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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533442/the-role-of-shed-prp-c-in-the-neuropathogenesis-of-hiv-infection
#1
Bezawit W Megra, Eliseo A Eugenin, Joan W Berman
HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after peripheral infection and causes chronic neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that leads to cognitive impairment in 40-70% of HIV-infected people. The nonpathogenic cellular isoform of the human prion protein (PrP(c)) is an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed in the CNS. Previously, our laboratory showed that shed PrP(c) (sPrP(c)) is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected people with cognitive deficits as compared with infected people with no impairment. In this article, we demonstrate that CCL2 and TNF-α, inflammatory mediators that are elevated in the CNS of HIV-infected people, increase shedding of PrP(c) from human astrocytes by increasing the active form of the metalloprotease ADAM10...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532804/mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-menigoencephalitis-in-a-cat
#2
Hiroo Madarame, Miyoko Saito, Kikumi Ogihara, Hideharu Ochiai, Mami Oba, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Tetsuya Mizutani
A 33-month old, neutered female Abyssinian cat died. The cat had sudden onset of widespread neurologic signs about half a year after birth. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) group was isolated and identified from the brain of a cat affected with pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis. The central nervous system (CNS) was involved in the disseminated MAH infection. MAH infection should be considered in cats with neurologic signs in regard to zoonotic aspects. Comparatively, this is a first case of MAH infection observed in the brain in either humans or animals...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532172/cranio-spinal-rosai-dorfman-disease-case-series-and-literature-review
#3
Shashank S Joshi, Shilpa Joshi, Girish Muzumdar, Keki E Turel, Rajan M Shah, Indoo Ammbulkar, Muhammad Masood Hussain, Kishor A Choudhari
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare condition similar to lymphomas, presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy in young adults. Extra-nodal involvement is relatively common but involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare. Cranial RDD presents with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal or generalised seizures, while spinal RDD presents with pain, peripheral neurological deficits and radiculopathy. In contrast to other similar neoplastic or degenerative conditions affecting the CNS, RDD is a benign, non-infective, granulomatous disorder...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531865/glutamine-antagonist-mediated-immune-suppression-decreases-pathology-but-delays-virus-clearance-in-mice-during-nonfatal-alphavirus-encephalomyelitis
#4
Victoria K Baxter, Rebecca Glowinski, Alicia M Braxton, Michelle C Potter, Barbara S Slusher, Diane E Griffin
Infection of weanling C57BL/6 mice with the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) causes nonfatal encephalomyelitis associated with hippocampal-based memory impairment that is partially prevented by treatment with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a glutamine antagonist (Potter et al., J Neurovirol 21:159, 2015). To determine the mechanism(s) of protection, lymph node and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from SINV-infected mice treated daily for 1 week with low (0.3mg/kg) or high (0.6mg/kg) dose DON were examined...
May 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529867/efficacy-of-antibiotic-suppressive-therapy-in-patients-with-a-prosthetic-joint-infection
#5
Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Jasperina M Nijman, Greetje A Kampinga, Sander van Assen, Paul C Jutte
Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be treated with antibiotic suppressive therapy (AST) to suppress the infection. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST. Methods: We retrospectively collected data (period 2009-2015) from patients with a PJI (of hip, knee or shoulder) who were treated with AST at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#6
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527634/low-penetration-of-caspofungin-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-following-intravenous-administration-of-standard-doses
#7
Volker Strenger, Fedja Farowski, Carsten Müller, Nora Hofer, Hans Jürgen Dornbusch, Daniela Sperl, Herwig Lackner, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
The kinetics of caspofungin (CAS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following intravenous (i.v.) administration has been studied exclusively in animal models. However, human data are missing so far. In this study, 13 CSF samples were obtained at different time points following i.v. infusion of CAS in ten paediatric haemato-/oncological patients (age range 1.0-14.2 years, median 8.6 years) without signs of central nervous system (CNS) infection (n = 10 samples) or with infectious meningitis (n = 3 samples). Serum samples were obtained concurrently...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526307/risk-factors-of-cardiac-device-infection-glove-contamination-during-device-procedures
#8
Isabella Kozon, Sam Riahi, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Anna Margrethe Thøgersen, Tove Ejlertsen, Dorthe Aaen, Kirsten I Paulsen, Søren Hjortshøj
BACKGROUND: Infections in cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) constitute a serious complication. We sought to identify contamination of gloves before handling the device in primary and replacement CIED procedures. METHODS: Two groups of 30 patients underwent primary CIED implantation or replacement. Before the device entered the surgical field, surgeon and assistant imprinted their outer gloves on aerobe and anaerobe agar plates, and a wound swab was performed...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525592/neurosyphilis-increases-hiv-associated-central-nervous-system-inflammation-but-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-syphilis
#9
Emily L Ho, Clare L Maxwell, Shelia B Dunaway, Sharon K Sahi, Lauren C Tantalo, Sheila A Lukehart, Christina M Marra
Background: HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis have cognitive impairment. We tested the hypothesis that neurosyphilis causes cognitive impairment in HIV by amplifying HIV-related CNS inflammation. Methods: 132 HIV-infected participants enrolled in a study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis underwent the mental alternation test (MAT), venipuncture and lumbar puncture. CSF concentrations of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and neurofilament light (NFL) were determined by commercial assays...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#10
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#11
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513566/neurophysiological-changes-induced-by-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#12
REVIEW
Ellen Tedford, Glenn McConkey
Although the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most pervasive neurotropic pathogens in the world, the host-parasite interactions during CNS infection and the consequences of neurological infection are just beginning to be unraveled. The chronic stages of infection have been considered dormant, although several studies have found correlations of infection with an array of host behavioral changes. These may facilitate parasite transmission and impact neurological diseases. During infection, in addition to the presence of the parasites within neurons, host-mediated neuroimmune and hormonal responses to infection are also present...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511921/myeloperoxidase-a-new-player-in-autoimmunity
#13
REVIEW
Anna Strzepa, Kirkwood A Pritchard, Bonnie N Dittel
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the most toxic enzyme found in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils. MPO utilizes H2O2 to generate hypochlorous acid (HClO) and other reactive moieties, which kill pathogens during infections. In contrast, in the setting of sterile inflammation, MPO and MPO-derived oxidants are thought to be pathogenic, promoting inflammation and causing tissue damage. In contrast, evidence also exists that MPO can limit the extent of immune responses. Elevated MPO levels and activity are observed in a number of autoimmune diseases including in the central nervous system (CNS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients...
