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connexin 40

Chien-Cheng Chen, Chan-Yen Kuo, Rong-Fu Chen
Background: Cardiomyocyte under hypoxia cause cell death or damage is associated with heart failure. Gap junction, such as connexin 43 play a role in regulation of heart function under hypoxia. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been reported as an active component of propolis, has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory antiproliferative and antineoplastic biological properties. Aims: Connexin 43 appear to have a critical role in heart failure under hypoxia, there has been considerable interest in identifying the candidate component or compound to reduce cell death...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
K Frimmel, R Sotníková, J Navarová, I Bernátová, J KriŽák, Z Haviarová, B Kura, J Slezák, Ľ Okruhlicová
Omega-3 fatty acids (omega3FA) are known to reduce hypertriglyceridemia- and inflammation-induced vascular wall diseases. However, mechanisms of their effects are not completely clear. We examined, whether 10-day omega3FA diet can reduce bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in expression of gap junction protein connexin40 (Cx40) in the aorta of hereditary hypertriglyceridemic (hHTG) rats. After administration of a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) to adult hHTG rats, animals were fed with omega3FA diet (30 mg/kg/day) for 10 days...
September 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Margarita Olympiou, Irene Sargiannidou, Kyriaki Markoullis, Christos Karaiskos, Alexia Kagiava, Styliana Kyriakoudi, Charles K Abrams, Kleopas A Kleopa
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is a common form of inherited neuropathy resulting from different mutations affecting the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin32 (Cx32). A subset of CMT1X patients may additionally present with acute fulminant CNS dysfunction, typically triggered by conditions of systemic inflammation and metabolic stress. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of CNS phenotypes in CMT1X we studied a mouse model of systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection to compare wild type (WT), connexin32 (Cx32) knockout (KO), and KO T55I mice expressing the T55I Cx32 mutation associated with CNS phenotypes...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Daisuke Shinohara, Satoshi Matsushita, Taira Yamamoto, Hirotaka Inaba, Kenji Kuwaki, Akie Shimada, Atsushi Amano
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine expression patterns of cardiac stem cells in the left atrium (LA) tissue from patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: LA appendages were obtained during open-heart surgery and processed for explant cell culture and tissue analysis (n=319). The total number of grown cells and c-kit positive cells were analyzed by flow cytometry after 4 weeks of culture. The remaining tissue was used for Masson's trichrome staining to determine the area of the fibrosis...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
Zongqi Zhang, Yizhu Chen, Tiantian Zhang, Lingyu Guo, Wenlong Yang, Junfeng Zhang, Changqian Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Smooth muscle cells may dedifferentiate into the synthetic phenotype and promote atherosclerosis. Here, we explored the role of myoendothelial gap junctions in phenotypic switching of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) co-cultured with human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) exposed to shear stress. METHODS: HCASMCs and HCAECs were seeded on opposite sides of Transwell inserts, and HCAECs were exposed to laminar shear stress of 12 dyn/cm2 or 5 dyn/cm2...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hansa Banjara, Varsha Mungutwar, Neha Swarnkar, Pradeep Patra
Hearing loss is most common form of genetic hearing disorder. Non-syndromic sensory neural autosomal recessive deafness (NSRD) is the most common form of genetic hearing loss. Mutations in GJB2 gene, which encodes the connexin 26 protein, are major cause of NSRD. The aim of this study is directed towards the mutations caused along the connexin 26 gene using blood samples from nonsyndromic deaf children. The study was conducted on 36 congenitally hearing impaired children who visited to our department with complains of hearing loss and reduced speech and whose age was <10 years with no other congenital anomaly...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
J H Yao, C H Qu, L Ma, X Z Chang
Myocardial ischemia-induced arrhythmia, especially ventricular arrhythmia, is the main reason for sudden cardiac death. Therefore, ischemic ventricular arrhythmia-targeted treatments are urgently needed. The mechanism of Tiaogan Qingxin Granule in premature ventricular beat (PVB) treatment was explored in arrhythmic rats pretreated with Tiaogan Qingxin Granule. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 40) were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, arrhythmia model, Wenxin Granule, and Tiaogan Qingxin Granule. The ischemic arrhythmia model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Zhenqing Li, Zhaobo Fan, Yanyi Xu, Hong Niu, Xiaoyun Xie, Zhenguo Liu, Jianjun Guan
Cardiac stem cell therapy has been considered as a promising strategy for heart tissue regeneration. Yet achieving cardiac differentiation after stem cell transplantation remains challenging. This compromises the efficacy of current stem cell therapy. Delivery of cells using matrices that stimulate the cardiac differentiation may improve the degree of cardiac differentiation in the heart tissue. In this report, we investigated whether elastic modulus of highly flexible poly(N-isopropylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogels can be modulated to stimulate the encapsulated cardiosphere derived cells (CDCs) to differentiate into cardiac lineage under static condition and dynamic stretching that mimics the heart beating condition...
