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immune homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213466/mechanisms-of-cell-polarity-controlled-epithelial-homeostasis-and-immunity-in-the-intestine
#1
Leon J Klunder, Klaas Nico Faber, Gerard Dijkstra, Sven C D van IJzendoorn
Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we highlight recent advances with regard to the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity-controlled epithelial homeostasis and immunity in the human intestine.
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212624/understanding-the-response-to-endurance-exercise-using-a-systems-biology-approach-combining-blood-metabolomics-transcriptomics-and-mirnomics-in-horses
#2
Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Allison Clark, Marco Moroldo, Céline Robert, Eric Barrey, Jesús Maria López, Laurence Le Moyec
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise in horses requires adaptive processes involving physiological, biochemical, and cognitive-behavioral responses in an attempt to regain homeostasis. We hypothesized that the identification of the relationships between blood metabolome, transcriptome, and miRNome during endurance exercise in horses could provide significant insights into the molecular response to endurance exercise. For this reason, the serum metabolome and whole-blood transcriptome and miRNome data were obtained from ten horses before and after a 160 km endurance competition...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212158/an-integrated-understanding-of-the-immunology-of-allograft-inflammation
#3
Brenna Houlihan, Priscilla Cha, Michael Zasloff, Thomas M Fishbein, Alexander Kroemer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the complex immunology of intestinal transplantation and allograft rejection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings highlight the importance of the intestinal microbiome for intestinal homeostasis and the role of newly discovered innate lymphoid cells in intestinal transplantation. In addition, the role of host antimicrobial Th17 responses in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal allograft rejection has been further elucidated...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#4
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210259/resolution-of-cancer-promoting-inflammation-a-new-approach-for-anticancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Qi Zhang, Bo Zhu, Yongsheng Li
Inflammation is a protective response that eliminates harmful stimuli and restores tissue homeostasis, whereas the failure to resolve inflammation leads to the development of malignancies. Immune cells in the tumor inflammatory microenvironment endow cancer cells with their specific hallmarks, including mutations, metabolic reprograming, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Targeting the inflammatory microenvironment with anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin) or by enhancing antitumor immunity (e.g., chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) has been extensively investigated and has achieved promising results in many cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210258/human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-xeno-graft-versus-host-disease-via-cd39-cd73-adenosine-and-ido-signals
#6
Feng Huang, Maogen Chen, Weiqian Chen, Jian Gu, Jia Yuan, Yaoqiu Xue, Junlong Dang, Wenru Su, Julie Wang, Homayoun H Zadeh, Xiaoshun He, Limin Rong, Nancy Olsen, Song Guo Zheng
Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. We recently reported that human-derived gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have strong capacity to suppress immune responses and T cell-mediated collagen-induced arthritis in animals. However, it is unclear whether these cells can suppress human T cell-mediated diseases. Here, we used a xenogenic GVHD model in the NOD/SCID mouse, which is a useful preclinical construct for evaluating the therapeutic and translational potential of this approach for applications in human disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209996/transient-cannabinoid-receptor-2-blockade-during-immunization-heightens-intensity-and-breadth-of-antigen-specific-antibody-responses-in-young-and-aged-mice
#7
Emmanuel Dotsey, Irina Ushach, Egest Pone, Rie Nakajima, Algis Jasinskas, Donovan A Argueta, Andrea Dillon, Nicholas DiPatrizio, Huw Davies, Albert Zlotnik, Peter D Crompton, Philip L Felgner
The hallmark of vaccines is their ability to prevent the spread of infectious pathogens and thereby serve as invaluable public health tool. Despite their medical relevance, there is a gap in our understanding of the physiological factors that mediate innate and adaptive immune response to vaccines. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a critical modulator of homeostasis in vertebrates. Our results indicate that macrophages and dendritic cells produce the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) upon antigen activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209639/a-macrophage-relay-for-long-distance-signaling-during-postembryonic-tissue-remodeling
#8
Dae Seok Eom, David M Parichy
Macrophages have diverse functions in immunity as well as development and homeostasis. Here we identify a function for these cells in long distance communication during postembryonic tissue remodeling. Ablation of macrophages in zebrafish prevented melanophores from coalescing into adult pigment stripes. Melanophore organization depends on signals provided by cells of the yellow xanthophore lineage via airinemes, long filamentous projections with vesicles at their tips. We show that airineme extension from originating cells, and vesicle deposition on target cells, depend on interactions with macrophages...
