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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339668/immunogenicity-of-a-booster-dose-of-quadrivalent-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-previously-immunized-hiv-infected-children-and-youth
#1
Meredith G Warshaw, George K Siberry, Paige Williams, Michael D Decker, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Jorge Lujan-Zilbermann
Background.: The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) after initial immunization for patients at high risk for meningococcal infection. Methods.: The International Maternal Pediatric Adolescents AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1065 trial evaluated the use of MCV4 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and youth. The final step of this trial was an open-label study of an MCV4 booster dose 3...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332036/the-committed-intimate-partnerships-of-incarcerated-african-american-men-implications-for-sexual-hiv-transmission-risk-and-prevention-opportunities
#2
Maria R Khan, Nabila El-Bassel, Carol E Golin, Joy D Scheidell, Adaora A Adimora, Ashley M Coatsworth, Hui Hu, Selena Judon-Monk, Katie P Medina, David A Wohl
Incarceration is thought to influence HIV transmission by disrupting partnerships that provide support and protect against sex risk-taking. Current correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs focus on marital partnerships, a minority of inmates' partnerships. Research on the sex partnerships of incarcerated African-American men and the types of partnerships most likely to protect against HIV-related sex risk is limited. Improved understanding can inform expansion of correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs to a greater proportion of protective partnerships and HIV risk reduction programs to partnerships vulnerable to sex risk...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322922/antiviral-lectins-selective-inhibitors-of-viral-entry
#3
REVIEW
Carter A Mitchell, Koreen Ramessar, Barry R O'Keefe
Many natural lectins have been reported to have antiviral activity. As some of these have been put forward as potential development candidates for preventing or treating viral infections, we have set out in this review to survey the literature on antiviral lectins. The review groups lectins by structural class and class of source organism we also detail their carbohydrate specificity and their reported antiviral activities. The review concludes with a brief discussion of several of the pertinent hurdles that heterologous proteins must clear to be useful clinical candidates and cites examples where such studies have been reported for antiviral lectins...
March 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322598/screening-and-functional-profiling-of-small-molecule-hiv-1-entry-and-fusion-inhibitors
#4
Charline Giroud, Yuhong Du, Mariana Marin, Qui Min, Nathan T Jui, Haian Fu, Gregory B Melikyan
HIV-1 entry and fusion with target cells is an important target for antiviral therapy. However, a few currently approved treatments are not effective as monotherapy due to the emergence of drug resistance. This consideration has fueled efforts to develop new bioavailable inhibitors targeting different steps of the HIV-1 entry process. Here, a high-throughput screen was performed of a large library of 100,000 small molecules for HIV-1 entry/fusion inhibitors, using a direct virus-cell fusion assay in a 384 half-well format...
February 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321215/ifn-%C3%AE-inhibits-drug-resistant-hiv-infection-of-macrophages
#5
Xu Wang, He Wang, Man-Qing Liu, Jie-Liang Li, Run-Hong Zhou, Yu Zhou, Yi-Zhong Wang, Wang Zhou, Wen-Zhe Ho
Type III interferons (IFN-λs) have been demonstrated to inhibit a number of viruses, including HIV. Here, we further examined the anti-HIV effect of IFN-λs in macrophages. We found that IFN-λs synergistically enhanced anti-HIV activity of antiretrovirals [azidothymidine (AZT), efavirenz, indinavir, and enfuvirtide] in infected macrophages. Importantly, IFN-λs could suppress HIV infection of macrophages with the drug-resistant strains, including AZT-resistant virus (A012) and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant virus (TC49)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301421/persistence-of-hiv-drug-resistance-among-south-african-children-given-nevirapine-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission
#6
Ruth Kanthula, Theresa Rossouw, Ute D Feucht, Gisela Van Dyk, Ingrid A Beck, Rachel Silverman, Scott Olson, Christen Salyer, Sharon Cassol, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVES: We set out to examine the prevalence and persistence of mutations conferring high-level nonnucleoside-reverse-transcriptase (NNRTI)-resistance in a cohort of HIV-infected children who had failed prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study at the Pediatric HIV Clinic at Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. METHODS: Children referred for initiation of ART were enrolled from July 2010 through February 2013...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285195/engineering-intravaginal-vaccines-to-overcome-mucosal-and-epithelial-barriers
#7
Zhonghua Ji, Zhaolu Xie, Zhirong Zhang, Tao Gong, Xun Sun
The mucosal surface of the vagina is a primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry portal, making it an attractive site for HIV vaccination. However, HIV vaccines based on recombinant adenovirus (rAd) do not efficiently cross the mucus layers or underlying epithelium of the vagina. Here we designed nanocomplexes of rAd particles coated with (1) the polyethylene glycol derivative APS to provide a hydrophilic surface that would prevent entrapment in the hydrophobic mucus, and (2) the cell-penetrating peptide TAT to improve transduction efficiency...
