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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332615/hiv-epidemic-heterogeneity-in-zimbabwe-evidence-from-successive-demographic-and-health-surveys
#1
Zainab Oseni, Farah Seedat, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala
Zimbabwe has one of the worst HIV epidemics in the world. This study investigated data from two successive Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys (ZDHS) conducted in 2005-06 and 2010-11. A random representative sample of 30,000 men aged 15-59 and women aged 15-49 was selected from the two surveys. The HIV prevalence was mapped with a flexible, coherent regression framework using a geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model. HIV indicator prevalence maps were constructed at the regional level, and at the administrative level relevant for policy design, planning and decision-making...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331698/exploring-metabolic-factors-and-health-behaviors-in-relation-to-suicide-attempts-a-case-control-study
#2
Stefan Perera, Rebecca B Eisen, Meha Bhatt, Brittany B Dennis, Monica Bawor, Wala El-Sheikh, Jane DeJesus, Sumathy Rangarajan, Heather Sholer, Elisabeth Iordan, Pam Mackie, Shofiqul Islam, Mahshid Dehghan, Jennifer Brasch, David Meyre, Russell de Souza, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts are a serious public health concern with devastating global impact, thereby necessitating the development of an adequate prevention strategy. Few known risk factors of suicide attempts are directly modifiable. This study sought to investigate potential associations between health behaviors and suicide attempts, identifying novel opportunities for clinicians to help prevent suicidal behavior. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to compare body weight, serum total cholesterol, physical activity, tobacco use, and dietary food groups among adults who had made a suicide attempt (n = 84) to psychiatric inpatients (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) without history of suicide attempt...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330983/ultrasound-and-supine-chest-radiograph-in-road-traffic-accident-patients-a-reliable-and-convenient-way-to-diagnose-pleural-effusion
#3
Uzma Mumtaz, Zainab Zahur, Muhammad Ali Raza, Madiha Mumtaz
BACKGROUND: Portable bed side ultrasound and supine chest radiograph of 80 traumatic patients excluding very clinically unstable patients who subsequently underwent CT scan chest was done for traumatic effusion showing that ultrasound had a higher sensitivity than CXR, 88.23% and 77.94%, respectively, and a similar specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. Objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of high resolution ultrasound and supine chest x-ray in detection of pleural effusion in road traffic accident patients keeping plain CT chest as gold standard...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325533/a-systematic-review-of-comparisons-between-protocols-or-registrations-and-full-reports-in-primary-biomedical-research
#4
Guowei Li, Luciana P F Abbade, Ikunna Nwosu, Yanling Jin, Alvin Leenus, Muhammad Maaz, Mei Wang, Meha Bhatt, Laura Zielinski, Nitika Sanger, Bianca Bantoto, Candice Luo, Ieta Shams, Hamnah Shahid, Yaping Chang, Guangwen Sun, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Mitchell A H Levine, Jonathan D Adachi, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Prospective study protocols and registrations can play a significant role in reducing incomplete or selective reporting of primary biomedical research, because they are pre-specified blueprints which are available for the evaluation of, and comparison with, full reports. However, inconsistencies between protocols or registrations and full reports have been frequently documented. In this systematic review, which forms part of our series on the state of reporting of primary biomedical, we aimed to survey the existing evidence of inconsistencies between protocols or registrations (i...
January 11, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317952/orthodontic-treatment-consideration-in-diabetic-patients
#5
REVIEW
Ahmed Almadih, Maryam Al-Zayer, Sukainh Dabel, Ahmed Alkhalaf, Ali Al Mayyad, Wajdi Bardisi, Shouq Alshammari, Zainab Alsihati
Although orthodontic treatment is commonly indicated for young healthy individuals, recent trends showed an increase in number of older individuals undergoing orthodontic interventions. The increased age resulted in a proportionate increase in the prevalence of systemic diseases facing dentists during orthodontic procedures, especially diabetes mellitus. This necessitates that dentists should be aware of the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and its early signs particularly in teeth and oral cavity. It is also essential for them to understand the implications of diabetes on orthodontic treatment and the measures to be considered during managing those patients...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301383/increasing-the-strength-and-production-of-artemisinin-and-its-derivatives
#6
REVIEW
Syed Lal Badshah, Asad Ullah, Nasir Ahmad, Zainab M Almarhoon, Yahia Mabkhot
Artemisinin is a natural sesquiterpene lactone obtained from the Artemisia annua herb. It is widely used for the treatment of malaria. In this article, we have reviewed the role of artemisinin in controlling malaria, spread of resistance to artemisinin and the different methods used for its large scale production. The highest amount of artemisinin gene expression in tobacco leaf chloroplast leads to the production of 0.8 mg/g of the dry weight of the plant. This will revolutionize the treatment and control of malaria in third world countries...
