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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907215/cd8-t-cells-induce-fatal-brainstem-pathology-during-cerebral-malaria-via-luminal-antigen-specific-engagement-of-brain-vasculature
#1
Phillip A Swanson, Geoffrey T Hart, Matthew V Russo, Debasis Nayak, Takele Yazew, Mirna Peña, Shahid M Khan, Chris J Janse, Susan K Pierce, Dorian B McGavern
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that results in thousands of deaths each year, mostly in African children. The in vivo mechanisms underlying this fatal condition are not entirely understood. Using the animal model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), we sought mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CM. Fatal disease was associated with alterations in tight junction proteins, vascular breakdown in the meninges / parenchyma, edema, and ultimately neuronal cell death in the brainstem, which is consistent with cerebral herniation as a cause of death...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904816/an-unusual-presentation-of-nocardiosis-in-an-allogeneic-transplant-recipient
#2
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Farhan Mohammad, Terenig Terjanian
Nocardiosis is a rare cause of opportunistic infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) occurring in about 0.3% of patients. The risk factors include delayed immune reconstitution, prolonged neutropenia, and graft-versus-host disease. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by the brain and the skin. Concomitant pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is an extremely rare entity as presented in our case. We present the case of a 72-year-old male at 137 days post transplant presenting with complaints of headache and slurred speech...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903224/evaluation-on-monocyte-mediated-delivery-of-a-therapeutic-gene-into-the-inflamed-brain
#3
Hsin-I Tong, Wen Kang, Guangzhou Zhou, Min Liu, Yingli Shi, Yuanan Lu
This study was aimed to explore the potential of a non-invasive monocytes-based delivery system to transport therapeutic genes into the diseased brain. The study was conducted by first establishing the optimized conditions for lentiviral vector (LV)-mediated gene transfer into freshly isolated monocytes, followed by investigating the inflamed-brain homing efficiency and in vivo cell-mediated transgene expression by carrier monocytes in a mouse model with acute subregional neuroinflammation. Using a newly optimized spin-infection method, up to 35% of freshly isolated monocytes were successfully transduced with the LV system DHIV-101 at M...
November 18, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#4
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899441/interferon-regulatory-factor-2-protects-mice-from-lethal-viral-neuroinvasion
#5
Melody M H Li, Leonia Bozzacco, Hans-Heinrich Hoffmann, Gaëlle Breton, Jakob Loschko, Jing W Xiao, Sébastien Monette, Charles M Rice, Margaret R MacDonald
The host responds to virus infection by activating type I interferon (IFN) signaling leading to expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Dysregulation of the IFN response results in inflammatory diseases and chronic infections. In this study, we demonstrate that IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF2), an ISG and a negative regulator of IFN signaling, influences alphavirus neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. A Sindbis virus strain that in wild-type (WT) mice only causes disease when injected into the brain leads to lethal encephalitis in Irf2(-/-) mice after peripheral inoculation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899230/experimental-zika-virus-infection-induces-spinal-cord-injury-and-encephalitis-in-newborn-swiss-mice
#6
Natália C C A Fernandes, Juliana S Nogueira, Rodrigo A Réssio, Cinthya S Cirqueira, Lidia M Kimura, Karolina R Fernandes, Mariana S Cunha, Renato P Souza, Juliana M Guerra
A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America, with neurological symptons including meningoencephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, besides an apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in infants born to infected mothers. It is becoming a necessity to have a trustworthy animal model to better understand ZIKV infection. In this study we used newborn white Swiss mice as a model to investigate the ZIKV strain recently isolated in Brazil. ZIKV was inoculated via intracerebral and subcutaneous routes and analysed through gross histopathology and immunohistochemistry...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899121/meta-analysis-of-the-clinical-and-laboratory-parameters-of-sfts-patients-in-china
#7