June 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lilian I Plotkin, Dale W Laird, Joelle Amedee
Electron micrographs revealed the presence of gap junctions in osteoblastic cells over 40 years ago. These intercellular channels formed from connexins are present in bone forming osteoblasts, bone resorbing osteoclasts, and osteocytes (mature osteoblasts embedded in the mineralized bone matrix). More recently, genetic and pharmacologic studies revealed the role of connexins, and in particular Cx43, in the differentiation and function of all bone types. Furthermore, mutations in the gene encoding Cx43 were found to be causally linked to oculodentodigital dysplasia, a condition that results in an abnormal skeleton...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Shotaro Hayashida, Katsuhisa Masaki, Tomomi Yonekawa, Satoshi O Suzuki, Akio Hiwatashi, Takuya Matsushita, Mitsuru Watanabe, Ryo Yamasaki, Toshihiko Suenaga, Toru Iwaki, Hiroyuki Murai, Jun-Ichi Kira
OBJECTIVES: Studies of longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have focused on gray matter, where the relevant antigen, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is abundant. Because spinal white matter pathology in NMO is not well characterized, we aimed to clarify spinal white matter pathology of LESCLs in NMO. METHODS: We analyzed 50 spinal cord lesions from eleven autopsied NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) cases. We also evaluated LESCLs with three or fewer spinal cord attacks by 3-tesla MRI in 15 AQP4 antibody-positive NMO/NMOSD patients and in 15 AQP4 antibody-negative multiple sclerosis (MS) patients...
April 15, 2016: Brain Pathology
Bin Li, Yilong Pan, Xiaodong Li
Prolonged P-wave duration has been observed in diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was used. P-wave durations were obtained using surface electrocardiography and sizes of the left atrium were determined using echocardiography. Cardiac inward rectifier K(+) currents (Ik1), Na(+) currents (INa), and action potentials were recorded from isolated left atrial myocytes using patch clamp techniques...
April 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Ashley M Nisbet, Patrizia Camelliti, Nicola L Walker, Francis L Burton, Stuart M Cobbe, Peter Kohl, Godfrey L Smith
Conduction abnormalities are frequently associated with cardiac disease, though the mechanisms underlying the commonly associated increases in PQ interval are not known. This study uses a chronic left ventricular (LV) apex myocardial infarction (MI) model in the rabbit to create significant left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) 8weeks post-MI. In vivo studies established that the PQ interval increases by approximately 7ms (10%) with no significant change in average heart rate. Optical mapping of isolated Langendorff perfused rabbit hearts recapitulated this result: time to earliest activation of the LV was increased by 14ms (16%) in the LVD group...
May 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Monia Savi, Leonardo Bocchi, Stefano Rossi, Caterina Frati, Gallia Graiani, Costanza Lagrasta, Michele Miragoli, Elisa Di Pasquale, Giuliano G Stirparo, Giuseppina Mastrototaro, Konrad Urbanek, Antonella De Angelis, Emilio Macchi, Donatella Stilli, Federico Quaini, Ezio Musso
c-Kit(pos) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a successful approach in healing the infarcted heart and rescuing its mechanical function, but electrophysiological consequences are uncertain. CPC mobilization promoted by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and IGF-1 improved electrogenesis in myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that locally delivered CPCs supplemented with HGF + IGF-1 (GFs) can concur in ameliorating electrical stability of the regenerated heart. Adult male Wistar rats (139 rats) with 4-wk-old MI or sham conditions were randomized to receive intramyocardial injection of GFs, CPCs, CPCs + GFs, or vehicle (V)...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Seong-Kyu Lee, Ki-Ho Lee
A proper development of the epididymis during the early postnatal development is required for successful fertility in the adult male. Direct cell-cell communication via connexin (Cx) molecules is a common way of cellular interactions to achieve normal development of a given tissue consisting of different cell types. The present research was attempted to determine the effect of exogenous exposure to estrogenic agonist or antiandrogen at the weaning age on expression of Cx isoforms in the adult corpus epididymis...
