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Translational kidney research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223055/plasma-monocyte-chemotactic-protein-1-is-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-death-after-cardiac-operations
#1
Dennis G Moledina, Selin Isguven, Eric McArthur, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Amit X Garg, Michael Shlipak, Richard Whitlock, Peter A Kavsak, Steven G Coca, Chirag R Parikh
BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; chemokine C-C ligand-2 [CCL-2]) is upregulated in ischemia-reperfusion injury and is a promising biomarker of inflammation in cardiac operations. METHODS: We measured preoperative and postoperative plasma MCP-1 levels in adults undergoing cardiac operations to evaluate the association of perioperative MCP-1 levels with acute kidney injury (AKI) and death in Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in AKI (TRIBE-AKI), a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort...
February 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198734/new-frontiers-in-intravital-microscopy-of-the-kidney
#2
Andrew M Hall, Claus D Schuh, Dominik Haenni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravital imaging with multiphoton microscopy enables the detailed study of dynamic cellular processes within functioning organs in living animals, in ways that would not otherwise be possible. It therefore represents a powerful tool in translational kidney research. In this article, we will discuss several new technical developments that have significantly increased the capabilities of kidney imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Important contemporary advances in biomedical imaging technology include longer wavelength excitation lasers, far-red emitting fluorescent reporters, highly sensitive detectors, fluorescence lifetime measurements, adaptive optics, microendoscopes, high-throughput automated analysis algorithms and tissue clearing techniques...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193503/clinical-translation-of-a-psma-inhibitor-for-99m-tc-based-spect
#3
Guillermina Ferro-Flores, Myrna Luna-Gutiérrez, Blanca Ocampo-García, Clara Santos-Cuevas, Erika Azorín-Vega, Nallely Jiménez-Mancilla, Emmanuel Orocio-Rodríguez, Jenny Davanzo, Francisco O García-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly over-expressed in advanced prostate cancers. (68)Ga-labeled PSMA inhibitors (iPSMA) are currently used for prostate cancer detection by PET imaging. The availability of simple, efficient and reproducible radiolabeling procedures is essential for developing new SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for clinical translation. The aim of this research was to prepare (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys(Nal)-Urea-Glu ((99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA) obtained from lyophilized kit formulations and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo radiopharmaceutical binding to prostate cancer cells over-expressing PSMA, as well as the (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA normal biodistribution in humans and the preliminary uptake in patients with prostate cancer...
February 3, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191532/the-role-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Shobhana Nayak Rao
Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) belong to the family of intracellular proteins that are constitutively expressed and are upregulated by various stressors including heat, oxidative and chemical stress. HSP helps in reparative processes, including the refolding of damaged proteins and the removal of irreparably damaged proteins that would initiate cellular death or apoptosis. A growing body of evidence has expanded the role of HSP and defined their role in diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, ischemic heart disease and kidney diseases...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186887/accelerated-singular-value-based-ultrasound-blood-flow-clutter-filtering-with-randomized-singular-value-decomposition-rsvd-and-randomized-spatial-downsampling
#5
Pengfei Song, Joshua Trzasko, Armando Manduca, Bo Qiang, Ramanathan Kadirvel, David Kallmes, Shigao Chen
Singular value decomposition (SVD)-based ultrasound blood flow clutter filters have recently demonstrated substantial improvement in clutter rejection for ultrafast plane wave microvessel imaging, and have become the commonly used clutter filtering method for many novel ultrafast imaging applications such as functional ultrasound and super-resolution imaging. At present, however, the computational burden of SVD remains as a major hurdle for practical implementation and clinical translation of this method. To address this challenge, in the study we present two blood flow clutter filtering methods based on randomized singular value decomposition (rSVD) and randomized spatial downsampling to accelerate SVD clutter filtering with minimal compromise to the clutter filter performance...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184933/effects-of-different-mycotoxins-on-humans-cell-genome-and-their-involvement-in-cancer-review
#6
Mowaffaq Adam Ahmed Adam, Yasser M Tabana, Khirun Binti Musa, Doblin Anak Sandai