Miao-Miao Liu, Xiao-Ying Lei, Xue-Jie Yu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia, which is caused by a novel bunyavirus-SFTSV. Many studies have reported the clinical characters of SFTS patients, but the reports were not consistent and a systematic summary of clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters are not available. METHOD: A comprehensive literature research of Web of Science, PubMed, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles which have described the clinical characters of SFTS patients...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894963/longitudinal-surveillance-on-antibiogram-of-important-gram-positive-pathogens-in-southern-china-2001-to-2015
#8
Zhenbo Xu, Jinhong Xie, Brian M Peters, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Mark E Shirtliff
OBJECTIVES: A longitudinal surveillance aimed to investigate the antibiogram of three genus of important Gram-positive pathogens in Southern China during 2001-2015. METHODS: A total of 3849 Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Streptococcus strains were isolated from Southern China during 2001-2015. Bacteria identification was performed by colony morphology, Gram staining, the API commercial kit and the Vitek 2 automated system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk diffusion method and MIC method...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891076/recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-serotype-6-raav6-potently-and-preferentially-transduces-rat-astrocytes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Alexandra L Schober, Dmitriy A Gagarkin, Ying Chen, Guangping Gao, Lauren Jacobson, Alexander A Mongin
Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors are an increasingly popular tool for gene delivery to the CNS because of their non-pathological nature, low immunogenicity, and ability to stably transduce dividing and non-dividing cells. One of the limitations of rAAVs is their preferential tropism for neuronal cells. Glial cells, specifically astrocytes, appear to be infected at low rates. To overcome this limitation, previous studies utilized rAAVs with astrocyte-specific promoters or assorted rAAV serotypes and pseudotypes with purported selectivity for astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890955/aspergillus-meningoencephalitis-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-normal-cerebrospinal-fluid-does-not-mean-absence-of-meningitis
#10
Soaham Dilip Desai, Sanket Seth, Aniketh Shah, Bhalendu Vaishnav
A male with human immunodeficiency virus infection presented with febrile encephalopathy followed by seizures and left hemiparesis. Initial imaging with contrast computerized tomography (CT) scan brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were normal. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed bilateral parieto-occipital infarcts with bleed. He did not improve on treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-tubercular drugs, and antifungals. He finally succumbed to the disease. His CSF culture grew Aspergillus after 2 weeks...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889190/diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-progress-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Wallace J Brownlee, Todd A Hardy, Franz Fazekas, David H Miller
The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is based on neurological symptoms and signs, alongside evidence of dissemination of CNS lesions in space and time. MRI is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis when characteristic lesions accompany a typical clinical syndrome, but in some patients, further supportive information is obtained from cerebrospinal fluid examination and neurophysiological testing. Differentiation is important from other diseases in which demyelination is a feature (eg, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) and from non-demyelinating disorders such as chronic small vessel disease and other inflammatory, granulomatous, infective, metabolic, and genetic causes that can mimic multiple sclerosis...
November 23, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#12
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888275/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-following-campylobacter-jejuni-gastroenteritis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Simone Marziali, Eliseo Picchi, Francesca Di Giuliano, Simone Altobelli, Giorgia Mataluni, Girolama Marfia, Francesco Garaci, Roberto Floris
We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887630/immunohistochemical-insights-into-saffold-virus-infection-of-the-brain-of-juvenile-ag129-mice
#14
Shawn Zheng Kai Tan, Mookkan Prabakaran
BACKGROUND: Saffold Virus (SAFV) is a human cardiovirus that is suspected of causing infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. While recent animal studies have started to elucidate the pathogenesis of SAFV, very little is known about the mechanisms behind it. METHOD: In this study, we attempted to elucidate some of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of SAFV in the brain of a juvenile mouse model by using immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: We first showed that SAFV is able to infect both neuronal and glial cells in the brain of 2 week-old AG129 mice...
