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immune homeostasis

R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Marco Gelpi, Hans J Hartling, Kristina Thorsteinsson, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic primary HIV infection is associated with an adverse prognosis, and immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, little is known about immunological predictors of immune recovery. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that promotes CD4+ T cells homeostatic polyclonal proliferation and regulates Th17/regulatory T-cell balance, immunological functions known to be affected during primary HIV infection. The aim of this study was to describe immune recovery in primary and chronic HIV infection and possible impact of TSLP...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fufa Qu, Zhiming Xiang, Yang Zhang, Jun Li, Shu Xiao, Yuehuan Zhang, Fan Mao, Haitao Ma, Ziniu Yu
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are conserved serine/threonine-specific kinases that are activated by various extracellular stimuli and play crucial regulatory roles in immunity, development and homeostasis. However, the function of p38s in mollusks, the second most diverse group of animals, is still poorly understood. In this study, a novel molluscan p38 (designated Chp38) was cloned and characterized from the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Its full-length cDNA encoded a putative protein of 353 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of approximately 40...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Giovanni Bernardini, Fabrizio Antonangeli, Valentina Bonanni, Angela Santoni
Chemokines are small chemotactic molecules that play key roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Upon signaling via their specific receptors, chemokines regulate tissue mobilization and trafficking of a wide array of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Current research is focused on analyzing changes in chemokine/chemokine receptor expression during various diseases to interfere with pathological trafficking of cells or to recruit selected cell types to specific tissues. NK cells are a heterogeneous lymphocyte population comprising several subsets endowed with distinct functional properties and mainly representing distinct stages of a linear development process...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Isabelle Mondor, Audrey Jorquera, Cynthia Sene, Sahil Adriouch, Ralf Heinrich Adams, Bin Zhou, Stephan Wienert, Frederick Klauschen, Marc Bajénoff
Lymph node (LN) expansion during an immune response relies on the transient remodeling of its vasculature. Although the mechanisms driving LN endothelial cell division are beginning to be understood, a comprehensive view of LN endothelial cell dynamics at the single-cell level is lacking. Here, we used multicolored fluorescent fate-mapping models to track the behavior of blood endothelial cells during LN expansion upon inflammation and subsequent return to homeostasis. We found that expansion of the LN vasculature relied on the sequential assembly of endothelial cell proliferative units...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Yoshiyuki Goto, Satoshi Uematsu, Hiroshi Kiyono
Intestinal epithelial cells apically express glycans, especially α1,2-fucosyl linkages, which work as a biological interface for the host-microbe interaction. Emerging studies have shown that epithelial α1,2-fucosylation is regulated by microbes and by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Dysregulation of the gene (FUT2) encoding fucosyltransferase 2, an enzyme governing epithelial α1,2-fucosylation, is associated with various human disorders, including infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. This suggests a critical role for an interaction between microbes, epithelial cells and ILC3s mediated via glycan residues...
October 19, 2016: Nature Immunology
Sa Liu, Yulong Chen, Shiping Xie, Qianlei Xu, Jianshe Chen, Changhai Wang, Zhao Wang, Suna Ma, Xingwei Wu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. DESIGN: This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Prashant Trikha, Robert L Plews, Andrew Stiff, Shalini Gautam, Vincent Hsu, David Abood, Robert Wesolowski, Ian Landi, Xiaokui Mo, John Phay, Ching-Shih Chen, John Byrd, Michael Caligiuri, Susheela Tridandapani, William Carson
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of early myeloid cells that accumulate in the blood and tumors of patients with cancer. MDSC play a critical role during tumor evasion and promote immune suppression through variety of mechanisms, such as the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and cytokines. AMPactivated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that regulates energy homeostasis and metabolic stress. However, the role of AMPK in the regulation of MDSC function remains largely unexplored...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Eva Soto-Tinoco, Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Ruud M Buijs
The brain is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the organism, constantly adjusting its output via hormones and the autonomic nervous system to reach an optimal setting in every compartment of the body. Also the immune system is under strong control of the brain. Beyond the conventional systemic responses evoked by the brain during inflammation, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and the induction of sickness behavior, the autonomic nervous system is now recognized to exert regulatory effects on the inflammatory response...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Petrus R de Jong, José M González-Navajas, Nicolaas J G Jansen
Failure of gut homeostasis is an important factor in the pathogenesis and progression of systemic inflammation, which can culminate in multiple organ failure and fatality. Pathogenic events in critically ill patients include mesenteric hypoperfusion, dysregulation of gut motility, and failure of the gut barrier with resultant translocation of luminal substrates. This is followed by the exacerbation of local and systemic immune responses. All these events can contribute to pathogenic crosstalk between the gut, circulating cells, and other organs like the liver, pancreas, and lungs...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yong Yu, Jason C H Tsang, Cui Wang, Simon Clare, Juexuan Wang, Xi Chen, Cordelia Brandt, Leanne Kane, Lia S Campos, Liming Lu, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew N J McKenzie, Sarah A Teichmann, Gordon Dougan, Pentao Liu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) functionally resemble T lymphocytes in cytotoxicity and cytokine production but lack antigen-specific receptors, and are important regulators in immune response and tissue homeostasis(1, 2). ILCs are generated from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), which are subsequently committed to innate lymphoid lineages in the α lymphoid progenitor (αLP), early innate lymphoid progenitor (EILP), common helper innate lymphoid progenitor (CHILP) and innate lymphoid cell progenitor (ILCP) compartments(3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)...
