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Translational kidney research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533908/ascites-refractory-ascites-and-hyponatremia-in-cirrhosis
#1
Brett Fortune, Andres Cardenas
Ascites is the most common complication related to cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Ascites is a consequence of the loss of compensatory mechanisms to maintain the overall effective arterial blood volume due to worsening splanchnic arterial vasodilation as a result of clinically significant portal hypertension. In order to maintain effective arterial blood volume, vasoconstrictor and antinatriuretic pathways are activated, which increase overall sodium and fluid retention...
May 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521678/ipgk-pseaac-identify-lysine-phosphoglycerylation-sites-in-proteins-by-incorporating-four-different-tiers-of-amino-acid-pairwise-coupling-information-into-the-general-pseaac
#2
Li-Ming Liu, Yan Xu, Kuo-Chen Chou
BACKGROUND: Occurring at Lys residues, the PGK (lysine phosphoglycerylation) is a special kind of post-translational modification (PTM). It may invert the charge potential of the modified residue and change the protein structures and functions, causing various diseases in liver, brain, and kidney. OBJECTIVE: From the angles of both basic research and drug development, we are facing a critical challenging problem: for an uncharacterized protein sequence containing many Lys residues, which ones can be of phosphoglycerylation, and which ones cannot? METHOD: To address this problem, we have developed a predictor called iPGK-PseAAC by incorporating into the general PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) with four different tiers of amino acid pairwise coupling information, where tiers 1, 2, 3, and 4 refer to the amino acid pairwise couplings between all the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th most contiguous residues along a protein segment, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514126/-haptoglobin-polymorphism-as-an-independent-predictor-of-diabetic-nephropathy-and-retinopathy
#3
Inbal Dahan, Nadia Thauho, Farid Nakhoul, Nakhoul Nakhoul, Hanin Jabaly, Evgeny Farber
The antioxidant protein haptoglobin (Hp) plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. In humans, two alleles of Hp were identified: 1 and 2 with three possible genotypes: 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2. The Hp protein products differ in their biochemical and biophysical properties, such as their antioxidant capacity. The Hp1 protein is superior to the Hp2 protein in binding to free hemoglobin and neutralizing its oxidative potential and the accompanying renal and retinal injury...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499025/pro-risk-scores-for-chronic-kidney-disease-progression-are-robust-powerful-and-ready-for-implementation
#4
Navdeep Tangri, Thomas Ferguson, Paul Komenda
Accurate risk prediction for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression can inform the patient-provider dialogue, and provide actionable thresholds for key clinical decisions. In 2011, we developed the kidney failure risk equations (KFREs) to predict the risk of kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplant in patients with CKD. Subsequently, the KFREs have been extensively validated, and have now been proven accurate in multiple continents, ethnicities and disease-specific subpopulations. They can discriminate progressors from non-progressors, and are well calibrated and easy to use...
May 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492401/renal-function-follow-up-and-renal-recovery-after-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-children
#5
Erin Hessey, Rami Ali, Marc Dorais, Geneviève Morissette, Michael Pizzi, Nikki Rink, Philippe Jouvet, Jacques Lacroix, Véronique Phan, Michael Zappitelli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors associated with renal recovery from acute kidney injury in critically ill children and the extent to which serum creatinine is measured before discharge. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two PICUs at tertiary centers in Montreal, QC, Canada. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr old) admitted to the PICU between 2003 and 2005. Patients with end-stage renal disease, no healthcare number, died during admission, or admitted postcardiac surgery were excluded...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491336/opportunities-for-engaging-patients-in-kidney-research
#6
REVIEW
Maryam N Demian, Ngan N Lam, Fabrice Mac-Way, Ruth Sapir-Pichhadze, Nicolas Fernandez
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the rationale for engaging patients in research as well as to review the established and envisioned advantages and strategies for patient-researcher partnerships. The authors of this article, which include a patient and 4 researchers in kidney disease, discuss the expected benefits and opportunities for patient engagement in their respective research programs. The 4 research programs span the spectrum of kidney disease and focus on enhancing bone health, increasing living donor kidney transplants, improving medication adherence, and preventing kidney transplant rejection...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487457/do-outcomes-after-kidney-transplantation-differ-for-black-patients-in-england-versus-new-york-state-a-comparative-population-cohort-analysis
#7
Sanna Tahir, Holly Gillott, Francesca Jackson-Spence, Jay Nath, Jemma Mytton, Felicity Evison, Adnan Sharif
