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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734161/determinants-for-persistence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitals-interplay-between-resistance-virulence-and-biofilm-formation
#1
S J Kaiser, N T Mutters, A DeRosa, C Ewers, U Frank, F Günther
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is one of the major bacterial pathogens causing nosocomial infections. During the past few decades, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) lineages of Pa have emerged in hospital settings with increasing numbers. However, it remains unclear which determinants of Pa facilitated this spread. A total of 211 clinical XDR and 38 susceptible clinical Pa isolates (nonXDR), as well as 47 environmental isolates (EI), were collected at the Heidelberg University Hospital...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590677/pcr-based-typing-of-incc-plasmids
#2
Christopher J Harmer, Ruth M Hall
IncC (A/C2) plasmids are known to play an important role in the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenamases, amongst Gram negative bacterial populations. The ability to identify and track these plasmids is valuable in epidemiological and clinical studies. A recent comparative analysis of the backbones of sequenced IncC plasmids identified two distinct lineages, type 1 and type 2, with different evolutionary histories. Here, a simple PCR method to rapidly assign plasmids to one of these lineages by detecting variable regions in the backbone was developed...
August 30, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584588/reducing-the-impact-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-on-vulnerable-patient-groups-what-can-be-done
#3
Gökhan Metan, Murat Akova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a worldwide challenge and associated with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients. This review focused on rapid diagnosis, optimization of antimicrobial therapy, and implication of effective infection control precautions to reduce impact of CRE on vulnerable patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new diagnostic assays have recently been described for the early diagnosis of CRE. Retrospective studies are supportive for colistin plus meropenem combination for the treatment of CRE infections; however, solid evidence is still lacking...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504284/molecular-characterisation-of-nfsa-gene-in-nitrofurantoin-resistant-uropathogens
#4
Dhivyalakshmi Shanmugam, Shamsadh Begum Esak, Anbumani Narayanaswamy
INTRODUCTION: Majority of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) are lower UTI's which constitute the real burden in the primary care setting and are usually treated empirically. Nitrofurantoin is an underused antimicrobial for empiric therapy for community-acquired and nosocomial lower UTIs. Nitrofurantoin has a wide spectrum of action against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterococci, which are the frequent causes of nosocomial lower UTIs and also against multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms including extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers, Amp-C producers and Carbapenamase producers...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462579/prevalence-of-class-d-carbapenemases-among-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-educational-hospitals-in-shahrekord
#5
Mohammad-Sadegh Damavandi, Abolfazl Gholipour, Mohammad Latif Pour
INTRODUCTION: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are a set of plasmid-borne, various and quickly evolving enzymes that are a main therapeutic issue now-a-days for inpatient and outpatient treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine multi-drug resistance (MDR) and ESBLs producing E. coli strains, prevalence of class D Carbapenemases among ESBLs producing Escherichia coli isolates from educational hospitals in Shahrekord, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains were isolated from patients with Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381386/effect-of-the-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-vaborbactam-combined-with-meropenem-against-serine-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#6
Mariana Castanheira, Paul R Rhomberg, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing isolates have become increasingly prevalent worldwide, and these organisms are often multidrug resistant, limiting the therapeutic options available for treating infections. We evaluated the activity of meropenem combined with the serine β-lactamase inhibitor vaborbactam (formerly RPX7009) against 315 serine carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates by use of checkerboard-designed panels to assess the optimal inhibitor concentration (range tested, 0...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363583/active-surveillance-scheme-in-three-romanian-hospitals-reveals-a-high-prevalence-and-variety-of-carbapenamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-a-pilot-study-december-2014-to-may-2015
#7
Dorina Timofte, Carmen Valentina Panzaru, Iuliana Elena Maciuca, Maria Dan, Anca Delia Mare, Adrian Man, Felicia Toma
We report the findings of an active surveillance scheme for detection of asymptomatic carriers with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) in Romanian hospitals. During a pilot study from December 2014 to May 2015, faecal cultures were screened in three hospitals (two large, one medium-size) for patients newly admitted to selected wards or inpatients transferred from other wards to an intensive-care unit. The study revealed a high prevalence of CP-GNB detected in 22/27 and 28/38 of the carbapenem non-susceptible isolates from Hospitals 1 and 3, respectively...
