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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107787/hiv-rapid-testing-in-the-framework-of-an-sti-prevention-project-on-a-cohort-of-vulnerable-italians-and-immigrants
#1
Ilaria Uccella, Alessio Petrelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Silvia De Carolis, Cecilia Fazioli, Patrizio Pezzotti, Gianni Rezza
INTRODUCTION: Uptake of HIV tests is a challenging issue in vulnerable populations including immigrants, normally using standard diagnostic tools. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of HIV rapid test; estimate the percentage of newly HIV diagnoses and evaluate knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) about HIV/AIDS and other STIs in a specific set of immigrants and vulnerable population in Rome (Italy). METHODS: All immigrant and Italian people, aged 16-70 years, attending the infectious disease outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) in Rome (Italy), during the period December 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled...
January 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103319/an-hsv-2-trivalent-vaccine-is-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques-and-highly-efficacious-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S Veazey, Harvey M Friedman
A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102112/dutiful-daughters-hiv-aids-moral-pragmatics-female-citizenship-and-structural-violence-among-devadasis-in-northern-karnataka-india
#3
Shamshad Khan, Robert Lorway, Claudyne Chevrier, Sumit Dutta, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Anu Roy, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha Mishra, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Marissa Becker
Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies...
January 19, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100616/the-v3-loop-of-hiv-1-env-determines-viral-susceptibility-to-ifitm3-impairment-of-viral-infectivity
#4
Yimeng Wang, Qinghua Pan, Shilei Ding, Zhen Wang, Jingyou Yu, Andrés Finzi, Shan-Lu Liu, Chen Liang
: Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) inhibit a broad spectrum of viruses including HIV-1. IFITM proteins deter HIV-1 entry when expressed in target cells and also impair HIV-1 infectivity when expressed in virus producer cells. However, little is known about how viruses resist IFITM inhibition. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibilities of different primary isolates of HIV-1 to the inhibition of viral infectivity by IFITMs. Our results demonstrate that the infectivity of different HIV-1 primary isolates including transmitted founder viruses is diminished by IFITM3 to various levels, with strain AD8-1 exhibiting strong resistance...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097165/in-silico-comparison-of-iranian-hiv-1-envelop-glycoprotein-with-five-nearby-countries
#5
Maryam Ghafari, Mandana Behbahani, Hassan Mohabatkar
HIV-1 envelope (env) glycoprotein mediates an important role in entry of the virus into the susceptible target cells. As env glycoprotein of HIV-1 is highly variable in the different geographical regions, in the present study, different properties of this protein in Iran are compared with five nearby countries. The sequences of HIV-1 env glycoproteins of Iran, Afghanistan, Russia, Turkey, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia databases were collected from databases. Amino acid composition and physical and chemical properties of the proteins from these countries were studied using Protparam and COPid tools...
June 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097000/biased-small-molecule-ligands-for-selective-inhibition-of-hiv-1-cell-entry-via-ccr5
#6
Christian Berg, Katja Spiess, Hans R Lüttichau, Mette M Rosenkilde
Since the discovery of HIV's use of CCR5 as the primary coreceptor in fusion, the focus on developing small-molecule receptor antagonists for inhibition hereof has only resulted in one single drug, Maraviroc. We therefore investigated the possibility of using small-molecule CCR5 agonists as HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. A virus-free cell-based fusion reporter assay, based on mixing "effector cells" (expressing HIV Env and luciferase activator) with "target cells" (expressing CD4, CCR5 wild type or a selection of well-described mutations, and luciferase reporter), was used as fusion readout...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095797/cocaine-crack-use-is-not-associated-with-fibrosis-progression-measured-by-ast-to-platelet-ratio-index-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients-a-cohort-study
#7
Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Roy Nitulescu, Joseph Cox, Curtis Cooper, Mark Tyndall, Danielle Rouleau, Sharon Walmsley, Leo Wong, Marina B Klein
BACKGROUND: Cocaine and crack use has been associated with HIV and HCV infections, but its consequences on HCV progression have not been well established. We analyzed the impact of cocaine/crack use on liver fibrosis progression in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. METHODS: A Canadian multicenter prospective cohort study followed 1238 HIV-HCV co-infected persons every 6 months between 2003 and 2013. Data were analyzed from 573 patients with positive HCV RNA, not on HCV treatment, without significant liver fibrosis (AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) <1...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081482/following-lives-undergoing-change-flux-study-implementation-and-baseline-prevalence-of-drug-use-in-an-online-cohort-study-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-australia
#8
Mohamed A Hammoud, Fengyi Jin, Louisa Degenhardt, Toby Lea, Lisa Maher, Jeffrey Grierson, Brent Mackie, Marcus Pastorelli, Colin Batrouney, Nicky Bath, Jack Bradley, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: Drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) is higher than most populations. The use of crystal methamphetamine, erectile dysfunction medication (EDM), and amyl nitrite have been associated with sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM). OBJECTIVE: This paper describes an online prospective observational study of licit and illicit drug use among GBM and explores baseline prevalence of drug use in this sample. Capturing these data poses challenges as participants are required to disclose potentially illegal behaviours in a geographically dispersed country...
