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The elephant in the room

A T George, S Aggarwal, S Dharmavaram, A Menon, M Dube, M Vogler, A Field
AIM: Biennial faecal occult testing (FOBT) is used to screen for colorectal cancer throughout the United Kingdom (UK). Interval cancers are tumours that develop in patients between screening rounds who have had a negative FOBT. Through a multicentre study, we compared demographics of patients with interval cancers, FOBT screen detected cancers and cancers that developed in patients who chose not to participate in the screening programme. METHOD: Five hundred and sixteen colorectal cancers were detected in the screening age group (60-74 years) population in three United Kingdom NHS Hospitals over two years...
December 19, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Patricia S Yoder-Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Amanda J MacFarlane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
John R Doty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Malika Sharma, Ayelet Kuper
The deaths of black men and women while in police custody, rising anti-immigrant sentiment and rhetoric in high-income countries, and the continued health disparities experienced by Indigenous communities globally have brought race and racism to the forefront of public discourse in recent years. In a context where academic health science centres are increasingly called to be "socially accountable," ignoring the larger social context of race and racism is something that medical education institutions can little afford to do...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Shakira Reed-Wells, Maryori Canales, Luzmercy Perez, Marisa Rogers, A Russell Localio, Andrea J Apter
Research on asthma frequently recruits patients from clinics because the ready pool of patients leads to easy access to patients in office waiting areas, emergency departments, or hospital wards. Patients with other chronic conditions, and with mobility problems, face exposures at home that are not easily identified at the clinic. In this article, we describe the perspective of the community health workers and the challenges they encountered when making home visits while implementing a research intervention in a cohort of low-income, minority patients...
December 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Lisa A Neff, Benjamin R Karney
Compared to affluent marriages, lower income marriages develop within a context filled with negative stressors that may prove quite toxic for marital stability. The current paper argues that stressful contexts may undermine marital well-being through two routes. First, external stressors create additional problems within the marriage by diverting time and attention away from activities that promote intimacy between partners. Second, external stress may render spouses ill-equipped to cope with this increase in problems by draining spouses of the energy and resources necessary for responding to marital challenges in a constructive manner...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Gail J Demmler-Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman, Adriana Galván, K Paige Harden, Ronald E Dahl
The onset of adolescence is a time of profound changes in motivation, cognition, behavior, and social relationships. Existing neurodevelopmental models have integrated our current understanding of adolescent brain development; however, there has been surprisingly little focus on the importance of adolescence as a sensitive period for romantic and sexual development. As young people enter adolescence, one of their primary tasks is to gain knowledge and experience that will allow them to take on the social roles of adults, including engaging in romantic and sexual relationships...
September 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sanja Sljivic, Zoe M MacIsaac, Ernest K Manders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Ara Aiken, C E Aiken, J Trussell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Barbara S Beltz, Georg Brenneis, Jeanne L Benton
The 1st-generation neural precursors in the crustacean brain are functionally analogous to neural stem cells in mammals. Their slow cycling, migration of their progeny, and differentiation of their descendants into neurons over several weeks are features of the neural precursor lineage in crayfish that also characterize adult neurogenesis in mammals. However, the 1st-generation precursors in crayfish do not self-renew, contrasting with conventional wisdom that proposes the long-term self-renewal of adult neural stem cells...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Tanya White-Davis, Emma Stein, Alison Karasz
OBJECTIVES: For centuries, the concept of race, a uniquely pervasive social construct, has often complicated dialogue and interactions between groups of people. This study assessed perceptions and attitudes of faculty and trainees with varied racial backgrounds within graduate medical and psychology programs. Self-reported responses addressed potential barriers and facilitating factors required for meaningful conversations about race. METHODS: A brief 18-question survey was developed and administered electronically to three professional and academic Listservs within a large metropolitan city in northeast United States...
May 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Alexander G Shaw, Kathleen Sim, Elizabeth Powell, Emma Cornwell, Teresa Cramer, Zoë E McClure, Ming-Shi Li, J Simon Kroll
BACKGROUND: In this manuscript, we investigate the "stones best left unturned" of sample storage and preparation and their implications for the next-generation sequencing of infant faecal microbial communities by the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. We present a number of experiments that investigate the potential effects of often overlooked methodology factors, establishing a "normal" degree of variation expected between replica sequenced samples. Sources of excess variation are then identified, as measured by observation of alpha diversity, taxonomic group counts and beta diversity magnitudes between microbial communities...
July 30, 2016: Microbiome
Dalane W Kitzman, Sanjiv J Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ron Borland
This commentary argues that a nicotine reduction strategy for tobacco control is a secondary strategy to the wider availability of low toxin forms of nicotine to give smokers a viable alternative to cigarettes. Failure to confront the likely reality of continued nicotine use and to make it as low in harm as possible may prolong the tobacco epidemic.
June 29, 2016: Tobacco Control
Rochelle Caplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Epilepsy Currents
Rajib Paul, Anupom Borah
BACKGROUND: Dopamine replacement therapy by its precursor, L-3.4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), has been the treatment of choice for Parkinson's disease. However, the possible contributory effect of L-DOPA therapy on the progression of Parkinson's disease mediated by the L-DOPA-induced toxic metabolites remains elusive. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Prolong use of L-DOPA leads to behavioral impediments and instigate the generation of several toxic metabolites. One such metabolite is homocysteine, the level of which increases in the plasma of Parkinson's disease patients undergoing L-DOPA therapy, as well as in brain of animal models of the disease...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rebecca T Gilbert, John S Hudson, David Strider
Health care bullying is a pervasive, underestimated, and underreported problem that results in poor outcomes for staff, patients, and health care organizations. The most common form of health care bullying occurs between nurses. Nurse managers hold an important role in the prevention and elimination of frontline nurse-to-nurse bullying. An anonymous Web-based survey was conducted to uncover what behaviors nurse managers perceive as bullying and how they respond to bullying acts. Respondents who had witnessed or been victimized by bullying were more apt to identify bullying and those who had been victimized or supervised nurses for more than 20 years were more prone to act upon bullying behaviors...
July 2016: Nursing Administration Quarterly
Peter Leusink, Thea H A M van der Waart, Christine M Segeren, Tiny Jaarsma
Recently, the Dutch College of General Practitioners released a Practice Guideline on Sexual Problems which provides clear directives for the diagnosis and management of various sexual disorders in men and women. Patients who are managed in general practice and in outpatient clinics might experience distress related to sexual problems due to their age, medical condition or treatment, or distress related to problems in establishing and maintaining intimate relationships. We present two clinical cases. The first case is a woman aged 44 years with breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant tamoxifen...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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