June 23, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26233663/comparative-analysis-of-virulence-determinants-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-and-serogrouping-of-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-versus-typical-enteropathogenic-e-coli-in-india
#8
Supriya Malvi, Suma Appannanavar, Balvinder Mohan, Harsimran Kaur, Neha Gautam, Bhavneet Bharti, Yashwant Kumar, Neelam Taneja
The epidemiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and the significance of isolation of atypical EPEC (aEPEC) in childhood diarrhoea have not been well studied in an Indian context. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate virulence determinants, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and serogrouping of typical EPEC (tEPEC) versus aEPEC causing diarrhoea in children. A total of 400 prospective and 500 retrospective E. coli isolates were included. PCR was performed for eae, bfpA, efa, nleB, nleE, cdt, ehxA and paa genes...
October 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26069360/reversing-resistance-the-next-generation-antibacterials
#9
REVIEW
Neel Jayesh Shah
Irrational antibiotic usage has led to vast spread resistance to available antibiotics, but we refuse to slide back to "preantibiotic era." The threat is serious with the "Enterococcus, Staphylococcous, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter" organisms causing nosocomial infections that are difficult to treat because of the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Facing us is a situation where soon multidrug resistance would have spread across the globe with no antibiotics to withstand it...
May 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051720/investigation-of-vim-imp-ndm-1-kpc-and-oxa-48-enzymes-in-enterobacteriaceae-strains
#10
Yelda Demir, Yasemin Zer, Ilkay Karaoglan
Gram-negative bacteria especially Enterobacteriaceae species have become an increasing etiologic agent of nosocomial infections. The development of resistance to carbapenems have become an increasing problem in the treatment of nosocomial infections. Especially carbapenamases are common for Enterobacteriaceae strains. This study was performed to detect the types of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from various clinical samples. Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from urine, blood, tracheal aspirates, wound, and other respiratory samples...
May 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25726848/emergence-of-carbapenem-non-susceptible-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-of-clonal-complexes-103-b-and-92-b-harboring-oxa-type-carbapenemases-and-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-southern-india
#11
Rajagopalan Saranathan, Vaidyanathan Vasanth, Thamodharan Vasanth, Pidathala Raghavendra Venkata Shabareesh, P Shashikala, Chandrakesan Sheela Devi, Ramakrishnan Kalaivani, Johny Asir, Pagal Sudhakar, K Prashanth
The molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from a south Indian tertiary care hospital were investigated by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Analysis of resistant determinants was achieved by PCR screening for the presence of genes encoding OXA-carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and efflux pumps. REP-PCR generated around eight clusters of high heterogeneity; of these, two major clusters (I and V) appeared to be clonal in origin...
May 2015: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25507606/identification-and-characterization-of-carbapenemase-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-general-hospital-in-thailand
#12
Wichai Santimaleeworagun, Anukul Thathong, Wandee Samret, Praewdow Preechachuawong, Weerayuth Sae-lim, Tossawan Jitwasinkul
This study identified, using PCR blaoxA,,23 encoding carbapenamase OXA-23 in 42 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) clinical iso- lates and blaOXA-40-like encoding carbapenamase OXA-40-like in one isolate (the first such Thai sample) obtained from patients admitted to Hua Hin Hospital, Thailand during November 2011-September 2012. Using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, the isolates could be divided into 4 different clones, with 40 isolates belonging to clone A and the remaining to B, C and D...
July 2014: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25427356/identification-and-characterization-of-carbapenemase-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-from-general-hospital-in-thailand
#13
Wichai Santimaleeworagun, Anukul Thathong, Wandee Samret, Praewdow Preechachuawong, Weerayuth Sae-lim, Tossawan Jitwasinkul
This study identified, using PCR blaoxA,,23 encoding carbapenamase OXA-23 in 42 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) clinical iso- lates and blaOXA-40-like encoding carbapenamase OXA-40-like in one isolate (the first such Thai sample) obtained from patients admitted to Hua Hin Hospital, Thailand during November 2011-September 2012. Using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, the isolates could be divided into 4 different clones, with 40 isolates belonging to clone A and the remaining to B, C and D...
July 2014: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25371693/effects-of-breakpoint-changes-on-carbapenem-susceptibility-rates-of-enterobacteriaceae-results-from-the-sentry-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-united-states-2008-to-2012
#14
Robert P Rennie, Ronald N Jones
In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in North America have resulted in decreased levels of susceptibility for some species...
