialysis-patients-up-dial
#2
S Nochaiwong, C Ruengorn, R Awiphan, S Panyathong, K Noppakun, W Chongruksut, S Chiewchanvit
BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients with uremic pruritus (UP) have a significantly impaired quality of life. To assess the therapeutic effect of UP treatments, a well-validated comprehensive and multidimensional instrument needed to be established. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a multidimensional scale assessing the UP in dialysis patients: Uremic Pruritus in Dialysis Patients (UP-Dial). METHODS: The development and validation of the UP-Dial instrument was conducted in four phases: (1) item generation, (2) development of pilot questionnaire, (3) refinement of questionnaire with patient recruitment, and (4) psychometric validation...
December 23, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942587/chorioretinal-thinning-in-chronic-kidney-disease-links-to-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#3
Craig Balmforth, Job J M H van Bragt, Titia Ruijs, James R Cameron, Robert Kimmitt, Rebecca Moorhouse, Alicja Czopek, May Khei Hu, Peter J Gallacher, James W Dear, Shyamanga Borooah, Iain M MacIntyre, Tom M C Pearson, Laura Willox, Dinesh Talwar, Muriel Tafflet, Christophe Roubeix, Florian Sennlaub, Siddharthan Chandran, Baljean Dhillon, David J Webb, Neeraj Dhaun
BACKGROUND. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and there is an established association between vasculopathy affecting the kidney and eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel, rapid method for high-definition imaging of the retina and choroid. Its use in patients at high cardiovascular disease risk remains unexplored. METHODS. We used the new SPECTRALIS OCT machine to examine retinal and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular volume, and choroidal thickness in a prospective cross-sectional study in 150 subjects: 50 patients with hypertension (defined as a documented clinic BP greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg (prior to starting any treatment) with no underlying cause identified); 50 with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 8-125 ml/min/1...
December 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920818/exposition-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-on-the-surface-of-hek293t-cell-and-evaluation-of-its-expression
#4
Mina Mirian, Razieh Taghizadeh, Hossein Khanahmad, Mansour Salehi, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Shirin Kouhpayeh
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered as a global health concern and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the most immunogenic protein of HBV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of HBsAg on the cell surface of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T). After transformation of expression vector pcDNA/HBsAg to E.coli TOP10F', plasmid was extracted and digested with BglII. Afterwards, the linearized vector was transfected to cells and treated with hygromycin B for 5 weeks to expand the resulted clonies...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894672/microrna-145-regulates-the-rlr-signaling-pathway-in-miiuy-croaker-after-poly-i-c-stimulation-via-targeting-mda5
#5
Jingjing Han, Yuena Sun, Weihua Song, Tianjun Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via degrading the target mRNAs or repressing translation. In this study, the regulation of miRNA to the RLR (RIG-I-like receptor) signaling pathway by degrading the target mRNAs was researched in miiuy croaker. MDA5, a microRNA-145-5p (miR-145-5p) putative target gene, was predicted by bioinformatics, and the target sites from the 3'untranslated region of MDA5 transcripts were confirmed using luciferase reporter assays...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852607/ion-transport-in-the-zebrafish-kidney-from-a-human-disease-angle-possibilities-considerations-and-future-perspectives
#6
Simone Kersten, Francisco J Arjona
Unique experimental advantages, such as its embryonic/larval transparency, high-throughput nature and ease of genetic modification, underpin the rapid emergence of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent model in biomedical research. Particularly in the field of nephrology, the zebrafish provides a promising model for studying the physiological implications of human solute transport processes along consecutive nephron segments. However, while the zebrafish might be considered a valuable model for numerous renal ion transport diseases and functional studies of many channels and transporters, not all human renal electrolyte transport mechanisms and human diseases can be modeled in the zebrafish...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804986/the-translational-potential-of-micrornas-as-biofluid-markers-of-urological-tumours