February 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208701/excitotoxins-mitochondrial-and-redox-disturbances-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Cecilia Rajda, Dániel Pukoli, Zsuzsanna Bende, Zsófia Majláth, László Vécsei
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). There is increasing evidence that MS is not only characterized by immune mediated inflammatory reactions, but also by neurodegenerative processes. There is cumulating evidence that neurodegenerative processes, for example mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and glutamate (Glu) excitotoxicity, seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. The alteration of mitochondrial homeostasis leads to the formation of excitotoxins and redox disturbances...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208675/pneumonia-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-early-immune-modulator-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Kyung-Yil Lee
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207182/immune-system-stimulation-by-the-gut-symbiont-frischella-perrara-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#11
Olivier Emery, Konstantin Schmidt, Philipp Engel
Gut bacteria engage in various symbiotic interactions with their host and impact gut immunity and homeostasis in different ways. In honey bees, the gut microbiota is composed of a relatively simple, but highly specialized bacterial community. One of its members, the gammaproteobacterium Frischella perrara induces the so-called scab phenotype, a dark-colored band that develops on the epithelial surface of the pylorus. To understand the underlying host response, we analyzed transcriptome changes in the gut in response to bacterial colonization...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203392/effects-of-moringa-oleifera-aqueous-leaf-extract-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#12
REVIEW
Muobarak J Tuorkey
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of Moringa oleifera. This study investigates the antidiabetic effect of M. oleifera and its impact on the immune tolerance. METHODS: Alloxan-induced diabetes model for mice was used. A dose of 100 mg/kg of Moringa extract was orally administered to diabetic treated mice. Glucose and insulin levels were evaluated to calculate insulin resistance. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured...
September 2016: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202619/exopolysaccharide-from-bacillus-subtilis-induces-anti-inflammatory-m2-macrophages-that-prevent-t-cell-mediated-disease
#13
Mallory L Paynich, Sara E Jones-Burrage, Katherine L Knight
Commensal bacteria contribute to immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the underlying mechanisms for this are not well understood. A single dose of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the probiotic spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis protects mice from acute colitis induced by the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium Adoptive transfer of macrophage-rich peritoneal cells from EPS-treated mice confers protection from disease to recipient mice. In vivo, EPS induces development of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in a TLR4-dependent manner, and these cells inhibit T cell activation in vitro and in C...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202513/myeloid-cells-that-impair-immunotherapy-are-restored-in-melanomas-which-acquire-resistance-to-braf-inhibitors
#14
Shannon M Steinberg, Tamer Shabaneh, Peisheng Zhang, Viktor Martyanov, Zhenghui Li, Brian Malik, Tammara Wood, Andrea Boni, Aleksey Molodtsov, Christina V Angeles, Tyler J Curiel, Michael Whitfield, Mary Jo Turk
Acquired resistance to BRAFV600E inhibitors (BRAFi) in melanoma remains a common clinical obstacle, as is the case for any targeted drug therapy that can be developed given the plastic nature of cancers. While there has been significant focus on the cancer cell-intrinsic properties of BRAFi resistance, the impact of BRAFi resistance on host immunity has not been explored. Here we provide preclinical evidence that resistance to BRAFi in an autochthonous mouse model of melanoma is associated with restoration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the tumor microenvironment initially reduced by BRAFi treatment...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198366/th17-cells-express-st2-and-are-controlled-by-the-alarmin-il-33-in-the-small-intestine
#15
A Pascual-Reguant, J Bayat Sarmadi, C Baumann, R Noster, D Cirera-Salinas, C Curato, P Pelczar, S Huber, C E Zielinski, M Löhning, A E Hauser, E Esplugues
TH17 cells are major drivers of inflammation and involved in several autoimmune diseases. Tissue inflammation is a beneficial host response to infection, but it can also contribute to autoimmunity. The crosstalk between a tissue and the immune system during an inflammatory response is key for preserving tissue integrity and restoring physiological processes. However, how the inflamed tissue regulates the magnitude of an immune response by controlling pro-inflammatory T cells is not well characterized so far...