November 25, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882497/soluble-tlr2-and-4-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-hiv-siv-related-neuropathological-conditions
#15
Khutso M Mothapo, J Ten Oever, P Koopmans, F F Stelma, S Burm, J Bajramovic, M M Verbeek, M G Olde Rikkert, M G Netea, G Koopman, A J van der Ven
HIV in the central nervous system (CNS) mainly infects microglial cells which are known to express toll-like receptors (TLRs). This paper aimed to study the role of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2), sTLR4, and other inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in HIV/Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-related neurological sequelae. We determined sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels in CSF and serum/plasma of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without neurological sequelae, as well as in HIV-infected patients with and without cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched controls...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881097/ischaemic-stroke-and-clostridium-septicum-sepsis-and-meningitis-in-a-patient-with-occult-colon-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Kosmas Macha, Antje Giede-Jeppe, Hannes Lücking, Roland Coras, Hagen B Huttner, Jürgen Held
BACKGROUND: Clostridium septicum is a rare cause of meningitis and brain abscess in children and adults. Gas production by the pathogen can lead to pneumocephalus and the overall mortality rate of Clostridium septicum CNS infection is as high as 74%. The most common entry site of the pathogen is the gastrointestinal tract. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 74-year-old man who presented with a left-sided cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory...
November 24, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880878/neurocysticercosis-infection-and-disease-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Lucy Gripper, Susan C Welburn
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system (CNS), a pleomorphic disease with a diverse array of clinical manifestations. The infection is pleomorphic and dependent on a complex range of interconnecting factors, including number and size of the cysticerci, their stage of development and localisation within the brain with resulting difficulties in accurate diagnosis and staging of the disease. This review examines the factors that contribute to the accurate assessment of NCC distribution and transmission that are critical to achieving robust disease burden calculations...
November 20, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879538/efficacy-of-ifosfamide-cisplatin-etoposide-ice-chemotherapy-for-a-cns-germinoma-in-a-child-with-down-syndrome
#18
Seishiro Nodomi, Katsutsugu Umeda, Hiroo Ueno, Satoshi Saida, Hidefumi Hiramatsu, Takeshi Funaki, Yoshiki Arakawa, Takashi Mizowaki, Souichi Adachi, Toshio Heike
Intracranial germ cell tumor is sometimes associated with Down syndrome; however, no optimal treatment has been developed due to the high risk of recurrence and treatment-related mortality. Here, we report on a patient with an intracranial germinoma in the bilateral basal ganglia. The patient received 3 courses of ifosfamide-cisplatin-etoposide in combination with whole-brain irradiation (24 Gy), with no serious complications. The patient is alive and disease free 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This regimen is a feasible treatment for intracranial germ cell tumor associated with Down syndrome, although careful attention must be paid to the increased risk for severe infection...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878760/reduced-plasma-levels-of-25-hydroxycholesterol-and-increased-cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-bile-acid-precursors-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#19
Peter J Crick, William J Griffiths, Juan Zhang, Martin Beibel, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Jens Kuhle, Andreas W Sailer, Yuqin Wang
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). We have measured the levels of over 20 non-esterified sterols in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients suffering from MS, inflammatory CNS disease, neurodegenerative disease and control patients. Analysis was performed following enzyme-assisted derivatisation by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) exploiting multistage fragmentation (MS (n) ). We found increased concentrations of bile acid precursors in CSF from each of the disease states and that patients with inflammatory CNS disease classified as suspected autoimmune disease or of unknown aetiology also showed elevated concentrations of 25-hydroxycholestertol (25-HC, P < 0...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878589/chronological-changes-in-microbial-profiles-in-external-and-middle-ear-diseases-a-20-year-study-in-korea
#20
Hantai Kim, Oak-Sung Choo, Jeong Hun Jang, Hun Yi Park, Yun-Hoon Choung
Microbial infection is one of the most significant causes of ear diseases, but microbial profiles are very diverse according to the diseases and change over time. The purpose of the study was to clarify differences and chronological changes in causative pathogens among infectious ear diseases over the last 20 years, and to identify antibiotic resistance. In total, 1191 isolates were included from patients diagnosed with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma (COM), cholesteatomatous otitis media (Chole), middle ear effusion (MEE), including acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion, and external otitis (EO)...
November 23, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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