December 2015: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Ai Wang, Haichao Zhang, Liang Zhang, Xinzhi Li, Li Li, Junqiang Si, Ketao Ma
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationships of connexin 40 (Cx40) with peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory factors of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to detect CD4(+), CD8(+) lymphocytes and Cx40 expression on the cells in the peripheral blood of Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rats and SH rats. ELISA was performed to test the levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-4 and IL-6. RESULTS: Compared with WKy rats, the systolic blood pressure, the percentage of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, the expression of Cx40 on the surface of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) in the peripheral blood of SH rats were significantly higher, with the exception of the percentage of CD8(+) lymphocytes which was lower...
February 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Florian Stöckigt, Vivek Shahaji Peche, Markus Linhart, Georg Nickenig, Angelika Anna Noegel, Jan Wilko Schrickel
INTRODUCTION: Cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) plays a major role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Since inactivation of CAP2 in a mouse model by a gene trap approach (Cap2 (gt/gt) ) results in cardiomyopathy and increased mortality, we hypothesized that CAP2 has a major impact on arrhythmias and electrophysiological parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed long-term-ECG recordings in transgenic CAP2 deficient mice (C57BL/6) to detect spontaneous arrhythmias...
February 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Palaniappan Saravanan, Annette L West, Ben Bridgewater, Neil C Davidson, Philip C Calder, Halina Dobrzynsky, Andrew Trafford, Stephen C O'Neill
AIMS: We previously reported omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) supplementation does not reduce atrial fibrillation (AF) following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of n-3 PUFAs on electrocardiogram (ECG) atrial arrhythmic markers and compare with expression of gap-junction proteins, Connexins. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subset of clinical trial subjects with right atrial sampling during CABG surgery included...
February 5, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Ming Xu, Chen Hu, Hussein-hamed Khan, Fang-hong Shi, Xiao-dong Cong, Qing Li, Yin Dai, De-zai Dai
AIM: Argirein (rhein-arginine) is a derivative of rhein isolated from Chinese rhubarb (Rheum Officinale Baill.) that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we investigated the effects of argirein on stress-induced (hypergonadotrophic) and diabetic (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism in male rats. METHODS: Stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism was induced in male rats via injection of isoproterenol (ISO) or streptozotocin (STZ)...
February 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ji-Fang Ma, Fan Yang, Saagar N Mahida, Ling Zhao, Xiaomin Chen, Michael L Zhang, Zhijun Sun, Yan Yao, Yi-Xin Zhang, Gu-Yan Zheng, Jie Dong, Ming-Jun Feng, Rui Zhang, Jian Sun, Shuo Li, Qun-Shan Wang, Huiqing Cao, Emelia J Benjamin, Patrick T Ellinor, Yi-Gang Li, Xiao-Li Tian
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia with an important heritable aspect. The genetic factors underlying AF have not been fully elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened six candidate genes (CAV1, KCNJ2, KCNQ1, NKX2.5, PITX2, and TBX5) for novel mutations in 139 patients of Chinese descent with early-onset AF and 576 controls. Four missense TBX5 mutations, p.R355C, p.Q376R, p.A428S, and p.S372L, were identified in evolutionarily conserved regions...
March 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
Y Feng, J Sun, L Wang, X L Hou
Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence has a known genetic component. Many reports have revealed a correlation between gene mutation and AF, involving genes related to ion channels, connexin (Cx), and those within the angiotensin system. In this study, the correlation between the Cx 40 polymorphism (rs35594137) and AF was investigated in patients with AF in the Xinjiang, Turpan, and Kashi regions and in controls. The AF cohort included 122 patients (58 Han and 64 Uygur). The control subjects were recruited according to the 1:1 corresponding method and matched for age and gender...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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