#7
REVIEW
Annika Fendler, Carsten Stephan, George M Yousef, Glen Kristiansen, Klaus Jung
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are secreted by cells in vesicles, bound in a ribonucleoprotein complex or as free molecules. These miRNA secretion pathways are dysregulated in cancer, making miRNAs attractive candidate molecules for liquid biopsies. A number of studies have investigated the regulation of miRNA secretion into blood and urine and suggested that miRNAs are noninvasive diagnostic, prognostic and surveillance markers in urological carcinomas, and research in this area has increased over the past 5 years. However, methodological and analytical pitfalls exist and require addressing to enable future translation of the laboratory findings regarding miRNAs as biomarkers into clinical practice in bladder cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer and testicular cancer...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803669/the-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-renal-system
#8
REVIEW
Xu Cao, Jin-Song Bian
Hydrogen sulfide has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This review surveys the emerging role of H2S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H2S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795549/nanomedicines-for-renal-disease-current-status-and-future-applications
#9
REVIEW
Nazila Kamaly, John C He, Dennis A Ausiello, Omid C Farokhzad
Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771930/cddo-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#10
Bryan J Mathis, Taixing Cui
There has been a continued interest in translational research focused on both natural products and manipulation of functional groups on these compounds to create novel derivatives with higher desired activities. Oleanolic acid, a component of traditional Chinese medicine used in hepatitis therapy, was modified by chemical processes to form 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO). This modification increased anti-inflammatory activity significantly and additional functional groups on the CDDO backbone have shown promise in treating conditions ranging from kidney disease to obesity to diabetes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759832/preclinical-molecular-imaging-development-of-instrumentation-for-translational-research-with-small-laboratory-animals
#11
Jorge Mejia, Ana Claudia Camargo Miranda, Ana Claudia Ranucci Durante, Larissa Rolim de Oliveira, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de Barboza, Katerin Taboada Rosell, Daniele Pereira Jardim, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Marilia Alves Dos Reis, Marcela Forli Catanoso, Orfa Yineth Galvis-Alonso, Francisco Romero Cabral
Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein...
July 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692817/an-overview-of-renal-metabolomics
#12
REVIEW
Sahir Kalim, Eugene P Rhee
The high-throughput, high-resolution phenotyping enabled by metabolomics has been applied increasingly to a variety of questions in nephrology research. This article provides an overview of current metabolomics methodologies and nomenclature, citing specific considerations in sample preparation, metabolite measurement, and data analysis that investigators should understand when examining the literature or designing a study. Furthermore, we review several notable findings that have emerged in the literature that both highlight some of the limitations of current profiling approaches, as well as outline specific strengths unique to metabolomics...
January 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682364/renal-transplant-immunology-in-the-last-20-years-a-revolution-towards-graft-and-patient-survival-improvement
#13
Helena Sá, Rita Leal, Manuel Santos Rosa
To deride the hope of progress is the ultimate fatuity, the last word in poverty of spirit and meanness of mind. There is no need to be dismayed by the fact that we cannot yet envisage a definitive solution of our problems, a resting-place beyond which we need not try to go. -P.B. Medawar, 1969* [Formula: see text] Thomas E. Starlz, also known as the Father of Clinical Transplantation, once said that organ transplantation was the supreme exception to the rule that most major advances in medicine spring from discoveries in basic science [Starzl T...