September 2014: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25358041/colistin-resistance-superimposed-to-endemic-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-rapidly-evolving-problem-in-italy-november-2013-to-april-2014
#15
M Monaco, T Giani, M Raffone, F Arena, A Garcia-Fernandez, S Pollini, H Grundmann, A Pantosti, G M Rossolini
Consecutive non-replicate clinical isolates (n=191) of carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were collected from 21 hospital laboratories across Italy from November 2013 to April 2014 as part of the European Survey on Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) project. Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) represented 178 (93%) isolates with 76 (43%) respectively resistant to colistin, a key drug for treating carbapenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. KPC-KP colistin-resistant isolates were detected in all participating laboratories...
2014: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25069719/introduction-of-highly-resistant-bacteria-into-a-hospital-via-patients-repatriated-or-recently-hospitalized-in-a-foreign-country
#16
G Birgand, L Armand-Lefevre, M Lepainteur, I Lolom, C Neulier, F Reibel, Y Yazdanpanah, A Andremont, J C Lucet
We describe the prevalence of carriage and variables associated with introduction of highly drug-resistant microorganisms (HDRMO) into a French hospital via patients repatriated or recently hospitalized in a foreign country. The prevalence of HDRMO was 11% (15/132), with nine carbapenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, nine carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and six glycopeptide-resistant enterococci. Half of the admitted patients (63/132, 48%) were colonized with extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE)...
November 2014: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24874672/draft-genome-sequence-of-blandm-1-positive-escherichia-coli-o25b-st131-clone-isolated-from-an-environmental-sample
#17
Kirthi K Kutumbaka, Sukkyun Han, James Mategko, Cesar Nadala, Genevieve L Buser, Maureen P Cassidy, Zintars G Beldavs, Scott J Weissman, Karim E Morey, Robert Vega, Mansour Samadpour
A multidrug-resistant NDM-1 carbapenamase-producing Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) organism was obtained from vacuum cleaner dust collected from the home of a case patient. Here, we report the assembly and annotation of its genome.
2014: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24465749/rapid-molecular-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-clones-with-rep-pcr-and-evaluation-of-carbapenemase-genes-by-new-multiplex-pcr-in-hospital-district-of-helsinki-and-uusimaa
#18
Tanja Pasanen, Suvi Koskela, Sointu Mero, Eveliina Tarkka, Päivi Tissari, Martti Vaara, Juha Kirveskari
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an increasing problem worldwide. Prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. due to acquired carbapenemase genes is not known in Finland. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii group species, and their carbapenemase genes. A total of 55 Acinetobacter isolates were evaluated with repetitive PCR (DiversiLab) to analyse clonality of isolates, in conjunction with antimicrobial susceptibility profile for ampicillin/sulbactam, colistin, imipenem, meropenem, rifampicin and tigecycline...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24290770/fecal-carriage-of-multi-drug-resistant-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-e-coli-in-household-pigeons-bangladesh
#19
Badrul Hasan, Kamrul Islam, Murshidul Ahsan, Zakir Hossain, Mahmudur Rashid, Bibhas Talukder, Kabir Uddin Ahmed, Björn Olsen, Mohammad Abul Kashem
Antibiotic resistance and ESBL constitute a risk to human and animal health. Birds residing close to humans could mirror the spectrum of human associated antibiotic resistance. Household pigeons were screened in Bangladesh to shed light on human associated, as well as, environmental antibiotic resistance. Escherichia coli from pigeons (n=150) were tested against 11 antibiotics. 89% E. coli isolates were resistant to one or more critically important human antibiotics like ampicillin, cefadroxil, mecillinam, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tigecycline...
January 10, 2014: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24179916/oxa-181-beta-lactamase-is-not-a-major-mediator-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae
#20
M Shanthi, Uma Sekar, Arunagiri K, Hemant Goverdhandas Bramhne
BACKGROUND: Detection of carbapenem hydrolyzing class D beta lactamase OXA-181, (a variant of OXA-48) in Enterobacteriaceae, is important, to institute appropriate therapy and to initiate preventive measures. This study was done to determine the presence of OXA 48 and its derivative OXA-181 in Enterobacteriaceae of pathogenic significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and eleven non-repetitive Enterobacteriaceae isolates which were resistant to any of the cephalosporin subclasses III and which exhibited reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were included in the study...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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