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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#1
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539445/structure-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-spikes-bound-with-cd4-and-monoclonal-antibody-36d5
#2
Guiqing Hu, Jun Liu, Kenneth H Roux, Kenneth A Taylor
The HIV-1/SIV envelope spike (Env) mediates the viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the co-receptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have used cryoelectron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the co-receptor binding site...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538165/the-complexity-in-herpesvirus-entry
#3
REVIEW
Karthik Sathiyamoorthy, Jia Chen, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Enveloped viruses have evolved diverse transmembrane proteins and protein complexes to enable host cell entry by regulating and activating membrane fusion in a target cell-specific manner. In general terms, the entry process requires a receptor binding step, an activation step and a membrane fusion step, which can be encoded within a single viral protein or distributed among multiple viral proteins. HIV and influenza virus, for example, encode all of these functions in a single trimeric glycoprotein, HIV env or influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537061/dolutegravir-lamivudine-as-initial-therapy-in-hiv-1-infected-arv-naive-patients-48-week-results-of-the-paddle-pilot-antiretroviral-design-with-dolutegravir-lamivudine-study
#4
Pedro Cahn, María José Rolón, María Inés Figueroa, Ana Gun, Patricia Patterson, Omar Sued
INTRODUCTION: A proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, safety and tolerability of a two-drug regimen with dolutegravir 50 mg once daily (QD) plus lamivudine 300 mg once daily as initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among antiretroviral (ARV)-naive patients. METHODS: PADDLE is a pilot study including 20 treatment-naive adults. To be selected, participants had no IAS-USA-defined resistance, HIV-1 RNA ≤100,000 copies/mL at screening and negative HBsAg...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534889/hiv-1-infection-in-persons-homozygous-for-ccr5-%C3%AE-32-allele-the-next-case-and-the-review
#5
Joanna Smoleń-Dzirba, Magdalena Rosińska, Janusz Janiec, Marek Beniowski, Mariusz Cycoń, Jolanta Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Tomasz J Wąsik
CC-chemokine receptor 5 serves as the coreceptor for the HIV-1 R5 strains, which are responsible for the majority of HIV transmissions. A deletion of 32 nucleotides in the gene encoding this receptor (termed CCR5-Δ32) leads to the suppression of CC-chemokine receptor 5 presentation at the cell surface, thus impeding process of HIV entry into the cell. Individuals homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 allele are resistant to infection with HIV-1 R5 strains, and are extremely rare among HIV-1-infected individuals. We have described a case of person homozygous for CCR5-Δ32, who was infected with subtype B HIV-1...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533249/the-myxobacterial-metabolite-soraphen-a-inhibits-hiv-1-by-reducing-virus-production-and-altering-virion-composition
#6
Eric Fleta-Soriano, Katarína Smutná, Javier P Martinez, Cristina Lorca Oró, S Kashif Sadiq, Gilles Mirambeau, Carmen Lopez-Iglesias, Marta Bosch, Albert Pol, Mark Brönstrup, Juana Diez, Andreas Meyerhans
Soraphen A is a myxobacterial metabolite that blocks the acetyl-CoA carboxylase of the host, and was previously identified as a novel HIV inhibitor. Here we report that Soraphen A acts by reducing virus production and altering the gp120 virion content, impacting entry capacity and infectivity. These effects are partially reversed by addition of palmitic acid, suggesting inhibition of HIV Env palmitoylation as one of the mechanisms of antiviral action.
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521786/role-of-routine-abdominal-ultrasonography-in-intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-algorithms-at-hiv-clinics-in-high-tb-burden-settings
#7
Sonam Spalgais, Upasna Agarwal, Rohit Sarin, Devesh Chauhan, Anita Yadav, Anand Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: High proportion of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is undiagnosed. Due to this active TB case finding is recommended for HIV clinics in high TB burden countries. Presently sputum examination and chest radiography are frontline tests recommended for HIV infected TB presumptives. Abdominal TB which occurs frequently in PLHIV may be missed even by existing programmatic intensified case finding protocols. This study evaluated the routine use of ultrasonography (USG) for active case finding of abdominal TB in HIV clinics...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521215/adaptation-of-hiv-1-to-cells-with-low-expression-of-the-ccr5-coreceptor
#8
Nicole Espy, Beatriz Pacheco, Joseph Sodroski
The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer ((gp120/gp41)3) to the receptors CD4 and CCR5 triggers virus entry into host cells. To identify Env regions that respond to CCR5 binding, HIV-1 was serially passaged on a CD4-positive canine cell line expressing progressively lower levels of CCR5. HIV-1 replication was observed in cells expressing ~1300 CCR5 molecules/cell. Env changes that conferred this low-CCR5 replication phenotype were located outside of the known CCR5-binding region of the gp120 Env subunit and did not apparently increase CCR5 binding affinity...