September 28, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612634/trialling-of-an-optimal-health-programme-ohp-across-chronic-disease
#14
EDITORIAL
Chantal F Ski, David R Thompson, David J Castle
Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon, most advanced in developed countries and expected to continue over the next few decades. As people are surviving longer with age-associated disease and disability, there is an imperative to identify innovative solutions for an already overburdened health care system. Such innovations need to be focused on disease management, taking into consideration the strong associations that have been established between psychosocial factors and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with chronic disease...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599628/introduction-of-biosimilar-therapeutics-into-nephrology-practice-in-the-united-states-report-of-a-scientific-workshop-sponsored-by-the-national-kidney-foundation
#15
Jay B Wish, Chaim Charytan, Glenn M Chertow, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Alan S Kliger, Robert J Rubin, Jerry Yee, Steven Fishbane
Biosimilars are biologic medicines highly similar to the reference product with no meaningful clinical differences in terms of safety, purity, and potency. All biologic medicines are produced by living cells, resulting in an inherent heterogeneity in their higher order structures and post-translational modifications. In 2010, the US Congress enacted legislation to streamline the approval process for biosimilars of products losing patent protection, with the goal of decreasing costs and improving patient access to therapeutically important but expensive biologic agents...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570066/3d-culture-supports-long-term-expansion-of-mouse-and-human-nephrogenic-progenitors
#16
Zhongwei Li, Toshikazu Araoka, Jun Wu, Hsin-Kai Liao, Mo Li, Marta Lazo, Bing Zhou, Yinghui Sui, Min-Zu Wu, Isao Tamura, Yun Xia, Ergin Beyret, Taiji Matsusaka, Ira Pastan, Concepcion Rodriguez Esteban, Isabel Guillen, Pedro Guillen, Josep M Campistol, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
Transit-amplifying nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) generate all of the nephrons of the mammalian kidney during development. Their limited numbers, poor in vitro expansion, and difficult accessibility in humans have slowed basic and translational research into renal development and diseases. Here, we show that with appropriate 3D culture conditions, it is possible to support long-term expansion of primary mouse and human fetal NPCs as well as NPCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Expanded NPCs maintain genomic stability, molecular homogeneity, and nephrogenic potential in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
October 6, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566807/vascular-surgery-related-organ-injury-and-protective-strategies-update-and-future-prospects
#17
B Yang, A Fung, C Pac-Soo, D Ma
Whilst there has been a reduction in the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease worldwide, a significant proportion of the world's growing population is still affected by disease of the aorta, carotid, iliac and lower limb arteries. These if left untreated can result in severe morbidity and mortality. However vascular surgery, the main definitive treatment for such conditions, is associated with subsequent injury to vital organs including the kidneys, heart, brain, intestines and lungs, with a consequent increase in both morbidity and mortality...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558513/a-one-health-overview-facilitating-advances-in-comparative-medicine-and-translational-research
#18
Cheryl Stroud, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N Bryan, David T Curiel, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J Henry, Philip J Bergman, Nicola J Mason, Josephine S Gnanandarajah, Julie B Engiles, Falon Gray, Danielle Laughlin, Anita Gaurnier-Hausser, Anu Wallecha, Margie Huebner, Yvonne Paterson, Daniel O'Connor, Laura S Treml, James P Stannard, James L Cook, Marc Jacobs, Gerald J Wyckoff, Lee Likins, Ubadah Sabbagh, Andrew Skaff, Amado S Guloy, Harlen D Hays, Amy K LeBlanc, Joan R Coates, Martin L Katz, Leslie A Lyons, Gayle C Johnson, Gary S Johnson, Dennis P O'Brien, Dongsheng Duan, James P Calvet, Barbara Gandolfi, David A Baron, Mark L Weiss, Debra A Webster, Francis N Karanu, Edward J Robb, Robert J Harman
A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational researchCheryl StroudA2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanomaIgor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. CurielA3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog modelJeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. HenryA4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): development of a commercially licensed xenogeneic DNA vaccine for companion animals with malignant melanomaPhilip J...
August 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541936/quality-assurance-of-samples-and-processes-in-the-spanish-renal-research-network-redinren-biobank
#19
Laura Calleros-Basilio, María Alicia Cortés, Andrea García-Jerez, Alicia Luengo-Rodríguez, Ana Orozco-Agudo, José Manuel Valdivielso, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol
BACKGROUND: Biobanks are useful platforms to build bridges between basic, translational, and clinical research and clinical care. They are repositories of high-quality human biological samples ideal for evaluating their histological characteristics and also their genome, transcriptome, and proteome. The Spanish Renal Research Network Biobank contains more than 76,500 well-preserved frozen samples of a wide variety of kidney diseases, collected from 5450 patients seen by over 70 nephrology services throughout the Spanish territory...
December 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533948/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibition-cardioprotection-by-treating-diabetes-a-translational-viewpoint-explaining-its-potential-salutary-effects
#20
REVIEW
Anne E de Leeuw, Rudolf A de Boer
Diabetes is a growing epidemic worldwide characterized by an elevated concentration of blood glucose, associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Although in general reduction of hyperglycaemia is considered a therapeutic goal, hypoglycaemic therapies do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular mortality and may even aggravate cardiovascular risk factors, such as body weight. A new class of antidiabetic drugs acts by inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), which (partially) prevents reabsorption of glucose from the renal filtrate...
October 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
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