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Cns infection

Shannon C Agner, Robyn S Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are known to acutely cause pathology in the form of cytokine-mediated neural tissue damage and inflammation, the pathophysiology of neurologic sequelae after viral clearance is incompletely understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in microglial and glial biology in response to initial infiltration of immune cells that persist within the CNS have recently been shown to promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits in animal models of viral encephalitis...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Anjan Debnath, Andrew T Nelson, Angélica Silva-Olivares, Mineko Shibayama, Dionicio Siegel, James H McKerrow
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri , popularly known as the "brain-eating ameba." The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Therefore, development of efficient drugs is a critical unmet need to avert future deaths of children...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Danica M Sutherland, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Terence S Dermody
Viruses are constantly engaged in a molecular arms race with the host, where efficient and tactical use of cellular receptors benefits critical steps in infection. Receptor use dictates initiation, establishment, and spread of viral infection to new tissues and hosts. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are pervasive pathogens that use multiple receptors to overcome protective host barriers to disseminate from sites of initial infection and cause disease in young mammals. In particular, reovirus invades the central nervous system (CNS) with serotype-dependent tropism and disease...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Ilana Neuberger, Jacquelyn Garcia, Mariana L Meyers, Tamara Feygin, Dorothy I Bulas, David M Mirsky
Congenital central nervous system (CNS) infections are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The recent Zika virus outbreak raised awareness of congenital CNS infections. Imaging can be effective in diagnosing the presence and severity of infection. In this paper we review the clinical presentations and imaging characteristics of several common and less common congenital CNS infections.
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Kiran T Thakur, Alexandra Boubour, Deanna Saylor, Mitashee Das, David R Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
: Neurological conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence shows that the CNS may serve as a reservoir for viral replication, which has major implications for HIV eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of neurological conditions associated with HIV infection, significant scientific gaps remain...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Levente Molnár, Béla Fülesdi, Norbert Németh, Csilla Molnár
Sepsis is a leading cause of death in medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs). Disturbance of consciousness of varying severity is an early warning sign of developing sepsis in the majority of cases. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is the most frequent type of encephalopathy in the ICU and is defined as a state of diffuse cerebral dysfunction caused by the inflammatory response of the body to various infections, where the inflammatory process does not affect the central nervous system (CNS) directly and the primary symptom is a disturbed level of consciousness...
March 2018: Neurology India
Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Chuang Lyu, Shuwen Wang, Mingxia Sun, Yandong Tang, Jinmei Peng, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic virus with the ability to infect peripheral sensory ganglia. The transport of PRV from the peripheral to the central nervous system can cause lethal encephalitis in young piglets. However, the pathogenicity of PRV in the cerebral cortex remains poorly understood. In the present study, we developed a porcine cerebral cortex primary culture system (PCCS) using cerebral cortex tissue dissected from a 3-day-old piglet to investigate the pathogenicity of wild-type (WT) and US2 deleted (ΔUS2) PRV in the CNS in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Daniel Roan Thompson, Savvas Vlachos, Sabina Patel, Simeon Innocent, Christos Tolias, Konstantinos Barkas
BACKGROUND: External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure with a significant risk of ventriculostomy-associated infections (VAIs), other morbidities and mortality. Several risk factors have been identified but their effect is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to assess whether recurrent EVD sampling increased the risk of VAIs. The secondary objective was to explore the effect of sampling frequency, duration of EVD stay, presence of cerebrospinal fluid leak and concurrent infections...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Beiqing Wu, Jianhui Liu, Runze Zhao, Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Alexander L Braun, Lixia Zhao, Yi Wang, Zenghan Tong, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important in the intercellular communication of the central nervous system, and their release is increased during neuroinflammation. Our previous data demonstrated an increased release of EVs during HIV-1 infection and immune activation in glial cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which infection and inflammation increase EV release remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of glutaminase 1 (GLS1)-mediated glutaminolysis and the production of a key metabolic intermediate α-ketoglutarate on EV release...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Li Huan-Zhang, Zang Xin-Zhong, Qian Men-Bao, Xue Jing-Bo, Zhou Chang-Hai, Chen Ying-Dan, Tian Tian, Cao Chun-Li, Li Shi-Zhu
Cysticercosis refers to a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of pork tapeworm Taenia solium . It is a parasitic zoonosis and listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the neglected tropical diseases. Cysticercosis is spreading all over the world through globalization and it mainly epidemic in developing countries. In the southwest and minority nationality areas of China, as a result of the low level of medical and health care, and the unchangeable diet custom, there are still many cases of cysticercosis, which is manifested as a local high prevalence...