January 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287585/a-scoping-review-of-comparisons-between-abstracts-and-full-reports-in-primary-biomedical-research
#7
Guowei Li, Luciana P F Abbade, Ikunna Nwosu, Yanling Jin, Alvin Leenus, Muhammad Maaz, Mei Wang, Meha Bhatt, Laura Zielinski, Nitika Sanger, Bianca Bantoto, Candice Luo, Ieta Shams, Hamnah Shahid, Yaping Chang, Guangwen Sun, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Mitchell A H Levine, Jonathan D Adachi, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that research abstracts are commonly inconsistent with their corresponding full reports, and may mislead readers. In this scoping review, which is part of our series on the state of reporting of primary biomedical research, we summarized the evidence from systematic reviews and surveys, to investigate the current state of inconsistent abstract reporting, and to evaluate factors associated with improved reporting by comparing abstracts and their full reports...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283607/retuning-of-lexical-semantic-representations-repetition-and-spacing-effects-in-word-meaning-priming
#8
Hannah N Betts, Rebecca A Gilbert, Zhenguang G Cai, Zainab B Okedara, Jennifer M Rodd
Current models of word-meaning access typically assume that lexical-semantic representations of ambiguous words (e.g., 'bark of the dog/tree') reach a relatively stable state in adulthood, with only the relative frequencies of meanings and immediate sentence context determining meaning preference. However, recent experience also affects interpretation: recently encountered word-meanings become more readily available (Rodd et al., 2016, 2013). Here, 3 experiments investigated how multiple encounters with word-meanings influence the subsequent interpretation of these ambiguous words...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282552/combined-qm-mm-and-monte-carlo-study-for-redox-leveling-in-mn-and-fe-superoxide-dismutase
#9
Muhamed Amin, Zainab Mohamed, Mohamed El-Sayed, Asmaa Samy, Afnan Sultan, Mahmoud Bassuoni, Mohamed H Alkordi
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are vital enzymes for disproportionation of superoxide molecules in mammals. Despite the high similarity between the Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD, they are inactive if the metals in the active sites are exchanged. Here, we use DFT, QM/MM and Monte Carlo sampling to optimize the crystal structure and to calculate the mid-point potential for the native and substituted Mn/Fe-SOD. The optimized DFT and QM/MM structures of the Mn-SOD show a major conformational change for the conserved TYR34 compared to the X-ray structure...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251720/pharmacological-perturbation-of-cdk9-using-selective-cdk9-inhibition-or-degradation
#10
Calla M Olson, Baishan Jiang, Michael A Erb, Yanke Liang, Zainab M Doctor, Zinan Zhang, Tinghu Zhang, Nicholas Kwiatkowski, Myriam Boukhali, Jennifer L Green, Wilhelm Haas, Tyzoon Nomanbhoy, Eric S Fischer, Richard A Young, James E Bradner, Georg E Winter, Nathanael S Gray
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), an important regulator of transcriptional elongation, is a promising target for cancer therapy, particularly for cancers driven by transcriptional dysregulation. We characterized NVP-2, a selective ATP-competitive CDK9 inhibitor, and THAL-SNS-032, a selective CDK9 degrader consisting of a CDK-binding SNS-032 ligand linked to a thalidomide derivative that binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cereblon (CRBN). To our surprise, THAL-SNS-032 induced rapid degradation of CDK9 without affecting the levels of other SNS-032 targets...
December 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249771/synthesis-of-novel-class-of-n-alkyl-isatin-3-iminobenzoic-acid-derivatives-and-their-biological-activity-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-human-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Muhammad Farooq, Zainab M Almarhoon, Nael Abu Taha, Almohannad A R Baabbad, Mohammed A Al-Wadaan, Ayman El-Faham
Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) and many of its derivatives are reported to have pharmacological properties. In this study, we report the synthesis and biological activity of a new class of N-alkyl-isatin-3-iminobenzoic acid derivatives prepared via the condensation of N-alkyl isatin with 4-aminobenzoic acid by conventional, microwave, and ultrasonic methods. Microwave irradiation yielded the products in a shorter reaction time with higher yields and purities. The compounds were screened in zebrafish embryos, and also in three human cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, and Jurkat) and one normal human cell line i...
December 16, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248796/multiple-introductions-of-reassorted-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n8-clade-2-3-4-4b-causing-outbreaks-in-wild-birds-and-poultry-in-egypt
#12
Nahed Yehia, Mahmoud M Naguib, Ruiyun Li, Naglaa Hagag, Mohamed El-Husseiny, Zainab Mosaad, Ahmed Nour, Neveen Rabea, Wafaa M Hasan, Mohamed K Hassan, Timm Harder, Abdel-Satar A Arafa
Recently, an increased incidence of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in poultry linked to infected migratory birds has been reported from different European, Asian and African countries. In Egypt, incursion of HPAI H5N8 virus of clade 2.3.4.4b has been recently registered. Full genomic characterization of 3 virus isolates from wild birds and poultry (backyard and commercial farm sectors) showed high nucleotide similarity among the HA, NA, M, and NS gene segments of the three Egyptian HPAI H5N8 viruses, indicating that they are descendants of a common ancestral virus...