OBJECTIVES: Inferior outcomes for black kidney transplant recipients in the USA may not be generalisable elsewhere. In this population cohort analysis, we compared outcomes for black kidney transplant patients in England versus New York State. DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative, population cohort study utilising administrative data registries. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: English data were derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, while New York State data were derived from Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484983/ischemic-preconditioning-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#8
REVIEW
Maranatha Ayodele, Sebastian Koch
Preconditioning is the premise that controlled preemptive exposure to sub-lethal doses of a stressor and can condition an organism or organ to later withstand a lethal dose. This process relies on marshaling endogenous survival resources that have evolved as part of an organism's evolutionary struggle to overcome at times harsh environmental conditions. This preconditioning response occurs through activation of myriad complex mechanisms that run the gamut from alterations in gene expression to the de novo synthesis and post-translational modification of proteins, and it may occur across exposure to a wide variety of stressors (i...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473971/design-and-implementation-of-the-hepatorenal-fibrocystic-disease-core-center-clinical-database-a-centralized-resource-for-characterizing-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-other-hepatorenal-fibrocystic-diseases
#9
Bakri Alzarka, Hiroki Morizono, John W Bollman, Dongkyu Kim, Lisa M Guay-Woodford
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and other hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases (HRFD) are relatively rare recessive disorders that constitute an important set of childhood nephropathies. Little is known about fundamental pathogenesis, and advances toward clinical trials will require well-characterized patient cohorts and the development of predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Such studies in rare diseases require greater collaboration than the efforts in common diseases where large patient repositories can be built at a single site...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460645/statin-use-and-hip-fractures-in-u-s-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
Chandan Vangala, Colin R Lenihan, Maria E Montez-Rath, Sumi Sukumaran Nair, Sankar D Navaneethan, Venkat Ramanathan, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
BACKGROUND: Basic and translational research supports beneficial effects of statins on bone metabolism. Clinical studies suggest that statin use may reduce the risk of hip fractures in the general population. Whether statin use is associated with hip fracture risk in kidney transplant recipients, a particularly high-risk group for this outcome, is unknown. METHODS: From the U.S. Renal Data System (2007-2011), we identified all hip fracture events recorded in Medicare billing claims of first-time kidney transplant recipients...
May 1, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440993/-training-of-institutional-research-networks-as-a-strategy-of-improvement
#11
María Eugenia Galván-Plata, Eduardo Almeida-Gutiérrez, Fabio Abdel Salamanca-Gómez
The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) through the Coordinación de Investigación en Salud (Health Research Council) has promoted a strong link between the generation of scientific knowledge and the clinical care through the program Redes Institucionales de Investigación (Institutional Research Network Program), whose main aim is to promote and generate collaborative research between clinical, basic, epidemiologic, educational, economic and health services researchers, seeking direct benefits for patients, as well as to generate a positive impact on institutional processes...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#12
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410618/liquid-biopsy-a-step-forward-towards-precision-medicine-in-urologic-malignancies
#13
REVIEW
Ashley Di Meo, Jenni Bartlett, Yufeng Cheng, Maria D Pasic, George M Yousef
There is a growing trend towards exploring the use of a minimally invasive "liquid biopsy" to identify biomarkers in a number of cancers, including urologic malignancies. Multiple aspects can be assessed in circulating cell-free DNA, including cell-free DNA levels, integrity, methylation and mutations. Other prospective liquid biopsy markers include circulating tumor cells, circulating RNAs (miRNA, lncRNAs and mRNAs), cell-free proteins, peptides and exosomes have also emerged as non-invasive cancer biomarkers...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407121/urea-and-chronic-kidney-disease-the-comeback-of-the-century-in-uraemia-research
#14
Raymond Vanholder, Tessa Gryp, Griet Glorieux
Urea, a marker of uraemic retention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and of adequacy of intradialytic solute removal, has traditionally been considered to be biologically inert. However, a number of recent experimental data suggest that urea is toxic at concentrations representative for CKD. First of all, at least five studies indicate that urea itself induces molecular changes related to insulin resistance, free radical production, apoptosis and disruption of the protective intestinal barrier. Second, urea is at the origin of the generation of cyanate, ammonia and carbamylated compounds, which as such all have been linked to biological changes...