February 27, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Íñigo Corral, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Mario Rodríguez, Michal-Maciej Kawiorski, María-José López-Martínez, Juan-Carlos Galán
Neurological manifestations associated with HHV-7 have been described in primary infection in children, and very occasionally in immunocompromised adult patients. However, the role of HHV-7 reactivation as a cause of central nervous system (CNS) diseases in immunocompetent adults has not yet been defined. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and microbiological features of adults with neurological symptoms who underwent lumbar puncture and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpesviruses (HHV-1-8) and enteroviruses performed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), during a 4-year period...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Faris Shweikeh, Stephanie Zyck, Fadi Sweiss, Ajleeta Sangtani, Mohammed Shweikeh, Husam Issa, Michael P Steinmetz, Georges Z Markarian
Study design: In this review, we present a case of Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess (ASEA) and review the literature. Objectives: To provide further insight on a rare condition. Setting: A description of a patient with ASEA in a 58-year-old woman that was successfully treated with conservative management is presented. Methods: Following case presentation, a literature search (MedLine and PubMed) and assessment of epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes is performed...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Bahareh Nazari, Masoud Soleimani, Somayeh Ebrahimi Barough, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Mansure Kazemi, Babak Negahdari, Esmaeil Sadroddiny, Jafar Ai
Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in the central nervous system (CNS) thorough producing myelin sheaths around axons. There are a variety of approaches to produce oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo which are a subject of interest in many studies. A new approach to induce this differentiation is using microRNA 219 (miR-219). However, this new approach suffers from a lack of studies regarding the effect of miR-219 on differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to oligodendrocytes. This study aimed to assess the impact of miR-219-overexpression on hiPSCs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Michail Kornaropoulos, Marinos Makris, Elia Modestou, Vasileios Karatzias, Apostolos Krikelis, Aristomenis Thanopoulos, Artemis Liapi, Apostolos Mitrousias, Dimitris Katsogiannos, Georgios Kokkalas, Andreas Zevlas, Evripidis Gettimis
INTRODUCTION: Lumbar-peritoneal (LP) and ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt placement is the treatment of choice for diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space into the peritoneal cavity. This invasive procedure has been associated with several complications, most commonly infection and obstruction. Perforation of the bowel is an extremely rare complication. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 72 old female patient with LP shunt for raised intracranial pressure, who presented with LP shunt catheter protruding from anus...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Virginia D McLane, Saurabh Kumar, Reno Leeming, Sanjay Rau, Colin L Willis, Ling Cao
Opioid use accelerates neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS patients. We assessed the effect of chronic morphine treatment and LP-BM5/murine AIDS (MAIDS) infection on cognition, cytokine production, and type 1 interferon (IFN) expression in the murine CNS. Morphine treatment decreased expression of pro-inflammatory factors (CCL5, iNOS) and reduced cognitive performance in LP-BM5-infected mice, correlating to increased hippocampal viral load and a blunted type 1 IFN response. In the striatum, morphine reduced viral load while increasing IFN-α RNA expression...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Peter Okokhere, Andres Colubri, Chukwuemeka Azubike, Christopher Iruolagbe, Omoregie Osazuwa, Shervin Tabrizi, Elizabeth Chin, Sara Asad, Ehi Ediale, Mojeed Rafiu, Donatus Adomeh, Ikponmwosa Odia, Rebecca Atafo, Chris Aire, Sylvanus Okogbenin, Meike Pahlman, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Danny Asogun, Terrence Fradet, Ben Fry, Stephen F Schaffner, Christian Happi, George Akpede, Stephan Günther, Pardis C Sabeti
BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic disease endemic to west Africa. No large-scale studies exist from Nigeria, where the Lassa virus (LASV) is most diverse. LASV diversity, coupled with host genetic and environmental factors, might cause differences in disease pathophysiology. Small-scale studies in Nigeria suggest that acute kidney injury is an important clinical feature and might be a determinant of survival. We aimed to establish the demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors associated with mortality in Nigerian patients with Lassa fever, and hypothesised that LASV was the direct cause of intrinsic renal damage for a subset of the patients with Lassa fever...
March 6, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Ashley C Banyard, Christophe Prehaud, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, Colin P D Birch, Tim H Szeto, Monique Lafon, Anthony R Fooks, Julian K-C Ma
Rabies causes more than 60,000 human deaths annually in areas where the virus is endemic. Importantly, rabies is one of the few pathogens for which there is no treatment following the onset of clinical disease with the outcome of infection being death in almost 100% of cases. Whilst vaccination, and the combination of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin treatment for post-exposure administration are available, no tools have been identified that can reduce or prevent rabies virus replication once clinical disease has initiated...
March 6, 2018: Vaccine
William J Britt
The spread of Zika virus to the Americas was accompanied by surge in the number of infants with CNS abnormalities leading to a declaration of a health emergency by the WHO. This was accompanied by significant responses from governmental health agencies in the United States and Europe that resulted in significant new information described in the natural history of this perinatal infection in a very short period of time. Although much has been learned about Zika virus infection during pregnancy, limitations of current diagnostics and the challenges for accurate serologic diagnosis of acute Zika virus infection has restricted our understanding of the natural history of this perinatal infection to infants born to women with clinical disease during pregnancy and to Zika exposed infants with obvious clinical stigmata of disease...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
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