May 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520807/time-from-hiv-diagnosis-to-commencement-of-antiretroviral-therapy-as-an-indicator-to-supplement-the-hiv-cascade-dramatic-fall-from-2011-to-2015
#9
Nicholas A Medland, Eric P F Chow, James H McMahon, Julian H Elliott, Jennifer F Hoy, Christopher K Fairley
INTRODUCTION: The HIV care cascade is increasingly used to evaluate HIV treatment programs at the population level. However, the cascade indicators lack the ability to show changes over time, which reduces their utility to guide health policy. Alternatives have been proposed but are complex or result in a delay in results. We propose a new indicator of ART uptake, the time from HIV diagnosis to commencement of ART, and compare it to the existing cascade indicator of proportion of patients on treatment and the WHO proposed cohort cascade indicator of proportion of patients on treatment within one year of diagnosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517931/correction-to-synthesis-antiviral-potency-in-vitro-admet-and-x-ray-structure-of-potent-cd4-mimics-as-entry-inhibitors-that-target-the-phe43-cavity-of-hiv-1-gp120
#10
Francesca Curreli, Young Do Kwon, Dmitry S Belov, Ranjith R Ramesh, Alexander V Kurkin, Andrea Altieri, Peter D Kwong, Asim K Debnath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503119/targeting-hiv-1-envelope-proteins-using-a-fragment-discovery-all-atom-computational-algorithm
#11
Michael H Peters
INTRODUCTION: HIV viral envelope proteins are targets for small inhibitor molecules aimed at disrupting the cellular entry process. Potential peptide-class inhibitor molecules (rDNA drugs) have been previously identified, with mixed results, through biomimicry and phage display experimental methods. Here we describe a new approach based on computational fragment discovery. The method has the potential to not only optimize peptide binding affinity but also to rapidly produce alternative inhibitors against mutated strains...
April 2017: Current Enzyme Inhibition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497977/effect-of-amino-acid-substitutions-within-the-v3-region-of-hiv-1-crf01_ae-on-interaction-with-ccr5-coreceptor
#12
Sayamon Hongjaisee, Martine Braibant, Francis Barin, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Wasna Sirirungsi, Tanawan Samleerat
Specific amino acids within the V3 loop of HIV-1 CRF01_AE envelope glycoprotein that are involved in the interaction with CCR5/CXCR4 coreceptors, are not well characterized. We generated V3 mutants using PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis of HIV-1 CRF01_AE R5-env plasmids at specific positions. Mutant viruses were produced by env-pseudotyped virus assay, tested for coreceptor usage using U373.R5 and U373.X4 cells, and viral entry was assessed with luciferase activity measurement. All viruses, harboring either single or double mutations, used the CCR5 coreceptor...
May 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494151/design-of-hiv-co-receptor-derived-peptides-that-inhibit-viral-entry-at-submicromolar-concentrations
#13
Kostyantyn D Bobyk, Sivakoteswara R Mandadapu, Katheryn Lohith, Christina Guzzo, Abhishek Bhargava, Paolo Lusso, Carole A Bewley
HIV/AIDS continues to pose an enormous burden on global health. Current HIV therapeutics include inhibitors that target the enzymes HIV protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase, along with viral entry inhibitors that block the initial steps of HIV infection by preventing membrane fusion or virus-coreceptor interactions. With regard to the latter, peptides derived from the HIV coreceptor CCR5 were previously shown to modestly inhibit entry of CCR5-tropic HIV strains, with a peptide containing residues 178-191 of the second extracellular loop (peptide 2C) showing the strongest inhibition...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493283/the-current-status-of-research-on-the-integration-of-sexual-and-reproductive-health-and-hiv-services
#14
Charlotte E Warren, Susannah H Mayhew, Jonathan Hopkins
Integration of services for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV has been widely promoted globally in the belief that both clients and health providers benefit through improvements in quality, efficient use of resources, and lower costs, helping to maximize limited health resources and provide comprehensive client-centered care. This article builds on the growing body of research on integrated sexual SRH and HIV services. It brings together critical reviews on issues within the wider SRH and rights agenda and synthesizes recent research on integrated services, drawing on the Integra Initiative and other major research...