January 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076788/dynamin-2-stabilizes-the-hiv-1-fusion-pore-with-a-low-oligomeric-state
#9
Daniel M Jones, Luis A Alvarez, Rory Nolan, Margarita Ferriz, Raquel Sainz Urruela, Xènia Massana-Muñoz, Hila Novak-Kotzer, Michael L Dustin, Sergi Padilla-Parra
One of the key research areas surrounding HIV-1 concerns the regulation of the fusion event that occurs between the virus particle and the host cell during entry. Even if it is universally accepted that the large GTPase dynamin-2 is important during HIV-1 entry, its exact role during the first steps of HIV-1 infection is not well characterized. Here, we have utilized a multidisciplinary approach to study the DNM2 role during fusion of HIV-1 in primary resting CD4 T and TZM-bl cells. We have combined advanced light microscopy and functional cell-based assays to experimentally assess the role of dynamin-2 during these processes...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076686/small-molecule-hiv-1-entry-inhibitors-targeting-gp120-and-gp41-a-patent-review-2010-2015
#10
Wen Li, Lu Lu, Weihua Li, Shibo Jiang
It is essential to discover and develop small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors with suitable pharmaceutical properties. Areas covered: We review the development of small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors as evidenced in patents, patent applications, and related research articles published between 2010 and 2015. Expert opinion: HIV-1 Env gp120 and gp41 are important targets for development of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. The Phe43 pocket in gp120 and the highly conserved hydrophobic pocket on gp41 NHR-trimer are important targets for identification of HIV-1 attachment and fusion inhibitors, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069361/dna-mva-protein-vaccination-of-rhesus-macaques-induces-hiv-specific-immunity-in-mucosal-associated-lymph-nodes-and-functional-antibodies
#11
Gerald K Chege, Wendy A Burgers, Tracey L Müller, Clive M Gray, Enid G Shephard, Susan W Barnett, Guido Ferrari, David Montefiori, Carolyn Williamson, Anna-Lise Williamson
Successful future HIV vaccines are expected to generate an effective cellular and humoral response against the virus in both the peripheral blood and mucosal compartments. We previously reported the development of DNA-C and MVA-C vaccines based on HIV-1 subtype C and demonstrated their immunogenicity when given in a DNA prime-MVA boost combination in a nonhuman primate model. In the current study, rhesus macaques previously vaccinated with a DNA-C and MVA-C vaccine regimen were re-vaccinated 3.5years later with MVA-C followed by a protein vaccine based on HIV-1 subtype C envelope formulated with MF59 adjuvant (gp140Env/MF59), and finally a concurrent boost with both vaccines...
January 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060545/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-adenovirus-35-tb-vaccine-candidate-in-adults-with-active-or-previous-tb-a-randomized-trial
#12
Richard N van Zyl-Smit, Aliasgar Esmail, Mary E Bateman, Rodney Dawson, Jonathan Goldin, Eva van Rikxoort, Macaya Douoguih, Maria Grazia Pau, Jerald C Sadoff, J Bruce McClain, Margaret Ann Snowden, Jacqueline Benko, David A Hokey, Kathryn Tucker Rutkowski, Andrew Graves, Barbara Shepherd, Sadritdin Ishmukhamedov, Benjamin M N Kagina, Brian Abel, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Eric D Bateman
RATIONALE: Administration of tuberculosis vaccines in participants with previous or current pulmonary tuberculosis may have the potential for causing harmful post-vaccination immunological (Koch-type) reactions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of three dose levels of the AERAS-402 live, replication-deficient adenovirus 35-vectored tuberculosis candidate vaccine, containing three mycobacterial antigens, in individuals with current or previous pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060226/barriers-to-care-and-1-year-mortality-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infected-people-in-durban-south-africa
#13
Ingrid V Bassett, Sharon M Coleman, Janet Giddy, MFamMed, Laura M Bogart, Christine E Chaisson, Douglas Ross, Moses J E Flash, Tessa Govender, Rochelle P Walensky, Kenneth A Freedberg, Elena Losina
BACKGROUND: Prompt entry into HIV care is often hindered by personal and structural barriers. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of self-perceived barriers to healthcare on 1-year mortality among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: Prior to HIV testing at four outpatient sites, adults (≥18y) were surveyed regarding perceived barriers to care including: 1) service delivery; 2) financial; 3) personal health perception; 4) logistical; and 5) structural...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#14
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059045/computational-screening-of-ccr5-inhibitors-as-potential-entry-inhibitor-microbicides-using-3d-qsar-studies-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#15
Radhika Ramachandran, Muthusankar Aathi, D Durairaj Ruban, Shanmughavel Piramanyagam
BACKGROUND: The chemokine receptor CCR5 acts as a co-receptor for HIV binding and it is considered as an important target by CCR5 antagonists. Entry inhibitor based microbicides gain much importance nowadays as these drugs act at an early stage of HIV lifecycle and thus hinder the viral replication process in humans. The present study intends to identify a CCR5 antagonist which could be developed as a microbicide using computational approaches. METHOD: The pharmacophore modeling and 3D QSAR studies was used to identify CCR5 antagonists with enhanced antagonist activity...