May 10, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508343/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pregnancy
#14
REVIEW
Karl Oliver Kagan, Klaus Hamprecht
PURPOSE: Due to the severe risk of long-term sequelae, prenatal cytomegalovirus infection is of particular importance amongst intrauterine viral infections. This review summarizes the current knowledge about CMV infection in pregnancy. METHODS: A search of the Medline and Embase database was done for articles about CMV infection in pregnany. We performed a detailed review of the literature in view of diagnosis, epidemiology and management of CMV infection in pregnancy...
May 15, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505965/determining-the-igm-and-igg-antibody-titer-against-cmv-and-helicobacter-pylori-in-the-serum-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-comparing-to-the-control-group-in-hamadan
#15
Masome Afiati Salim, Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Mohammad Taheri, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that disables Central nervous system (CNS) system. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) probably has an important role in the MS pathology. The infection with helicobacter pylori also is recognized as a protective agent against MS in female. METHODS: Serum samples were isolated and frozen at -70°C. The earlier mentioned anti-virus antibodies and antibacterial antibodies were quantified by Elisa kit. RESULTS: The results showed that IgG antibody average value against cytomegalovirus in the blood of multiple sclerosis patients not only decreased but also was significant statistically (p< 0...
May 5, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502694/phase-ii-trial-of-the-pi3-kinase-inhibitor-buparlisib-bkm-120-with-or-without-enzalutamide-in-men-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#16
Andrew J Armstrong, Susan Halabi, Patrick Healy, Joshi J Alumkal, Carolyn Winters, Julie Kephart, Rhonda L Bitting, Carey Hobbs, Colleen F Soleau, Tomasz M Beer, Rachel Slottke, Kelly Mundy, Evan Y Yu, Daniel J George
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and androgen receptor pathway activation is common in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Buparlisib is an oral, pan-class I PI3 kinase inhibitor. METHODS: This was a multisite single arm phase II trial of buparlisib 100 mg ± enzalutamide daily in men with mCRPC whose disease progressed on or who were not candidates for docetaxel. The primary end-point was the rate of radiographic/clinical progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502321/cytomegalovirus-in-the-human-dentate-gyrus-and-its-impact-on-neural-progenitor-cells-report-of-two-cases
#17
Ju-Yoon Yoon, Brett Danielson, Derek Mathis, Jason Karamchandani, David G Munoz
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the 2nd and 3rd trimester results in catastrophic CNS abnormalities. This susceptibility is thought to result from the high proportion of neural stem cells in the developing brain. In immunocompromised adults, CNS infection by CMV preferentially affects ependymal surfaces, from where it expands to involve the parenchyma. Experimental models of murine CMV infection demonstrate viral tropism for the dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone, the areas in which adult neurogenesis occurs...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501330/virus-entry-and-replication-in-the-brain-precedes-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-during-intranasal-alphavirus-infection
#18
Matthew D Cain, Hamid Salimi, Yongfeng Gong, Lihua Yang, Samantha L Hamilton, James R Heffernan, Jianghui Hou, Mark J Miller, Robyn S Klein
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, yet the impact of virus replication and immune cell recruitment on BBB integrity are incompletely understood. Using two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain TC83-GFP, a GFP expressing, attenuated strain with a G3A mutation within the 5' UTR that is associated with increased sensitivity to type I interferons (IFNs), does not directly impact BBB permeability...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495370/an-optimized-method-for-enumerating-cns-derived-memory-b-cells-during-viral-induced-inflammation
#19
Krista D DiSano, Stephen A Stohlman, Cornelia C Bergmann
BACKGROUND: CNS inflammation resulting from infection, injury, or neurodegeneration leads to accumulation of diverse B cell subsets. Although antibody secreting cells (ASC) within the inflamed CNS have been extensively examined, memory B cell (Bmem) characterization has been limited as they do not secrete antibody without stimulation. Moreover, unlike human Bmem, reliable surface markers for murine Bmem remain elusive. NEW METHOD: Using a viral encephalomyelitis model we developed a modified limiting dilution in vitro stimulation assay to convert CNS-derived virus specific Bmem into ASC...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494216/cough-reflex-hypersensitivity-a-role-for-neurotrophins
#20
Ahmed Z El-Hashim, Sahar M Jaffal
Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs)...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
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