February 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196094/innate-immunity-mediated-longevity-and-longevity-induced-by-germ-cell-removal-converge-on-the-c-type-lectin-domain-protein-irg-7
#16
Elad Yunger, Modi Safra, Mor Levi-Ferber, Anat Haviv-Chesner, Sivan Henis-Korenblit
In C. elegans, removal of the germline triggers molecular events in the neighboring intestine, which sends an anti-aging signal to the rest of the animal. In this study, we identified an innate immunity related gene, named irg-7, as a novel mediator of longevity in germlineless animals. We consider irg-7 to be an integral downstream component of the germline longevity pathway because its expression increases upon germ cell removal and its depletion interferes with the activation of the longevity-promoting transcription factors DAF-16 and DAF-12 in germlineless animals...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195343/galectin-9-diverse-roles-in-hepatic-immune-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Lucy Golden-Mason, Hugo R Rosen
Glycan-binding proteins which include galectins are involved at all stages of immunity and inflammation, ranging from initiation through resolution. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is highly expressed in the liver and has a wide variety of biological functions in innate and adaptive immunity that are instrumental in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis. In the setting of viral hepatitis, increased expression of Gal-9 drives the expansion of regulatory T cells and contraction of effector T cells, thereby favoring viral persistence...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194110/immunosuppressive-effects-of-natural-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsaturated-carbonyl-based-compounds-and-their-analogs-and-derivatives-on-immune-cells-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Laiba Arshad, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Md Areeful Haque
The immune system is complex and pervasive as it functions to prevent or limit infections in the human body. In a healthy organism, the immune system and the redox balance of immune cells maintain homeostasis within the body. The failure to maintain the balance may lead to impaired immune response and either over activity or abnormally low activity of the immune cells resulting in autoimmune or immune deficiency diseases. Compounds containing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-based moieties are often reactive. The reactivity of these groups is responsible for their diverse pharmacological activities, and the most important and widely studied include the natural compounds curcumin, chalcone, and zerumbone...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194024/regnase-1-a-rapid-response-ribonuclease-regulating-inflammation-and-stress-responses
#19
REVIEW
Renfang Mao, Riyun Yang, Xia Chen, Edward W Harhaj, Xiaoying Wang, Yihui Fan
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are central players in post-transcriptional regulation and immune homeostasis. The ribonuclease and RBP Regnase-1 exerts critical roles in both immune cells and non-immune cells. Its expression is rapidly induced under diverse conditions including microbial infections, treatment with inflammatory cytokines and chemical or mechanical stimulation. Regnase-1 activation is transient and is subject to negative feedback mechanisms including proteasome-mediated degradation or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) mediated cleavage...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192375/adipose-tissue-b2-cells-promote-insulin-resistance-through-leukotriene-ltb4-ltb4r1-signaling
#20
Wei Ying, Joshua Wollam, Jachelle M Ofrecio, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dalila El Ouarrat, Yun Sok Lee, Da Young Oh, Pingping Li, Olivia Osborn, Jerrold M Olefsky
Tissue inflammation is a key component of obesity-induced insulin resistance, with a variety of immune cell types accumulating in adipose tissue. Here, we have demonstrated increased numbers of B2 lymphocytes in obese adipose tissue and have shown that high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) insulin resistance is mitigated in B cell-deficient (Bnull) mice. Adoptive transfer of adipose tissue B2 cells (ATB2) from wild-type HFD donor mice into HFD Bnull recipients completely restored the effect of HFD to induce insulin resistance...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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