March 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277487/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-intervention-to-maintain-suppression-of-hiv-viremia-following-prison-release-the-impact-trial
#8
David Alain Wohl, Carol E Golin, Kevin Knight, Michele Gould, Jessica Carda-Auten, Jennifer S Groves, Sonia Napravnik, Stephen R Cole, Becky L White, Cathie Fogel, David L Rosen, Michael J Mugavaro, Brian W Pence, Patrick M Flynn
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals transitioning from incarceration to the community are at risk for loss of viral suppression. We compared the effects of imPACT, a multi-dimensional intervention to promote care engagement after release, to standard care on sustaining viral suppression after community re-entry. METHODS: This trial randomized 405 HIV-infected inmates being released from prisons in Texas and North Carolina with HIV-1 RNA levels <400 copies/mL to imPACT versus standard care...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275193/structure-based-design-of-a-soluble-prefusion-closed-hiv-1-env-trimer-with-reduced-cd4-affinity-and-improved-immunogenicity
#9
Gwo-Yu Chuang, Hui Geng, Marie Pancera, Kai Xu, Cheng Cheng, Priyamvada Acharya, Michael Chambers, Aliaksandr Druz, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Timothy G Wanninger, Yongping Yang, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Ivelin S Georgiev, Jason Gorman, M Gordon Joyce, Sijy O'Dell, Tongqing Zhou, Adrian B McDermott, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
The HIV-1-envelope (Env) trimer is a target for vaccine design as well as a conformational machine that facilitates virus entry by transitioning between prefusion-closed, CD4-bound, and co-receptor-bound conformations before rearranging into a postfusion state. Vaccine designers have sought to restrict the conformation of the HIV-1-Env trimer to its prefusion-closed state, as this state is recognized by most broadly neutralizing -but not by non-neutralizing- antibodies. We previously identified a disulfide bond, I201C-A433C (DS), which stabilizes Env in the vaccine-desired prefusion-closed state...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275184/rna-associated-early-stage-anti-viral-factor-reaf-is-a-major-component-of-lv2-restriction
#10
Kelly M Marno, Eithne O'Sullivan, Christopher E Jones, Julieta Díaz-Delfín, Claire Pardieu, Richard D Sloan, Áine McKnight
HIV and SIV replication in human cells is restricted at early post-entry steps by host inhibitory factors. We previously described and characterised an early phase restriction of HIV-1 and 2 replication in human cell lines, primary macrophages and PBMCs. The restriction was termed Lentiviral restriction 2 (Lv2). The viral determinants of Lv2 susceptibility mapped to the HIV-2 Env and CA. We subsequently reported a whole genome siRNA screen for factors involved in to HIV which identified RNA-associated Early-stage Anti-viral Factor (REAF)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266845/synthesis-antiviral-potency-in-vitro-admet-and-x-ray-structure-of-potent-cd4-mimics-as-entry-inhibitors-that-target-the-phe43-cavity-of-hiv-1-gp120
#11
Francesca Curreli, Young Do Kwon, Dmitry S Belov, Ranjith R Ramesh, Alexander V Kurkin, Andrea Altieri, Peter D Kwong, Asim K Debnath
In our attempt to optimize the lead HIV-1 entry antagonist, NBD-11021, we present in this study the rational design and synthesis of 60 new analogues and determination of their antiviral activity in a single-cycle and a multicycle infection assay to derive a comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR). Two of these compounds, NBD-14088 and NBD-14107, showed significant improvement in antiviral activity compared to the lead entry antagonist in a single-cycle assay against a large panel of Env-pseudotyped viruses...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266701/fortaleciendo-enlaces-strengthening-collaborations-to-build-institutional-capacity-for-re-entry-services-for-incarcerated-people-with-hiv-in-puerto-rico
#12
Verónica Tirado-Mercado, Carlos E Rodríguez-Díaz, Carmen Cosme-Pitre, Jacqueline Cruzado-Quiñones, Alison O Jordan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264054/delineating-cd4-dependency-of-hiv-1-adaptation-to-infect-low-level-cd4-expressing-target-cells-widens-cellular-tropism-but-severely-impacts-on-envelope-functionality
#13
David Beauparlant, Peter Rusert, Carsten Magnus, Claus Kadelka, Jacqueline Weber, Therese Uhr, Osvaldo Zagordi, Corinna Oberle, Maria J Duenas-Decamp, Paul R Clapham, Karin J Metzner, Huldrych F Günthard, Alexandra Trkola
A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus' predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264037/cognitive-change-trajectories-in-virally-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals-indicate-high-prevalence-of-disease-activity
#14
Chloe Gott, Thomas Gates, Nadene Dermody, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