The chemical nature of most of the mycotoxins makes them highly liposoluble compounds that can be absorbed from the site of exposure such as from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract to the blood stream where it can be dissimilated throughout the body and reach different organs such as the liver and kidneys. Mycotoxins have a strong tendency and ability to penetrate the human and animal cells and reach the cellular genome where it causes a major mutagenic change in the nucleotide sequence which leads to strong and permanent defects in the genome...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159816/implications-of-blood-pressure-measurement-technique-for-implementation-of-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial-sprint
#7
Rajiv Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was reduced by 25% when blood pressure (BP) was targeted to 120 mm Hg systolic compared with 140 mm Hg systolic in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT); however, BP was measured using a research technique. SPRINT specified 5 minutes of seated rest in a quiet room followed by 3 oscillometric measurements without an observer in the room. The relationship of this research-grade methodology to routine BP measurements is not known...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122942/comparative-analysis-of-mitochondrial-n-termini-from-mouse-human-and-yeast
#8
Sarah E Calvo, Olivier Julien, Karl R Clauser, Hongying Shen, Kimberli J Kamer, James A Wells, Vamsi K Mootha
The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome, translated in the cytoplasm, and directed to the mitochondria by a N-terminal presequence that is cleaved upon import. Recently, N-proteome catalogs have been generated for mitochondria from yeast and from human U937 cells. Here we applied the subtiligase method to determine N-termini for 327 proteins in mitochondria isolated from mouse liver and kidney. Comparative analysis between mitochondrial N-termini from mouse, human, and yeast proteins shows that while presequences are poorly conserved at the sequence level, other presequence properties are extremely conserved including a length of ~20-60aa, a net charge between +3 to +6, and the presence of stabilizing amino acids at the N-termini of mature proteins that follows the N-end rule from bacteria...
January 25, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097825/signalling-pathways-involved-in-hypoxia-induced-renal-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Minna Liu, Xiaoxuan Ning, Rong Li, Zhen Yang, Xiaoxia Yang, Shiren Sun, Qi Qian
Renal fibrosis is the common pathological hallmark of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) with diverse aetiologies. Recent researches have highlighted the critical role of hypoxia during the development of renal fibrosis as a final common pathway in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), which joints the scientist's attention recently to exploit the molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced renal fibrogenesis. The scaring formation is a multilayered cellular response and involves the regulation of multiple hypoxia-inducible signalling pathways and complex interactive networks...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071894/noninvasive-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-with-raman-spectroscopy
#10
Rishikesh Pandey, Santosh Kumar Paidi, Tulio A Valdez, Chi Zhang, Nicolas Spegazzini, Ramachandra Rao Dasari, Ishan Barman
The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes...
January 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012182/development-of-a-multidimensional-assessment-tool-for-uremic-pruritus-in-dialysis-patients-up-dial
#11
S Nochaiwong, C Ruengorn, R Awiphan, S Panyathong, K Noppakun, W Chongruksut, S Chiewchanvit
BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients with uremic pruritus (UP) have a significantly impaired quality of life. To assess the therapeutic effect of UP treatments, a well-validated comprehensive and multidimensional instrument needed to be established. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a multidimensional scale assessing the UP in dialysis patients: Uremic Pruritus in Dialysis Patients (UP-Dial). METHODS: The development and validation of the UP-Dial instrument was conducted in four phases: (1) item generation, (2) development of pilot questionnaire, (3) refinement of questionnaire with patient recruitment, and (4) psychometric validation...
December 23, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942587/chorioretinal-thinning-in-chronic-kidney-disease-links-to-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#12
Craig Balmforth, Job J M H van Bragt, Titia Ruijs, James R Cameron, Robert Kimmitt, Rebecca Moorhouse, Alicja Czopek, May Khei Hu, Peter J Gallacher, James W Dear, Shyamanga Borooah, Iain M MacIntyre, Tom M C Pearson, Laura Willox, Dinesh Talwar, Muriel Tafflet, Christophe Roubeix, Florian Sennlaub, Siddharthan Chandran, Baljean Dhillon, David J Webb, Neeraj Dhaun
BACKGROUND. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and there is an established association between vasculopathy affecting the kidney and eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel, rapid method for high-definition imaging of the retina and choroid. Its use in patients at high cardiovascular disease risk remains unexplored. METHODS. We used the new SPECTRALIS OCT machine to examine retinal and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular volume, and choroidal thickness in a prospective cross-sectional study in 150 subjects: 50 patients with hypertension (defined as a documented clinic BP greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg (prior to starting any treatment) with no underlying cause identified); 50 with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 8-125 ml/min/1...