September 29, 2016: Nature
Andrea Rostás, Ahmed Sabry, Subhamay Ghosh
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury as a result of inflow obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with liver pathologies and surgery. Heat shock proteins, a family of stress-inducible proteins involved in maintaining cell homeostasis and regulating the immune system play a major role in liver regeneration. They serve as crucial indicators of ischemia-reperfusion injury in human liver and influence liver function and recovery. The primary objectives of this article are to review the potential role of heat shock proteins as a diagnostic marker for liver diseases and therapeutic target in critical illness...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Tasuku Suzuki, Yoji Sasahara, Atsuo Kikuchi, Humihiko Kakuta, Toshihiko Kashiwabara, Takashi Ishige, Yoshiko Nakayama, Masanori Tanaka, Akihiro Hoshino, Hirokazu Kanegane, Daiki Abukawa, Shigeo Kure
PURPOSE: Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous disorder caused by multiple factors. Although genetic and immunological analyses are required for a definitive diagnosis, no reports of a comprehensive genetic study of a Japanese population are available. METHODS: In total, 35 Japanese patients <16 years of age suffering from IBD, including 27 patients aged <6 years with very early-onset IBD, were enrolled in this multicenter study. Exome and targeted gene panel sequencing was performed for all patients...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Ning Dai
The barrier function of the intestine is essential for maintaining the normal homeostasis of the gut and mucosal immune system. Abnormalities in intestinal barrier function expressed by increased intestinal permeability have long been observed in various gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Imbalance of metabolizing junction proteins and mucosal inflammation contributes to intestinal hyperpermeability. Emerging studies exploring in vitro and in vivo model system demonstrate that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase- (ROCK-) and myosin light chain kinase- (MLCK-) mediated pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal permeability...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Jung-Jyh Hung, Shiu-Feng Huang, Ying-Ying Shen, Yu-Chung Wu, Teh-Ying Chou, Wen-Hu Hsu
BACKGROUND: The programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway plays an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis. The PD-L1 pathway may also protect tumors from attack by cytotoxic T cells. Blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD1) or PD-L1 induced durable tumor regression in patients with advanced cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in patients with lung adenocarcinoma remains controversial. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma were included in the study...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Raul Elgueta, Dan Tse, Sophie J Deharvengt, Marcus R Luciano, Catherine Carriere, Randolph J Noelle, Radu V Stan
Plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein (Plvap) is an endothelial protein with roles in endothelial diaphragm formation and maintenance of basal vascular permeability. At the same time, Plvap has roles in immunity by facilitating leukocyte diapedesis at inflammatory sites and controlling peripheral lymph node morphogenesis and the entry of soluble Ags into lymph node conduits. Based on its postulated role in diapedesis, we have investigated the role of Plvap in hematopoiesis and show that deletion of Plvap results in a dramatic decrease of IgM(+)IgD(lo) B cells in both the spleen and the peritoneal cavity...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yutaka Sugi, Kyoko Takahashi, Kenta Kurihara, Kazuaki Nakata, Hikari Narabayashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Tsuda, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa
Immune responses against gut microbiota should be minimized to avoid unnecessary inflammation at mucosal surface. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), an inhibitor of TLRs and IL-1 family cytokine-related intracellular signaling, in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Comparable mRNA expression was observed in murine small and large IECs (S-IECs and L-IECs). However, Tollip protein was only detected in L-IECs, but not in S-IECs. Similar results were obtained in germ-free mice, indicating that L-IEC-specific TOLLIP expression does not depend on bacterial colonization...
2016: PloS One
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