April 12, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401306/toolbox-in-a-tadpole-xenopus-for-kidney-research
#15
REVIEW
Maike Getwan, Soeren S Lienkamp
Xenopus is a versatile model organism increasingly used to study organogenesis and genetic diseases. The rapid embryonic development, targeted injections, loss- and gain-of-function experiments and an increasing supply of tools for functional in vivo analysis are unique advantages of the Xenopus system. Here, we review the vast array of methods available that have facilitated its transition into a translational model. We will focus primarily on how these methods have been employed in the study of kidney development, renal function and kidney disease...
April 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391341/is-there-a-role-for-immunosuppression-in-immunoglobulin-a-nephropathy
#16
Ali I Al-Lawati, Heather N Reich
The most common primary glomerular disease globally is IgA nephropathy (IgAN). It is often a slowly progressive disease, and ∼40% of patients will progress to kidney failure. Due to a lack of large clinical trial networks and a lack of surrogate markers of treatment efficacy, there are relatively few large multicenter clinical trials in IgAN. Given that both the pathogenesis and progression of IgAN are linked to defects in mucosal immune regulation and inflammation, use of immunosuppression to prevent kidney failure is well founded...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296980/recent-progress-of-the-aregpkd-registry-study-on-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease
#17
Kathrin Ebner, Franz Schaefer, Max Christoph Liebau
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare monogenic disease with a severe phenotype often presenting prenatally or in early childhood. With its obligate renal and hepatic involvement, ARPKD is one of the most important indications for liver and/or kidney transplantation in childhood. Marked phenotypic variability is observed, the genetic basis of which is largely unknown. Treatment is symptomatic and largely empiric as evidence-based guidelines are lacking. Therapeutic initiatives for ARPKD face the problem of highly variable cohorts and lack of clinical or biochemical risk markers without clear-cut clinical end points...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270932/the-krescent-program-2005-2015-an-evaluation-of-the-state-of-kidney-research-training-in-canada
#18
Kevin D Burns, Adeera Levin, Elisabeth Fowler, Leah Butcher, Marc Turcotte, Mary-Jo Makarchuk, Benoît Macaluso, Vincent Larivière, Philip M Sherman
BACKGROUND: The Kidney Research Scientist Core Education and National Training (KRESCENT) Program was launched in 2005 to enhance kidney research capacity in Canada and foster knowledge translation across the 4 themes of health research. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of KRESCENT on its major objectives and on the careers of trainees after its first 10 years. METHODS: An online survey of trainees (n = 53) who had completed or were enrolled in KRESCENT was conducted in 2015...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267162/multi-functional-scaling-methodology-for-translational-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-applications-using-integrated-microphysiological-systems-mps
#19
Christian Maass, Cynthia L Stokes, Linda G Griffith, Murat Cirit
Microphysiological systems (MPS) provide relevant physiological environments in vitro for studies of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and biological mechanisms for translational research. Designing multi-MPS platforms is essential to study multi-organ systems. Typical design approaches, including direct and allometric scaling, scale each MPS individually and are based on relative sizes not function. This study's aim was to develop a new multi-functional scaling approach for integrated multi-MPS platform design for specific applications...
April 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266040/ex-vivo-porcine-organ-perfusion-models-as-a-suitable-platform-for-translational-transplant-research
#20
Rohan Kumar, Wen Yuan Chung, Ashley Robert Dennison, Giuseppe Garcea
In transplantation surgery, extending the criteria for organ donation to include organs that may have otherwise been previously discarded has provided the impetus to improve organ preservation. The traditional method of cold static storage (CS) has been tried and tested and is suitable for organs meeting standard criteria donation. Ex vivo machine perfusion is, however, associated with evidence suggesting that it may be better than CS alone and may allow for organ donation criteria to be extended. Much of our knowledge of organ preservation is derived from animal studies...
March 6, 2017: Artificial Organs
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