December 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920818/exposition-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-on-the-surface-of-hek293t-cell-and-evaluation-of-its-expression
#13
Mina Mirian, Razieh Taghizadeh, Hossein Khanahmad, Mansour Salehi, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Shirin Kouhpayeh
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered as a global health concern and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the most immunogenic protein of HBV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of HBsAg on the cell surface of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T). After transformation of expression vector pcDNA/HBsAg to E.coli TOP10F', plasmid was extracted and digested with BglII. Afterwards, the linearized vector was transfected to cells and treated with hygromycin B for 5 weeks to expand the resulted clonies...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894672/microrna-145-regulates-the-rlr-signaling-pathway-in-miiuy-croaker-after-poly-i-c-stimulation-via-targeting-mda5
#14
Jingjing Han, Yuena Sun, Weihua Song, Tianjun Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via degrading the target mRNAs or repressing translation. In this study, the regulation of miRNA to the RLR (RIG-I-like receptor) signaling pathway by degrading the target mRNAs was researched in miiuy croaker. MDA5, a microRNA-145-5p (miR-145-5p) putative target gene, was predicted by bioinformatics, and the target sites from the 3'untranslated region of MDA5 transcripts were confirmed using luciferase reporter assays...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852607/ion-transport-in-the-zebrafish-kidney-from-a-human-disease-angle-possibilities-considerations-and-future-perspectives
#15
Simone Kersten, Francisco J Arjona
Unique experimental advantages, such as its embryonic/larval transparency, high-throughput nature and ease of genetic modification, underpin the rapid emergence of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent model in biomedical research. Particularly in the field of nephrology, the zebrafish provides a promising model for studying the physiological implications of human solute transport processes along consecutive nephron segments. However, while the zebrafish might be considered a valuable model for numerous renal ion transport diseases and functional studies of many channels and transporters, not all human renal electrolyte transport mechanisms and human diseases can be modeled in the zebrafish...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804986/the-translational-potential-of-micrornas-as-biofluid-markers-of-urological-tumours
#16
REVIEW
Annika Fendler, Carsten Stephan, George M Yousef, Glen Kristiansen, Klaus Jung
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are secreted by cells in vesicles, bound in a ribonucleoprotein complex or as free molecules. These miRNA secretion pathways are dysregulated in cancer, making miRNAs attractive candidate molecules for liquid biopsies. A number of studies have investigated the regulation of miRNA secretion into blood and urine and suggested that miRNAs are noninvasive diagnostic, prognostic and surveillance markers in urological carcinomas, and research in this area has increased over the past 5 years. However, methodological and analytical pitfalls exist and require addressing to enable future translation of the laboratory findings regarding miRNAs as biomarkers into clinical practice in bladder cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer and testicular cancer...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803669/the-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-renal-system
#17
REVIEW
Xu Cao, Jin-Song Bian
Hydrogen sulfide has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This review surveys the emerging role of H2S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H2S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795549/nanomedicines-for-renal-disease-current-status-and-future-applications
#18
REVIEW
Nazila Kamaly, John C He, Dennis A Ausiello, Omid C Farokhzad
Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771930/cddo-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#19
Bryan J Mathis, Taixing Cui
There has been a continued interest in translational research focused on both natural products and manipulation of functional groups on these compounds to create novel derivatives with higher desired activities. Oleanolic acid, a component of traditional Chinese medicine used in hepatitis therapy, was modified by chemical processes to form 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO). This modification increased anti-inflammatory activity significantly and additional functional groups on the CDDO backbone have shown promise in treating conditions ranging from kidney disease to obesity to diabetes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759832/preclinical-molecular-imaging-development-of-instrumentation-for-translational-research-with-small-laboratory-animals
#20
Jorge Mejia, Ana Claudia Camargo Miranda, Ana Claudia Ranucci Durante, Larissa Rolim de Oliveira, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de Barboza, Katerin Taboada Rosell, Daniele Pereira Jardim, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Marilia Alves Dos Reis, Marcela Forli Catanoso, Orfa Yineth Galvis-Alonso, Francisco Romero Cabral
Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein...
July 2016: Einstein
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