BACKGROUND: The longitudinal rate and profile of cognitive decline in persons with stable, treated, and virally suppressed HIV infection is not established. To address this question, the current study quantifies the rate of cognitive decline in a cohort of virally suppressed HIV+ persons using clinically relevant definitions of decline, and determine cognitive trajectories taking into account historical and baseline HAND status. METHODS: Ninety-six HIV+ (clinically stable and virally undetectable) and 44 demographically comparable HIV- participants underwent standard neuropsychological testing at baseline and 18-months follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257482/rhesus-macaque-ifitm3-gene-polymorphisms-and-siv-infection
#15
Michael Winkler, Sabine Gärtner, Florian Wrensch, Michael Krawczak, Ulrike Sauermann, Stefan Pöhlmann
Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have been recognized as important antiviral effectors of the innate immune system, both in cell culture and in infected humans. In particular, polymorphisms of the human IFITM3 gene have been shown to affect disease severity and progression in influenza A virus (FLUAV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, respectively. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are commonly used to model human infections and the experimental inoculation of these animals with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is one of the best models for HIV/AIDS in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256486/the-prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-associated-factors-among-patients-admitted-at-princess-marina-hospital-gaborone-botswana
#16
G M Rwegerera, M Bayani, E K Taolo, D Habte
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem worldwide. Due to the asymptomatic nature of CKD during earlier stages, patients tend to present late, missing opportunities for prevention. AIMS: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the risk factors associated with CKD in patients admitted at Princes Marina Hospital. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital inpatient setting. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-matched comparison study was done involving 86 cases and 86 matches by gender and age (± 5 years) from March 21, 2014, to May 31, 2014...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252527/soluble-cd163-predicts-incident-chronic-lung-kidney-and-liver-disease-in-hiv-infection
#17
Ditte M Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Niels Mejer, Troels B Knudsen, Holger J Møller, Søren K Moestrup, Susanne D Nielsen, Gitte Kronborg, Thomas Benfield
OBJECTIVE: To examine if monocyte and macrophage activity may be on the mechanistic pathway to non-AIDS comorbidity by investigating the associations between plasma soluble CD163 (sCD163) and incident non-AIDS comorbidities in well-treated HIV-infected individuals. DESIGN: Prospective single-center cohort study. METHODS: Plasma sCD163 was quantified by ELISA technique at study entry in 2004/05 and non-AIDS comorbidity was identified by International Classification of Disease Tenth revision (ICD-10) diagnosis codes and registry linkage in 2014/2015...
March 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250125/conformational-states-of-a-soluble-uncleaved-hiv-1-envelope-trimer
#18
Yuhang Liu, Junhua Pan, Yongfei Cai, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Stephen C Harrison, Bing Chen
HIV-1 envelope spike [Env; trimeric (gp160)3, cleaved to (gp120/gp41)3] induces membrane fusion, leading to viral entry. It is also the viral component targeted by neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine development requires production, in quantities suitable for clinical studies, of a recombinant form that resembles functional Env. HIV-1 gp140 trimers - the uncleaved ectodomains of (gp160)3 - from a few selected viral isolates adopt a compact conformation with many antigenic properties of native Env spikes. One is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250122/functional-evidence-of-the-involvement-of-the-dynein-light-chain-dynlrb2-in-murine-leukemia-virus-infection
#19
Tatiana Opazo, Andrea Garcés, Diego Tapia, Felipe Barraza, Angélica Bravo, Tomás Schwenke, Jorge Cancino, Gloria Arriagada
How murine leukemia virus (MLV) travels from the cell membrane to the nucleus, and the mechanism for nuclear entry of MLV viral DNA in dividing cells, still remain unclear. It seems likely that the MLV preintegration complex (PIC) interacts with cellular proteins to perform those tasks. We have recently published that microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein complex and its regulator proteins interact with MLV PIC at early times of infection, suggesting a functional interaction between the incoming viral particles, the dynein complex and dynein regulators...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250118/imaging-hiv-1-genomic-dna-from-entry-through-productive-infection
#20
Ryan D Stultz, Jennifer J Cenker, David McDonald
In order to track the fate of HIV-1 particles from early entry events through productive infection, we developed a method to visualize HIV-1 DNA reverse transcription complexes by incorporation and fluorescent labeling of the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2' -deoxyuridine (EdU) into nascent viral DNA during cellular entry. Monocyte-derived macrophages were chosen as natural targets of HIV-1 which do not divide and therefore do not incorporate the EdU into chromosomal DNA, which would obscure detection of intranuclear HIV-1 genomes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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