Read by QxMD icon Read

immune homeostasis

X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma, S S Chang
The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3-4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Laura Hidalgo-Garcia, Julio Galvez, M Elena Rodriguez-Cabezas, Per O Anderson
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by an exacerbated mucosal immune response. Macrophages play pivotal roles in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. They are highly plastic cells and their activation state depends on the local environment. In the healthy intestine, resident macrophages display an M2 phenotype characterized by inflammatory energy, while inflammatory M1 macrophages dominate in the inflamed intestinal mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Steven A Harris, Elizabeth A Harris
This review focuses on research in the areas of epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology and genetics that implicates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as a causative agent in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular mechanisms whereby HSV-1 induces AD-related pathophysiology and pathology, including neuronal production and accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, and impaired autophagy, are discussed. HSV-1 causes additional AD pathologies through mechanisms that promote neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yuwen Zhang, Jiaqing Hao, Jun Zeng, Qiang Li, Enyu Rao, Yanwen Sun, Lianliang Liu, Anita Mandal, V Douglas Landers, Rebecca J Morris, Margot P Cleary, Jill Suttles, Bing Li
Skin lipids (e.g. fatty acids) are essential for normal skin functions. Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) is the predominant FABP expressed in skin epidermis. However, the role of E-FABP in skin homeostasis and pathology remains largely unknown. Herein, we utilized the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin tumorigenesis model to assess the role of E-FABP in chemical-induced skin tumorigenesis. Compared to their wild type (WT) littermates, mice deficient in E-FABP, but not adipose FABP (A-FABP), developed more skin tumors with higher incidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Luminita Labusca, Florin Zugun-Eloae
Intra-articular adipose tissue deposits known as articular fat pads (AFPs) are described to exist within synovial joints. Their assumed role in normal joint biomechanics is increasingly objectivized by means of advanced methods of functional imaging. AFPs possess structural similarity with body subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), however, seems to be regulated by independent metabolic loops. AFP dimension are conserved during extreme WAT states: obesity, metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy, and cachexia...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Luc Van Kaer, Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez
The intestine is continuously exposed to commensal microorganisms, food, and environmental agents and also serves as a major portal of entry for many pathogens. A critical defense mechanism against microbial invasion in the intestine is the single layer of epithelial cells that separates the gut lumen from the underlying tissues. The barrier function of the intestinal epithelium is supported by cells and soluble factors of the intestinal immune system. Chief among them are intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs), which are embedded in the intestinal epithelium and represent one of the single largest populations of lymphocytes in the body...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Iva Hafner-Bratkovič, Pablo Pelegrín
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein platform for the activation of caspase-1, which in turn drives inflammation through the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. In contrast to the majority of pattern recognition receptors, NLRP3 inflammasome can be triggered by a plethora of pathogen-derived or endogenous activators, which perturb intracellular ion homeostasis. Here, we discuss how the complex interplay of ion fluxes contributes to canonical, non-canonical, and alternative NLRP3 activation pathways that induce IL-1β secretion from immune cells...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Jun Wang, JinXin Lu, XiaoWei Xie, Jia Xiong, Ningning Huang, Hongkui Wei, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
Impaired epithelial barrier function disrupts immune homeostasis and increases inflammation in intestines, leading to many intestinal diseases. The blend of organic acids (OAs) and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) has been shown to have synergistic bactericidal effect. In this study, we demonstrated that two blends of OAs and MCFAs (OM1 and OM2) could prevent the inflammatory response and intestinal barrier dysfunction in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-infected mice. Treatments of OM1 and OM2 significantly reduced the body weight loss and production of IL-6 and TNF-α induced by EHEC...
