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The elephant in the room

Gail J Demmler-Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman, Adriana Galván, K Paige Harden, Ronald E Dahl
The onset of adolescence is a time of profound changes in motivation, cognition, behavior, and social relationships. Existing neurodevelopmental models have integrated our current understanding of adolescent brain development; however, there has been surprisingly little focus on the importance of adolescence as a sensitive period for romantic and sexual development. As young people enter adolescence, one of their primary tasks is to gain knowledge and experience that will allow them to take on the social roles of adults, including engaging in romantic and sexual relationships...
September 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sanja Sljivic, Zoe M MacIsaac, Ernest K Manders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Ara Aiken, C E Aiken, J Trussell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Barbara S Beltz, Georg Brenneis, Jeanne L Benton
The 1st-generation neural precursors in the crustacean brain are functionally analogous to neural stem cells in mammals. Their slow cycling, migration of their progeny, and differentiation of their descendants into neurons over several weeks are features of the neural precursor lineage in crayfish that also characterize adult neurogenesis in mammals. However, the 1st-generation precursors in crayfish do not self-renew, contrasting with conventional wisdom that proposes the long-term self-renewal of adult neural stem cells...
August 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Tanya White-Davis, Emma Stein, Alison Karasz
OBJECTIVES: For centuries, the concept of race, a uniquely pervasive social construct, has often complicated dialogue and interactions between groups of people. This study assessed perceptions and attitudes of faculty and trainees with varied racial backgrounds within graduate medical and psychology programs. Self-reported responses addressed potential barriers and facilitating factors required for meaningful conversations about race. METHODS: A brief 18-question survey was developed and administered electronically to three professional and academic Listservs within a large metropolitan city in northeast United States...
May 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Alexander G Shaw, Kathleen Sim, Elizabeth Powell, Emma Cornwell, Teresa Cramer, Zoë E McClure, Ming-Shi Li, J Simon Kroll
BACKGROUND: In this manuscript, we investigate the "stones best left unturned" of sample storage and preparation and their implications for the next-generation sequencing of infant faecal microbial communities by the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. We present a number of experiments that investigate the potential effects of often overlooked methodology factors, establishing a "normal" degree of variation expected between replica sequenced samples. Sources of excess variation are then identified, as measured by observation of alpha diversity, taxonomic group counts and beta diversity magnitudes between microbial communities...
2016: Microbiome
Dalane W Kitzman, Sanjiv J Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ron Borland
This commentary argues that a nicotine reduction strategy for tobacco control is a secondary strategy to the wider availability of low toxin forms of nicotine to give smokers a viable alternative to cigarettes. Failure to confront the likely reality of continued nicotine use and to make it as low in harm as possible may prolong the tobacco epidemic.
June 29, 2016: Tobacco Control
Rochelle Caplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Epilepsy Currents
Rajib Paul, Anupom Borah
BACKGROUND: Dopamine replacement therapy by its precursor, L-3.4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), has been the treatment of choice for Parkinson's disease. However, the possible contributory effect of L-DOPA therapy on the progression of Parkinson's disease mediated by the L-DOPA-induced toxic metabolites remains elusive. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Prolong use of L-DOPA leads to behavioral impediments and instigate the generation of several toxic metabolites. One such metabolite is homocysteine, the level of which increases in the plasma of Parkinson's disease patients undergoing L-DOPA therapy, as well as in brain of animal models of the disease...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rebecca T Gilbert, John S Hudson, David Strider
Health care bullying is a pervasive, underestimated, and underreported problem that results in poor outcomes for staff, patients, and health care organizations. The most common form of health care bullying occurs between nurses. Nurse managers hold an important role in the prevention and elimination of frontline nurse-to-nurse bullying. An anonymous Web-based survey was conducted to uncover what behaviors nurse managers perceive as bullying and how they respond to bullying acts. Respondents who had witnessed or been victimized by bullying were more apt to identify bullying and those who had been victimized or supervised nurses for more than 20 years were more prone to act upon bullying behaviors...
July 2016: Nursing Administration Quarterly
Peter Leusink, Thea H A M van der Waart, Christine M Segeren, Tiny Jaarsma
Recently, the Dutch College of General Practitioners released a Practice Guideline on Sexual Problems which provides clear directives for the diagnosis and management of various sexual disorders in men and women. Patients who are managed in general practice and in outpatient clinics might experience distress related to sexual problems due to their age, medical condition or treatment, or distress related to problems in establishing and maintaining intimate relationships. We present two clinical cases. The first case is a woman aged 44 years with breast cancer treated by mastectomy and adjuvant tamoxifen...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Ian Duncan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Population Health Management
Corey A Carter, Karen Zeman, Regina M Day, Patrick Richard, Arnold Oronsky, Neil Oronsky, Michelle Lybeck, Jan Scicinski, Bryan Oronsky
Like Chinese boxes nesting inside each other, the classification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is subdivided into smaller and smaller subtypes on the basis of histological and molecular attributes. The latter characterizes NSCLC by its molecular alterations and the identification of inhibitors that target these cancer-specific "driver" mutations. Despite the initial promise of precision-guided therapies to inhibit a finer and finer array of molecular subcategories, despite even the curative potential of immunotherapeutic checkpoint blockade, in particular, casualties still abound and true clinical success stories are few and far between; the ever-present, if sometimes unmentioned, "elephant in the room", is the acquisition of resistance, which, sooner or later, rears its ugly head to undermine treatment success and shorten survival...
March 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Colin Macilwain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2016: Nature
Takashi Tsukamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Daniela Giustarini, Dimitrios Tsikas, Graziano Colombo, Aldo Milzani, Isabella Dalle-Donne, Paolo Fanti, Ranieri Rossi
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-mass thiol within cells and one of the major antioxidant compounds in body fluids. Under pro-oxidant conditions, two GSH molecules donate one electron each and are converted into glutathione disulfide (GSSG). The GSH/GSSG molar ratio is considered a powerful index of oxidative stress and disease risk. Despite high interest in GSH/GSSG titration as measures of thiol redox balance, no broad agreement has yet been reached as to the best pre-analytical and analytical methods for the quantitation of these molecules in biological samples...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Azmi Mohamed, Tretya Ardyani, Suriani Abu Bakar, Paul Brown, Martin Hollamby, Masanobu Sagisaka, Julian Eastoe
Graphene is the newest member of the carbon family, and has revolutionized materials science especially in the field of polymer nanocomposites. However, agglomeration and uniform dispersion remains an Achilles' heel (even an elephant in the room), hampering the optimization of this material for practical applications. Chemical functionalization of graphene can overcome these hurdles but is often rather disruptive to the extended pi-conjugation, altering the desired physical and electronic properties. Employing surfactants as stabilizing agents in latex technology circumvents the need for chemical modification allowing for the formation of nanocomposites with retained graphene properties...
April 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Shuxing Zhang, Zhi Tan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
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