January 6, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057474/hiv-1-tat-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-phagocytic-perivascular-macrophages-and-microglia-in-the-dorsal-striatum-of-transgenic-mice
#16
Crystal R Leibrand, Jason J Paris, M Said Ghandour, Pamela E Knapp, Woong-Ki Kim, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
HIV-1 infection results in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which acts as a rate-limiting step for HIV-1 entry into the CNS and for subsequent neuroinflammatory/neurotoxic actions. One mechanism by which HIV may destabilize the BBB involves actions of the HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). We utilized a conditional, Tat-expressing transgenic murine model to examine the influence of Tat1-86 expression on BBB integrity and to assess the relative numbers of phagocytic perivascular macrophages and microglia within the CNS in vivo...
January 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050723/computational-identification-of-novel-entry-inhibitor-scaffolds-mimicking-primary-receptor-cd4-of-hiv-1-gp120
#17
Alexander M Andrianov, Ivan A Kashyn, Alexander V Tuzikov
Virtual screening of novel entry inhibitor scaffolds mimicking primary receptor CD4 of HIV-1 gp120 was carried out in conjunction with evaluation of their potential inhibitory activity by molecular modeling. To do this, pharmacophore models presenting different sets of the hotspots of cellular receptor CD4 for its interaction with gp120 were generated. These models were used as the templates for identification of CD4-mimetic candidates by the pepMMsMIMIC screening platform. Complexes of these candidates with gp120 were built by high-throughput ligand docking and their stability was estimated by molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045025/interferon-epsilon-promotes-hiv-restriction-at-multiple-steps-of-viral-replication
#18
Albert Garcia-Minambres, Sahar G Eid, Niamh E Mangan, Corinna Pade, San S Lim, Antony Y Matthews, Nicole A de Weerd, Paul J Hertzog, Johnson Mak
Interferon epsilon (IFNɛ) is a type I IFN that is expressed constitutively in the female reproductive tract (FRT), and contributes to protection in models of sexually transmitted infections. Using multiple cell systems, including reporter cell lines and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), we show that recombinant IFNɛ impairs HIV infection at stage(s) post HIV entry and up to the translation of viral proteins. Consistent with this, IFNɛ upregulated a number of host cell restriction factors that block HIV at these stages of the replication cycle...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044164/a-peptide-functionalized-nanomotor-as-an-efficient-cell-penetrating-tool
#19
Fei Peng, Yingfeng Tu, Ashish Adhikari, Jordi C J Hintzen, Dennis W P M Löwik, Daniela A Wilson
A nanomotor based strategy for fast cellular entry and cargo delivery is presented. The concept focuses on integrating tat peptide, a basic domain of HIV-1 tat protein, with state of the art nanomotors which possess attractive autonomous properties, facilitating cellular penetration and uptake. The rapid cellular internalization process leads to higher delivery efficiency.
January 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028680/establishment-of-mouse-leukemia-cell-lines-expressing-human-cd4-ccr5-using-lentiviral-vectors
#20
Ya-Jing Li, Fu-Yan ZhuGe, Chang-Chun Zeng, Jin-Yang He, Ning Tan, Juan Liang
A low-cost rodent model of HIV infection and which presents high application value is an effective tool to investigate HIV infection and pathogenesis. However, development of such a small animal model has been hampered by the unsuitability of rodent cells for HIV-1 replication given that the retrovirus HIV-1 has high selectivity to its host cell. Our study used the mouse leukemia cell lines L615 and L1210 that were induced by murine leukemia virus and transfected with hCD4/CCR5 loaded-lentiviral vector. Lentiviral vectors containing the genes hCD4/CCR5 under the transcriptional control of cytomegalovirus promoter were designed...
December 28, 2016: Virus Genes
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