March 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Marta A Toscano, Verónica C Martínez Allo, Anabela M Cutine, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Karina V Mariño
Although progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation, studies aimed at identifying the mediators of these pathways will be necessary to develop more selective therapies. Galectins, a family of glycan-binding proteins, play central roles in immune cell homeostasis. Whereas some members of this family trigger regulatory programs that promote resolution of inflammation, others contribute to perpetuate autoimmune processes. We discuss the roles of endogenous galectins and their specific glycosylated ligands in shaping autoimmune responses by fueling, extinguishing, or rewiring immune circuits...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Franziska Just, Michael Oster, Kirsten Büsing, Luisa Borgelt, Eduard Murani, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Petra Wolf, Klaus Wimmers
BACKGROUND: In monogastric animals, phosphorus (P) homeostasis is maintained by regulating intestinal absorption, bone mobilization, and renal excretion. Since P is a non-renewable resource, a shortage is imminent due to widespread over-usage in the farming and animal husbandry industries. As a consequence, P efficiency should be improved in pig production. We sought to characterize the transcriptional response in re-/absorbing and excreting tissues in pigs to diets varying in calcium: phosphorus ratios...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Melinda R Grosser, Elyse Paluscio, Lance R Thurlow, Marcus M Dillon, Vaughn S Cooper, Thomas H Kawula, Anthony R Richardson
Staphylococcus aureus exhibits many defenses against host innate immunity, including the ability to replicate in the presence of nitric oxide (NO·). S. aureus NO· resistance is a complex trait and hinges on the ability of this pathogen to metabolically adapt to the presence of NO·. Here, we employed deep sequencing of transposon junctions (Tn-Seq) in a library generated in USA300 LAC to define the complete set of genes required for S. aureus NO· resistance. We compared the list of NO·-resistance genes to the set of genes required for LAC to persist within murine skin infections (SSTIs)...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Linlin Dong, Xiaoyu Zheng, Kun Wang, Guonian Wang, Huichao Zou
BACKGROUND: The T-helper 17 (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) balance is essential for immune homeostasis. But the effects of gastric surgery on this balance remain unclear. The aim of present study is to identify the influence of gastric surgery on Th17/Treg balance and the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway in this process. METHODS: Mice were divided into Control, Sham and Surgery group randomly. Animals in Surgery group accepted partial gastrectomy...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jacqueline H Parilla, Rebecca L Hull, Sakeneh Zraika
Neprilysin (NEP) is an endopeptidase known to modulate nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems via inactivation of regulatory peptides. In addition, it may also contribute to impaired glucose homeostasis as observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Specifically, we and others have shown that NEP is upregulated under conditions associated with T2D, whereas NEP deficiency and/or inhibition improves glucose homeostasis via enhanced glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. Whether increased β-cell mass also occurs with lack of NEP activity is unknown...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
You-Take Oh, Guoqing Qian, Jiusheng Deng, Shi-Yong Sun
Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein-1 (MCPIP1; also called Regnase-1) encoded by the ZC3H12A gene critically regulates inflammatory responses and immune homeostasis primarily by RNase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. However, the relationship of MCPIP1 with apoptosis and cancer and the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. The current study has demonstrated a previously uncovered connection between MCPIP1 and the negative regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5; also known as TRAIL-R2 or killer/DR5), a cell surface receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is produced endogenously by various immune cells such as T cells...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Gang Xiao, Lai N Chan, Lars Klemm, Daniel Braas, Zhengshan Chen, Huimin Geng, Qiuyi Chen Zhang, Ali Aghajanirefah, Kadriye Nehir Cosgun, Teresa Sadras, Jaewoong Lee, Tamara Mirzapoiazova, Ravi Salgia, Thomas Ernst, Andreas Hochhaus, Hassan Jumaa, Xiaoyan Jiang, David M Weinstock, Thomas G Graeber, Markus Müschen
B cell activation during normal immune responses and oncogenic transformation impose increased metabolic demands on B cells and their ability to retain redox homeostasis. While the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer, our genetic studies revealed an essential role of PP2A in B cell tumors. Thereby, PP2A redirects glucose carbon utilization from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to salvage oxidative stress. This unique vulnerability reflects constitutively low PPP activity in B cells and transcriptional repression of G6PD and other key PPP enzymes by the B cell transcription factors PAX5 and IKZF1...
March 6, 2018: Cell
Tian Liu, Dongliang Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Xiangsheng Xu, Bo Zhou, Liang Fang, Yun Zhang, Yingjun Su, Boquan Jin, Ran Zhuang, Shuzhong Guo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play key roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance and preventing autoimmune disease. Treg modulation could be helpful in treating malignancies, autoimmune disease, and allergies, as well as to facilitate organ transplantation. Signals transduced by co-stimulatory molecules are essential for Treg differentiation, homeostasis, and function. One well-known active receptor, CD226, also known as DNAM-1 or PTA1, is an adhesion molecule that interacts primarily with CD155 and is involved in Treg differentiation and immune tolerance to transplanted tissue...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Afsar R Naqvi, Alexandra Seal, Jennifer Shango, Maria Brambila Navarette, Gloria Martinez, Gabriela Chapa, Shirin Hasan, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Dinesh Jaishankar, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of ~18-25 nucleotides that have gained extensive attention as critical regulators in complex gene networks including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis and function. Many viruses encode miRNAs that directly downregulate the expression of factors of the innate immune system, which includes proteins involved in promoting apoptosis and recruitment. In this study, we examined the expression profiles of three previously identified viral miRNAs (v-miRs) from the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, HSV-1 (miR-H1), KSHV (miR-K12-3-3p), and HCMV (miR-US4) in healthy and diseased periodontal tissues and observed increased levels of v-miRs in diseased tissues...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Taylor T Chrisikos, Yifan Zhou, Natalie Slone, Rachel Babcock, Stephanie S Watowich, Haiyan S Li
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the principal antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and play key roles in controlling immune tolerance and activation. As such, DCs are chief mediators of tumor immunity. DCs can regulate tolerogenic immune responses that facilitate unchecked tumor growth. Importantly, however, DCs also mediate immune-stimulatory activity that restrains tumor progression. For instance, emerging evidence indicates the cDC1 subset has important functions in delivering tumor antigens to lymph nodes and inducing antigen-specific lymphocyte responses to tumors...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"