May 10, 2017: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490595/sensing-of-hiv-1-entry-triggers-a-type-i-interferon-response-in-human-primary-macrophages
#15
Jérémie Decalf, Marion Desdouits, Vasco Rodrigues, François-Xavier Gobert, Matteo Gentili, Santy Marques-Ladeira, Célia Chamontin, Marylène Mougel, Bruna Cunha de Alencar, Philippe Benaroch
Along with CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages are a major cellular source of HIV-1 replication, and a potential viral reservoir. Following entry and reverse transcription in macrophages, cloaking of the viral cDNA by the HIV-1 capsid limits its cytosolic detection, enabling efficient replication. However, whether incoming HIV-1 particles are sensed by macrophages prior to reverse-transcription, remains unclear. Here, we show that HIV-1 triggers a broad expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) in monocyte-derived macrophages within a few hours after infection...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490581/patterns-of-prevalent-hpv-and-sti-co-infections-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-negative-young-western-cape-south-african-women-the-evri-trial
#16
Lynette J Menezes, Ubin Pokharel, Staci L Sudenga, Matthys H Botha, Michele Zeier, Martha E Abrahamsen, Richard H Glashoff, Susan Engelbrecht, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Louvina E van der Laan, Siegfried Kipping, Douglas Taylor, Anna R Giuliano
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial. METHODS: HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68)...
May 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489856/randomized-trial-of-stopping-or-continuing-art-among-postpartum-women-with-pre-art-cd4-%C3%A2-400-cells-mm3
#17
Judith S Currier, Paula Britto, Risa M Hoffman, Sean Brummel, Gaerolwe Masheto, Esau Joao, Breno Santos, Linda Aurpibul, Marcelo Losso, Marie F Pierre, Adriana Weinberg, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Nahida Chakhtoura, Karin Klingman, Renee Browning, Anne Coletti, Lynne Mofenson, David Shapiro, Jose Pilotto
BACKGROUND: Health benefits of postpartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women with high CD4+ T-counts have not been assessed in randomized trials. METHODS: Asymptomatic, HIV-positive, non-breastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 400 cells/mm3 started on ART during pregnancy were randomized up to 42 days after delivery to continue or discontinue ART. Lopinavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine was the preferred ART regimen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484888/depression-and-anxiety-are-common-in-acute-hiv-infection-and-associate-with-plasma-immune-activation
#18
Joanna Hellmuth, Donn Colby, Victor Valcour, Duanghathai Suttichom, Serena Spudich, Jintanat Ananworanich, Peeriya Prueksakaew, Napapon Sailasuta, Isabel Allen, Linda L Jagodzinski, Bonnie Slike, Derek Ochi, Robert Paul
This observational study of 123 Thai participants sought to determine the rate and severity of affective symptoms during acute HIV infection (AHI) and possible associations to disease mechanisms. At diagnosis, just prior to starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), AHI participants completed assessments of depression and anxiety symptoms that were repeated at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Blood markers of HIV infection and immune activation were measured at study entry, with optional cerebrospinal fluid measures...
May 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484447/hiv-1-and-siv-predominantly-use-ccr5-expressed-on-a-precursor-population-to-establish-infection-in-t-follicular-helper-cells
#19
Yin Xu, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Kazuo Suzuki, Anu Aggrawal, Stephanie Graff-Dubois, Michael Roche, Michelle Bailey, Sheilajen Alcantara, Kieran Cashin, Rahuram Sivasubramaniam, Kersten K Koelsch, Brigitte Autran, Richard Harvey, Paul R Gorry, Arnaud Moris, David A Cooper, Stuart Turville, Stephen J Kent, Anthony D Kelleher, John Zaunders
BACKGROUND: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are increasingly recognized as a major reservoir of HIV infection that will likely need to be addressed in approaches to curing HIV. However, Tfh express minimal CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV-1, and the mechanism by which they are infected is unclear. We have previously shown that macaque Tfh lack CCR5, but are infected in vivo with CCR5-using SIV at levels comparable to other memory CD4(+) T cells. Similarly, human splenic Tfh cells are highly infected with HIV-1 DNA...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482272/screening-of-commercial-cyclic-peptide-conjugated-to-hiv-1-tat-peptide-as-inhibitor-of-n-terminal-heptad-repeat-glycoprotein-2-ectodomain-ebola-virus-through-in-silico-analysis
#20
Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan, Ahmad Husein Alkaff, Mochammad Arfin Fardiansyah Nasution, Arli Aditya Parikesit, Djati Kerami
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) is a disease caused by viruses from genus Ebolavirus. Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) is the deadliest species which has 76% case fatality rate. Up until now, there is no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs to treat EHF. Antiviral drug based on EBOV N-terminal heptad repeat glycoprotein-2 (NHR GP2) Ectodomain inhibitor is one kind of treatment that has not well developed. NHR GP2 Ectodomain has an important role in the process of EBOV entry into the cell through endocytosis mechanism...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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