December 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234187/efficacy-of-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine-as-an-antibacterial-additive-for-platelets-stored-at-room-temperature
#13
Hosein Timori Naghadeh, Zohreh Sharifi, Saeideh Soleimani, Zainab Pir Mohamad Jamaat, Shirin Ferdowsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226258/photoelectrochemical-performance-of-n-doped-zno-branched-nanowire-photoanodes
#14
Shrok Allami, Zainab D Abid Ali, Ying Li, Hayder Hamody, Basher Hasan Jawad, Li Liu, Tianshu Li
A ZnO branched-nanowire (BNW) photoanode was doped with N for use in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) to generate H2 from water splitting. First, ZnO BNWs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. Two experimental methods were used for N-doping: the time-controlled direct-current glow discharge plasma (DCGDP) and the DC magnetron plasma (DCMP) methods, to optimize N-doping of the NW structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided the N distribution and atomic percentage in the BNWs. The XPS results confirmed that N distribution into ZnO BNWs occurred by N substitution of O sites in the ZnO structure and through well-screened molecular N2...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226013/novel-therapeutic-approach-for-inhibition-of-hiv-1-using-cell-penetrating-peptide-and-bacterial-toxins
#15
Steven Samuels, Zainab Alwan, Marceline Egnin, Jessie Jaynes, Terry D Connell, Gregory C Bernard, Toufic Nashar
Despite advancements in our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis, critical virus components for immunity, vaccines trials, and drugs development, challenges remain in the fight against HIV-1. Of great importance is the inhibitory function of microbicidal cell penetrating peptides and bacterial toxins that interfere with production and neutralize infection of HIV-1 particles. We demonstrate that the neutralizing activity of a cationic 18 amino acids peptide, is similar to a broadly neutralizing human antibody, and inhibits production of two HIV-1 strains in human cell lines...
October 2017: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215514/misoprostol-with-foley-bulb-compared-with-misoprostol-alone-for-cervical-ripening-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Zainab Al-Ibraheemi, Lois Brustman, Brianne E Bimson, Natalie Porat, Barak Rosenn
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cervical ripening using a combination of misoprostol and a transcervical Foley bulb leads to delivery within a shorter time compared with misoprostol alone. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was offered to women admitted for cervical ripening. Inclusion criteria were gestational age 37 weeks or greater with intact membranes, singleton fetus, cephalic presentation, and Bishop score 6 or less. Exclusion criteria included, among others, prior uterine surgery, ruptured membranes, and any contraindication to vaginal delivery...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213118/vitamin-k2-prevents-lymphoma-in-drosophila
#17
Maytham A Dragh, Zhiliang Xu, Zainab S Al-Allak, Ling Hong
Previous studies have established the anticancer effect of vitamin K2 (VK2). However, its effect on lymphoma induced by UBIAD1/heix mutation in Drosophila remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to develop an in vivo model of lymphoma for the precise characterization of lymphoma phenotypes. We also aimed to improve the understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the preventative effects of VK2 on lymphoma. Our results demonstrated that VK2 prevents lymphoma by acting as an electron carrier and by correcting the function and structure of mitochondria by inhibiting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production mtROS...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200660/measuring-ultra-low-levels-of-nucleotide-biomarkers-using-quartz-crystal-microbalance-and-spr-microarray-imaging-methods-a-comparative-analysis
#18
Gayan Premaratne, Zainab H Al Mubarak, Lakmini Senavirathna, Lin Liu, Sadagopan Krishnan
Circulating serum nucleotide biomarkers are useful indicators for early diagnosis of cancer, respiratory illnesses, and other deadly diseases. In this work, we compared detection performances of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which is a mass sensor, with that of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microarray for an oligonucleotide mimic of a microRNA-21 biomarker. A surface immobilized capture oligonucleotide probe was used to hybridize with the target oligonucleotide (i.e., the microRNA-21 mimic) to facilitate selective detection...
December 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185673/sentinel-lymph-node-mapping-in-endometrial-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jeffrey A How, Patrick O'Farrell, Zainab Amajoud, Susie Lau, Shannon Salvador, Emily How, Walter H Gotlieb
INTRODUCTION: Appropriate extent of lymphadenectomy in clinically, early stage endometrial cancer remains controversial but sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has emerged as an alternative staging strategy, until the advent of molecular prognostic markers. We sought to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine pooled estimates for SLN detection rate and diagnostic accuracy, while exploring impact of the SLN on adjuvant therapy and oncologic outcomes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic search utilizing Medline, Embase, and Web of Science electronic databases for all studies published in the English language until October 31, 2017...
November 28, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185399/negative-predictive-value-of-ultrasound-in-predicting-tumor-free-margins-in-specimen-sonography
#20
Saira Naz, Saima Hafeez, Zainab Hussain, Kiran Hilal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the success of ultrasound in post-excision specimen visualization, and negative predictive value of ultrasound for estimation of tumor-free margins using histopathology as the gold standard. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from May 2010 till January 2013. METHODOLOGY: Sonography of all breast nodules was done before and after exicision by two female radiologists with at least five years clinical experience...
December 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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